Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
Smallegade is a busy shopping street in the central part of Frederiksberg in Copenhagen, Denmark. It runs from the Town Hall Square in the east to Fasanvej in the west, along the north side of Frederiksberg Town Hall and Frederiksberg Park, linking Gammel Kongevej with Peter Bangs Vej. On the other side of the Town Hall is Bredegade, now smaller than Smallegade, which after a while joins Smallegade at Møstings Hus, an 18th-century country house-turned-exhibitions space, which overlooks a small pond, it is believed that Bredegade was the main street of Solbjerg, a village inhabited by Dutch farmers until the 1620s when it was shut down by Christian IV. Smallegade was one of the original "Dutch" streets but more open than Bredegade, with fields on its north side in between the scattered buildings. A brickyard was found at the far end of Smallegade until the 17th century; the Brickyard House survived until 1890. On a neighbouring site, Nobel opened a tobacco Factory in 1860. Eight years that site was taken over by the faience manufactury Aluminia.
They build a large factory complex where they were joined by the Royal Porcelain Manufactury in 184. Before the Town Hall was built in the 1940s, its site was home to a neighbourhood with some 30 houses of which many dated from the 18th century; the most distinctive building in Smallegade is Møstings Hus, located on the other side of a small pond, believed to be the former village pond in Medieval Solbjerg. The house was built in 1800 and for 27 years served as summer residence for J. S. Møsting, it was located on another site in Smallegade but dismantled in 1959 and rebuilt in its current location in 1976. It is now used as an exhibition space. Bredegade boasts some other examples of 18th century country houses. No. 11 was built in the 1790s and was for a while owned by Prime Minister P. G. Bang. Ot is today used by the Municipality. No. 13 was built in 1805 by master carpenter Boye Junge. The widow after Carl Hassager, a pastor converted into a hall of residence for ten students in 1897. Royal Copenhagen retired their production site in 2004.
It has now been transformed into a mixed-use development, now known as Porcelænshaven, which retains many of the original factory buildings, including a landmark chimney, visible from the street. Copenhagen Ceramics at No. 46 is an exhibition space dedicated to temporary exhibitions of Danish ceramic art. It is located in a courtyard away from the street. Frederiksberg Allé Copenhagen Ceramics Møstings Hus
Valby is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is in the southwestern corner of Copenhagen Municipality, has a mixture of different types of housing; this includes apartment blocks, terraced housing, areas with single-family houses and allotments, plus the remaining part of the old Valby village, around which the district has formed, intermingled with past and present industrial sites. Valby Hill marks the boundary between Valby and the more central and urban neighbouring Vesterbro district; the expression "west of Valby Hill" is in Danish used as a metonym for "the provinces" or "outside Copenhagen". Separated from the rest of Copenhagen by Vestre Cemetery, Denmark's largest cemetery, towards Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave and Søndermarken-Frederiksberg Gardens towards Frederiksberg, the Carlsberg brewery site, areas of low density, Valby retains a certain air of'independence', or isolation today. With the progressing redevelopment of the Carlsberg area into a new lively, high-density neighbourhood, this is to change.
Other former industrial sites are under redevelopment and Valby is today one of the districts in Copenhagen with the fastest growing population. Valby covers an area of 9.23 km² and has a population of 46,161, giving a population density of 5,002 per km². The district is bounded by Kongens Enghave and Vesterbro to the east, Frederiksberg to the north, Vanløse to the north-east and Hvidovre Municipality to the west, while Kalvebod Beach, the shallow-watered area just south of Copenhagen Harbour, separates it from the island of Amager to the south; the most distinctive geographical features of the district are Valby Hill in its north-eastern corner and Harrestrup Å which marks its western boundary. Valby borders on Damhus Lake in its extreme north-western corner; the Danshøj tumulus, along with many other archeological finds in the area, provides evidence that the Valby area has been inhabited since ancient times. Modern Valby has developed around the two villages of Vigerslev; the first recorded mention of the name Valby is from 1186, as Walbu, but the history of both settlements goes back longer.
