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H.M.S. Pinafore

H. M. S. Pinafore, it opened at the Opera Comique in London, on 25 May 1878 and ran for 571 performances, the second-longest run of any musical theatre piece up to that time. H. M. S. Pinafore was Gilbert and Sullivan's fourth operatic collaboration and their first international sensation; the story takes place aboard the ship HMS Pinafore. The captain's daughter, Josephine, is in love with a lower-class sailor, Ralph Rackstraw, although her father intends her to marry Sir Joseph Porter, the First Lord of the Admiralty, she abides by her father's wishes at first, but Sir Joseph's advocacy of the equality of humankind encourages Ralph and Josephine to overturn conventional social order. They declare their love for each other and plan to elope; the captain discovers this plan, but, as in many of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, a surprise disclosure changes things near the end of the story. Drawing on several of his earlier "Bab Ballad" poems, Gilbert imbued this plot with mirth and silliness; the opera's humour focuses on love between members of different social classes and lampoons the British class system in general.

Pinafore pokes good-natured fun at patriotism, party politics, the Royal Navy, the rise of unqualified people to positions of authority. The title of the piece comically applies the name of a garment for girls and women, a pinafore, to the fearsome symbol of a warship. Pinafore's extraordinary popularity in Britain and elsewhere was followed by the similar success of a series of Gilbert and Sullivan works, including The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado, their works known as the Savoy operas, dominated the musical stage on both sides of the Atlantic for more than a decade and continue to be performed today. The structure and style of these operas Pinafore, were much copied and contributed to the development of modern musical theatre. In 1875, Richard D'Oyly Carte, managing the Royalty Theatre for Selina Dolaro, brought Gilbert and Sullivan together to write their second show, a one-act opera entitled Trial by Jury; this proved a success, in 1876 D'Oyly Carte assembled a group of financial backers to establish the Comedy Opera Company, devoted to the production and promotion of family-friendly English comic opera.

With this theatre company, Carte had the financial resources, after many failed attempts, to produce a new full-length Gilbert and Sullivan opera. This next opera was The Sorcerer, which opened in November 1877, it too was successful. Sheet music from the show sold well, street musicians played the melodies. Instead of writing a piece for production by a theatre proprietor, as was usual in Victorian theatres, Gilbert and Carte produced the show with their own financial support, they were therefore able to choose their own cast of performers, rather than being obliged to use the actors engaged at the theatre. They chose talented actors, most of whom were not well-known stars and did not command high fees, to whom they could teach a more naturalistic style of performance than was used at the time, they tailored their work to the particular abilities of these performers. The skill with which Gilbert and Sullivan used their performers had an effect on the audience. For until no living soul had seen upon the stage such weird, yet intensely human beings....

Conjured into existence a hitherto unknown comic world of sheer delight." The success of The Sorcerer paved the way for another collaboration by Sullivan. Carte agreed on terms for a new opera with the Comedy Opera Company, Gilbert began work on H. M. S. Pinafore before the end of 1877. Gilbert's father had been a naval surgeon, the nautical theme of the opera appealed to him, he drew on several of his earlier "Bab Ballad" poems, including "Captain Reece" and "General John". Some of the characters have prototypes in the ballads: Dick Deadeye is based on a character in "Woman's Gratitude". On 27 December 1877, while Sullivan was on holiday on the French Riviera, Gilbert sent him a plot sketch accompanied by the following note: I have little doubt whatever but that you will be pleased with it.... There is a good deal of fun in it. Among other things a song for the First Lord – tracing his career as office-boy... clerk, junior partner and First Lord of Britain's Navy.... Of course there will be no personality in this – the fact that the First Lord in the Opera is a Radical of the most pronounced type will do away with any suspicion that W. H. Smith is intended.

Despite Gilbert's disclaimer, audiences and the Prime Minister identified Sir Joseph Porter with W. H. Smith, a politician, appointed First Lord of the Admiralty despite having neither military nor nautical experience. Sullivan was delighted with the sketch, Gilbert read a first draft of the plot to Carte in mid-January. Following the example of his mentor, T. W. Robertson, Gilbert strove to ensure that the costumes and sets were as realistic as possible; when preparing the sets for H. M. S. Pinafore and Sullivan visited Portsmouth in Ap

Mecklenburg County Regiment

The Mecklenburg County Regiment was authorized on May 31, 1775 by the Province of North Carolina Congress. From November 7, 1779 until the 3rd Quarter of 1780, it was called the 1st Mecklenburg County Regiment when a 2nd Mecklenburg County Regiment existed; the 1st Mecklenburg County regiment was engaged in 39 known battles and skirmishes against the British during the American Revolution in North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia between 1776 and 1781. It was active until the end of the war; the Mecklenburg County Regiments were under the command of Salisbury District Brigade and General Griffith Rutherford when it was established on May 4, 1776 through the end of the war. Officers of the Mecklenburg County Regiment included:Colonels: Colonel Thomas Polk Colonel Adam Alexander Colonel George Alexander Colonel William Lee Davidson Colonel Robert Irwin Colonel Caleb Phifer Miscellaneous staff: James R. Alexander, Surgeon William Lemmond and Surgeon Thomas Grier, Commissary John Huggins, Wagon Master James Maxwell, Quartermaster Andrew Walker, QuartermasterOther notable officers: Lt. Col. William Polk Major James Rutherford Captain James Knox Captain John Polk Captain Charles Polk The Mecklenburg County regiment was active from its original authorization until the end of the war.

It was subordinated to the Salisbury District Brigade under Brigadier General Griffith Rutherford. The Mecklenburg County regiment was involved in 39 known battles and skirmishes in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia. See Salisbury Districgt Brigade Engagements for a complete, chronological list of engagements; when the North Carolina General Assembly of 1779 approved the creation of a 2nd Mecklenburg County Regiment on November 7. 1779, the name of the original regiment became the 1st Mecklenburg County Regiment. Colonel Caleb Phifer became the commander of the 2nd Mecklenburg County Regiment; the 2nd Mecklenburg County Regiment was short lived and it was disbanded in the third quarter of 1780, about the time of the Battle of Camden. In September 1780, Lt. Col. William Polk of the Mecklenburg County Regiment was authorized to create a regiment of Light Dragoons, subordinated to the Mecklenburg County Regiment. On April 1, 1781, this regiment of light dragoons was placed under Brig. Gen. Thomas Sumter's South Carolina State Troops.

The Independent Corps of Light Horse was established in June of 1780 from men in the Mecklenburg County Regiment. The unit was commanded by Major William Richardson Davie; the unit saw some action at Hanging Rock, South Carolina in June 1780. The unit arrived too late for the fighting at the Battle of Ramseur's Mill, it was disbanded in August 1780. List of American Revolutionary War battles Mecklenburg Resolves Salisbury District Brigade Southern Campaigns: Pension Transactions for a description of the transcription effort by Will Graves Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War "Mecklenburg Militia". Retrieved March 4, 2019. Facebook page for Revolutionary war reenacting unit that represents the Mecklenburg Militia from the Hopewell area of Mecklenburg county North Carolina

Mark Williams (organist)

Mark Turner Williams is a choral conductor and organist. Since January 2017, he has held the post of Informator Choristarum and Tutorial Fellow in Music at Magdalen College, Oxford, he was Assistant Organist at St Paul's Cathedral from 2000 to 2006, between 2009 and 2016 held the position of Director of Music at Jesus College, Cambridge. Williams was organ scholar at Cambridge from 1997 to 2000, under Richard Marlow. After graduating from Trinity College he became Assistant Organist at St Paul's Cathedral, Director of Music at St Paul's Cathedral School. At 21 he was the youngest person to be appointed to these positions. In 2009 he succeeded Daniel Hyde as Director of Music at Cambridge, his other conducting roles include Principal Guest Conductor of the City of London Choir, Artistic Director of the International William Byrd Festival. He has been involved with a number of charities, he has been a trustee of the Friends of Cathedral Music, serves on the boards of Cambridge Early Music, the Oundle Music Trust, the Harlton Organ Trust, is a founding trustee of The Muze Trust, which supports music making in Zambia, Songbound, a charity which sets up and supports choirs for under-privileged children in India.