Valby means "village/house on the plain". In the early Middle Ages both villages came under Utterslev, a Crown estate which included most of the area around Havn, the small market town which became Copenhagen. In 1167, Valdemar I granted both Havn and the Utterslev estate to the Bishop's Seat of Roskilde but in 1417 the villages came under the Crown once again when King Eric VII made Copenhagen a royal possession. Both during the civil war leading up to the Reformation and during the Assault on Copenhagen in the Second Northern War, Valby was faced with complete destruction, leading to deep poverty for the communities. In 1682, Valby had 25 houses with no more land than a modest garden; the produce from this intensely cultivated area was, in fierce competition with the Amager farmers, sold on the market at Amagertorv in Copenhagen, where King Christian IV had granted the Valby farmers trading privileges. At the time, the Valby community did not have its own church but instead, since 1628, belonged to Hvidovre Parish.
In 1675, Hvidovre Church was extended with a Valby nave, both to bring symmetry into the design and to accommodate a wish among the citizens of Valby not to mingle with the Hvidovre farmers. In the 17th century, the road to Roskilde was taken through Valby and an inn opened; the first holder of the license was Hans Pedersen Bladt, a skillful merchant, elected mayor of Copenhagen in 1675. Valby profited from the proximity of Frederiksberg Palace, constructed from 1699 to 1703 atop Valby Hill as a new summer residence for King Frederick IV; the royal presence in the area brought along more activity in the village. It is said that Queen Marie Sophie, consort of King Frederick VI rode through Valby, handing out candy to the children. In 1721, the king granted the community new trading privileges and a Rytterskole, a precursor of the Danish public school, was built the following year. Valby became associated with raising poultry which the Valby women sold beside the Caritas Well on Gammeltorv in Copenhagen.
The trade took place on Wednesdays and Saturdays, which were market days, until 1857. In 1776, the road to Roskilde was given a new course, a direct continuation of Vesterbrogade across Valby Hill, with the effect that it passed Valby by to the detriment of the inn and other businesses. Instead Valby began to develop into an area where members of the bourgeoisie took up summer residency, a practice which spread from adjoining Frederiksberg. One of the first to arrive in Valby proper was the actor James Price who spent his first summer there in 1795, shortly after his arrival in Denmark, he was followed by other members of the bourgeoisie. When the first railway out of Copenhagen opened in 1847, a 30 km rail line to Roskilde, it had an intermediate station east of where Valby station lies today; the station was meant to serve leisure trips to nearby Frederiksberg. The station was closed in 1864 when the second main station in Copenhagen opened and the railway was rerouted through Frederiksberg station instead.
During the construction of the new railway, when the tracks were dug through Valby Hill, a natural spring was discovered. This attracted the brew master J. C. Jacobsen to the site and he founded his Carlsberg Brewery in 1847 on the eastern slopes of the hill. In 1882, Carl Jacobsen, J. C. Jacobsen's son, opened his own brewery at a neighbouring site after a controversy with his father. Over the following decades both breweries grew and were merged. Carl Jaco
Søndermark Cemetery is a cemetery in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, located on Roskildevej, opposite Solbjerg Park Cemetery. It is the youngest of the three cemeteries in Frederiksberg Municipality; the cemetery was designed by the landscape architect Gudmund Nyeland Brandt. A competition for a combined crematorium and chapel was held in 1926 and won by Edvard Thomsen and Frits Schlegel; the complex, which in part differs from their winning proposal, was built from 1927 to 1930, is one of the earliest examples of Modernism in religious architecture in Denmark. The facade front is decorated with a large relief designed by Einar Utzon-Frank; the Birkelunden area was inaugurated in 1963. To the north the cemetery is bound by a brick wall along Roskildevej. A gate opens into an avenue. Apart from the Birkelunden area, the layout is traditional and vegetation is kept low. Ove Abildgaard Ebba Amfeldt Tove Bang Aage Bendixen Jytte Breuning Christel Gösta Schwarck Benjamin Christensen John Christmas Møller Jørgen Clevin Lilian Ellis Christian Flagstad Erik Frederiksen William Fridericia Flemming Geill Astrid Henning-Jensen Bjarne Henning-Jensen Inge Hvid-Møller Else Hvidhøj Otto Hænning Kjeld Ingrisch Ingeborg Irminger Valdemar Irminger Ellen Jansø Kai Julian Preben Kaas Ole Kiilerich Gunnar Lauring Mogens Lind Otto Lington Lone Luther Lis Løwert Johannes Marott Ole Monty Henning Møller Svend-Erik Nørregaard Knud Pheiffer Børge Roger-Henrichsen Jørgen Roos Karl Roos Noemi Roos Franz Šedivý Bodil Steen Karl Stegger Inger Stender Elga Olga Svendsen Knud Vad Thomsen Valdemar Vester Bjørn Watt Boolsen Arne Weel Henning Wellejus Bent Werther Hanne Winther-Jørgensen Inge Østergaard Gwili Andre Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
Søndermarken is a park in Frederiksberg on the border to Valby and the Carlsberg area in Copenhagen, Denmark. It shares much of its history with Frederiksberg Gardens from which it is separated only by Roskildevej. Cisternerne—an underground venue for art exhibitions in the former cisterns—are located inside the park. Søndermarken was landscaped at the same time as Frederiksberg Gardens. Søndermarken features three underground cisterns which used to be part of Copenhagen's earliest water supply system. In 2001 they were converted into a museum for modern glass art, but since 2013 have been part of the Frederiksberg Museums, acting as a venue for art exhibitions, Cisternerne; the museum—located near Roskildevej, opposite the main entrance to the Copenhagen Zoo—is topped by two entrance pavilions and a fountain from 1890. The Memorial Mound is on a slope and was erected in 1925 to commemorate Danish immigration to America. In the 1920s, Danish-Americans in the United States conceived the idea to erect a memorial in Copenhagen as a counterpoint to the traditions surrounding Rebild Hills celebrations in Jutland.
A committee of Danish-Americans was set up which charged the sculptor Anders Bundgaard with the commission. After prolonged discussions, it was decided that the monument should be a mound, with an embellished inner chamber, placed in Søndermarken; the necessary funds were raised through a worldwide collection among expatriate Danes. Around $12,000 was collected and the monument was inaugurated in 1925 with a ceremony attended by 40,000 people, including the entire Danish royal family; the mound is 5 metres tall. It is reached along a narrow stone-lined passageway. Chiselled above the entrance is the inscription: "They who set out, never to return." At the top of the cupola is a metre-wide opening to let in daylight. At the centre of the room is the life-size figure of a woman who embraces her children, symbolizing Mother Denmark. Built into the wall are 9 bas-reliefs with symbolic descriptions of the emigrants’ lives and activities abroad. In the floor is a five-pointed star representing the five continents.
The memorial mound is open to the public every year on 4 July. There is a statue in the central reservation at each end of Norske Allé. At the zoo end stands a statue of Adam Oehlenschläger, one of the central persons of the Danish Golden Age, it is designed by Julius Schultz and was located at the site of the current Frederiksberg Town Hall Square and inaugurated on 24 October 1897. When the new Town Hall was built, the statue was moved to its current location in Søndermarken and placed on a new plinth, it now faces Frederiksberg Palace. At the other end of Norske Allé, near Carlsberg, stands a statue of the politician Carl Christian Hall, Danish prime minister from 1857 to 1859 and 1860 to 1863, it is designed by Vilhelm Bissen and was inaugurated on 15 September 1890. Vanguard Festival is an annual music festival with music acts representing different genre but with an emphasis on hip hop, combining it with a family-friendly atmosphere and picknic baskets. Vanguard Late Night continues the festival in Vega.
The first festival took place on 2 -- 4 August 2013. Music acts included MF Doom and Sixto Rodriguez; the festival has signed a five year contract with the Castles and Properties Agency on using the park
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, separate from Copenhagen Municipality, but both are a part of the City of Copenhagen, it occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015. Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two; some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, being one of the four municipalities that constitute the City of Copenhagen. However, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or "posh", area, and is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens, Søndermarken, Hostrups Have. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as several stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg.
The Copenhagen S-train system has several stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station and Flintholm station. Frederiksberg's original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the reciter of eldritch times; the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title. In Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as "the old thul". Thula translates like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda. By 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy, it was regarded as Copenhagen's border to the west. People lived here since the Bronze Age; the history of Frederiksberg goes back to 2 June 1651 when King Frederik III gave 20 Danish—Dutch peasants the rights to settle at Allégade, founded the town named "Ny Amager" or "Ny Hollænderby". Farming was not successful, in 1697 most of the town burned down; this meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, the land reverted to the crown by Frederik III's son Christian V. In 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke.