In 2013 he organised a tour of India by the choir of Jesus College, which included a week working with Songbound in the slums of Mumbai. Magdalen College, Oxford St Paul's Cathedral The Choir of Jesus College, Cambridge The Muze Trust Songbound

Functional flow block diagram

A functional flow block diagram is a multi-tier, time-sequenced, step-by-step flow diagram of a system’s functional flow. The term "functional" in this context is different from its use in functional programming or in mathematics, where pairing "functional" with "flow" would be ambiguous. Here, "functional flow" pertains to the sequencing of operations, with "flow" arrows expressing dependence on the success of prior operations. FFBDs may express input and output data dependencies between functional blocks, as shown in figures below, but FFBDs focus on sequencing; the FFBD notation was developed in the 1950s, is used in classical systems engineering. FFBDs are one of the classic business process modeling methodologies, along with flow charts, data flow diagrams, control flow diagrams, Gantt charts, PERT diagrams, IDEF. FFBDs are referred to as Functional Flow Diagrams, functional block diagrams, functional flows; the first structured method for documenting process flow, the flow process chart, was introduced by Frank Gilbreth to members of American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1921 as the presentation “Process Charts—First Steps in Finding the One Best Way”.

Gilbreth's tools found their way into industrial engineering curricula. In the early 1930s, an industrial engineer, Allan H. Mogensen began training business people in the use of some of the tools of industrial engineering at his Work Simplification Conferences in Lake Placid, New York. A 1944 graduate of Mogensen's class, Art Spinanger, took the tools back to Procter and Gamble where he developed their Deliberate Methods Change Program. Another 1944 graduate, Ben S. Graham, Director of Formcraft Engineering at Standard Register Industrial, adapted the flow process chart to information processing with his development of the multi-flow process chart to display multiple documents and their relationships. In 1947, ASME adopted a symbol set as the ASME Standard for Operation and Flow Process Charts, derived from Gilbreth's original work; the modern Functional Flow Block Diagram was developed by TRW Incorporated, a defense-related business, in the 1950s. In the 1960s it was exploited by NASA to visualize the time sequence of events in space systems and flight missions.

FFBDs became used in classical systems engineering to show the order of execution of system functions. FFBDs can be developed in a series of levels. FFBDs show the same tasks identified through functional decomposition and display them in their logical, sequential relationship. For example, the entire flight mission of a spacecraft can be defined in a top level FFBD, as shown in Figure 2; each block in the first level diagram can be expanded to a series of functions, as shown in the second level diagram for "perform mission operations." Note that the diagram shows both input and output, thus initiating the interface identification and control process. Each block in the second level diagram can be progressively developed into a series of functions, as shown in the third level diagram on Figure 2; these diagrams are used both to identify profitable trade studies. For example, does the spacecraft antenna acquire the tracking and data relay satellite only when the payload data are to be transmitted, or does it track TDRS continually to allow for the reception of emergency commands or transmission of emergency data?

The FFBD incorporates alternate and contingency operations, which improve the probability of mission success. The flow diagram provides an understanding of total operation of the system, serves as a basis for development of operational and contingency procedures, pinpoints areas where changes in operational procedures could simplify the overall system operation. In certain cases, alternate FFBDs may be used to represent various means of satisfying a particular function until data are acquired, which permits selection among the alternatives. An overview of the key FFBD attributes: Function block: Each function on an FFBD should be separate and be represented by single box; each function needs to stand for definite, discrete action to be accomplished by system elements. Function numbering: Each level should have a consistent number scheme and provide information concerning function origin; these numbers establish identification and relationships that will carry through all Functional Analysis and Allocation activities and facilitate traceability from lower to top levels.

Functional reference: Each diagram should contain a reference to other functional diagrams by using a functional reference. Flow connection: Lines connecting functions should only indicate function flow and not a lapse in time or intermediate activity. Flow direction: Diagrams should be laid out so that the flow direction is from left to right. Arrows are used to indicate functional flows. Summing gates: A circle is used to denote a summing gate and is used when AND/OR is present. AND is used to indicate parallel functions and all conditions must be satisfied to proceed. OR is used to indicate. GO and NO-GO paths: “G” and “bar G” are used to denote “go” and “no-go” conditions; these symbols are placed adjacent to lines leaving a particular function to indicate alternative paths. A function shall be represented by a rectangle containing the title of the function and its unique decimal delimited number. A horizontal line shall separate the title, as shown in see Figure 3 above; the figure depicts how to represent a reference function, which provides context within a specific FFBD.

See Figure 9 for an example regarding use of a reference f


Tanglish is mixings of the Tamil and English languages. The name has been variously composed; the earliest form is Tamilish Tinglish, Tamlish and Tanglish. The use of Tanglish has been common in Chennai due in part to the use of English in education; the influx to the city of speakers of other languages has increased the importance of English as the language that people have in common. In The Hindu in 2010, a student in Chennai told of the widespread use of Tanglish by teenagers in her city, she said Tanglish was "something every teenager in Chennai uses", but noted that her mother said Tanglish was "murdering the language". That same year, a Tamil teacher in a matriculation school in Chennai reported that few of her students had a large enough Tamil vocabulary to be able to speak Tamil without including some words of English. Tanglish is used in advertising aimed at consumers in Tamil Nadu for promotion of international products. For example, Pepsi has mixed English with Tamil in its slogan "ullam kekkuthae more".

In 2004, The Hindu commented on a mobile phone advertising campaign in Chennai that used slogans that combined Tamil and English, such as "Konjam Samaiyal... Konjam Serial", "Konjam Advice... Konjam Udaans", "Konjam Kadhal... Konjam Modhal." It is common for advertising to use the Tamil language rendered in the English alphabet, a trend that leads to concern that people are losing the ability to read Tamil script. The Tanglish lyrics of the film song "Why This Kolaveri Di", which went viral on Internet social networking sites in November 2011, have been identified as a factor in the song's popularity. Use of Tanglish, or code-switching between Tamil and English, has been reported among Tamil-speaking immigrant populations in Malaysia and Canada by young people. A study of code switching in everyday speech in Tamil Nadu found that English words are inserted into sentences that otherwise follow Tamil syntax. A characteristic of Tanglish or Tamil-English code-switching is the addition of Tamil affixes to English words.

The sound "u" is added at the end of an English noun to create a Tamil noun form, as in "soundu" and the words "girl-u heart-u black-u" in the lyrics of "Why This Kolaveri Di". English nouns are combined with Tamil case markers, as in "journeyai", "driverkku", "teacheroda". Verbs and some nouns from the English language are converted to Tamil verb forms by adding Tamil verbalizers that indicate verb tense. For example, the Tamil "paNNu" is added to the English verb "drive", resulting in "drive paNNu", used to mean "do the driving". Another pattern, noted by speakers or observers of Tanglish is the addition of the syllable "fy" at the end of a Tamil word. Indian English Regional differences and dialects in Indian English Madras Bashai, a related, but distinct, language variant, a slang form of Tamil used in Chennai, a blend of Tamil with Indian English and Hindustani

David Beckham's Soccer USA

David Beckham's Soccer USA was a football highlights and general discussion show presented by Tim Lovejoy and produced and broadcast in the United Kingdom by Five. The show began following David Beckham's move to Los Angeles Galaxy, Beckham contributes to the show in the form of Interviews; each week there was a special guest in the studio a British sports personality, to whom Lovejoy chatted about their career and their views on Major League Soccer. A different version of the show hosted by Natalie Pinkham and devoid of any content derived from British studio footage was broadcast in the USA on Fox Soccer Channel. Several regular features aside from MLS highlights were present in every show. One of these features was a "translation" of American commentary, called "How to speak U. S. Commentator"; this provides a definition of slang used by commentators. Viewers were invited to choose an MLS team to support and e-mail their choice to the show, from which polls were collected, determining the nation's favourite teams.

The show was presented in a light-hearted manner and contains a variety of running gags which run over several weeks, such as: 1. At the beginning of each show, Lovejoy introduced himself as a Chelsea and Kansas Wizards fan, after which he said "Go Wizards". A silver curving flash appeared across the screen and the presenter moved his hand in the direction of the flash as it moved across the screen; the flash and Lovejoy's hand were never co-ordinated, adding a comic element. 2. Many of the guests referred to Scottish player Paul Dalglish, who played for the Houston Dynamo, which led Lovejoy to suggest the title of the programme be changed to'Paul Dalglish's Soccer USA'. 3. Lovejoy sometimes gave an update on one of the MLS clubs, called it, for example,'Houston Update' or'New England Update'. After he is finished, he went on to the'Dallas update', talks not about FC Dallas, the MLS team, but the soap opera Dallas. 4. Lovejoy would comment on and show a clip of player Logan Pause followed by Tim pretending to have been paused by standing still for around 5 seconds.

1. The American version was hosted by Natalie Pinkham, traditionally out on location at various Major League Soccer related events; the British version was hosted by Tim Lovejoy in a studio. 2. The American version was presented as a serious highlight show, featuring game footage with all English highlight packages narrated by JP Dellacamera; the British version was presented as a lighthearted educational look at Major League Soccer and soccer in the United States in general. The British version contained a highlight package featuring the original broadcast commentators, sometimes in English, sometimes in Spanish, depending on the source of the original broadcast