He named the palace Frederichs Berg, the rebuilt town at the foot of the hill changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the local houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land, but rather used the properties as country houses; the town changed from a farming community to a merchant town, with craftsmen and merchants. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the cramped city for the open land, to be near the royals; the town grew with population growing from 1,000 in 1770, to 1,200 in 1800, to 3,000 in 1850. In 1852 Parliament removed restrictions which prohibited permanent construction outside Copenhagen's city walls. Numerous residential areas were constructed, starting in the eastern part near Copenhagen, ending in the western part farthest away from Copenhagen in 1950; this led to rapid population growth. Today Frederiksberg consists entirely of 3- to 5-story residential houses, large single-family homes, large parks.
On aerial pictures Frederiksberg stands out from the surrounding city of Copenhagen as a green area with few large roads. It is considered to be one of Copenhagen's more prestigious areas to live in. Frederiksberg, which lies west of central Copenhagen, is surrounded by boroughs forming part of the city of Copenhagen – the result of an expansion of the Copenhagen Municipality's boundary in 1901, which did not include Frederiksberg in the list of municipalities to be incorporated in the enlarged area. Frederiksberg is thus a municipal island within the country's capital – a unique phenomenon in present-day Europe. Other than administratively, however, it is indistinguishable in character from the districts of Copenhagen city which surround it. Frederiksberg has several stations on the Copenhagen Metro system, is home to the tallest residential structure in Denmark and the second tallest residential building in Scandinavia: the 102-metre high Domus Vista; the Danmark Rundt cycling race traditionally finishes on Frederiksberg Alle in a sprint finish.
Frederiksberg houses the University of Copenhagen's Frederiksberg Campus, Copenhagen Business School, 9 public schools, 3 private schools, 1 technical college, more. The Lycée Français Prins Henrik, a French international school, is in Frederiksberg; the 3 streets Gammel Kongevej, Godthåbsvej, Falkoner Alle are the busiest shopping streets. The town houses the Frederiksberg Centret shopping mall. Frederiksberg Campus Frederiksberg Gardens Frederiksberg Hospital Frederiksberg Palace Frederiksberg Town Hall Copenhagen Business School Copenhagen Zoo Royal Danish Military Academy Population of Frederiksberg
Godthåbsvej is a street in the northwestern part of Copenhagen, Denmark. It begins at Bülowsvej in Frederiksberg as the direct continuation of Rosenørns Allé/Rolighedsvej and passes through Vanløse before reaching Bellahøj in Brønshøj. A metro station on the Copenhagen Metro City Circle Line will be located at Aksel Møllers Have, it is unclear when Godthåbsvej was built. Associated with Ladegården, a farm established by Christian IV, although much older, it was the first of several "royal roads" in the area. From 1664, it was referred to as "Den gamle Kongevej" to distinguish it from New Royal Road, it was for centuries known as the Islevvejen and as Granddalsvej. From circa 1855, the outer part of the road became known as Godthåbsvej after the country house Store Godthab, which had stood on the side of the road since 1770; the inner part of the street was renamed Rolighedsvej after another country house. More houses began to appear along the inner part of the road from the middle of the 19th century.
The Classen Terraces were built for indigent workers by the Classenske Fideicommis in 1866-1880. Towards the end of the century many of the low, scattered buildings were replaced by taller blocks. Further out, west of Nordre Fasanvej, the only buildings along the street were a couple of factories and some allotments, which continued well into the 20th century. Aksel Møllers Have is a Modernist housing estate built in 1946 to design by Sigurd Tanggaard.. Godthaab Church, located on Nylandsvej, just off Godthåbsvej, is from 1909 and was designed by Gotfred Tvede; the 3-story apartment buildings Godthåbshus, Grøndalshus and Fordreshus were build in 1926–27 based on the design by Thorkild Henningsen og Karl Larsen. Thorkild Henningsen designed the younger terraced housing development Fuglebakken 1928–29, it consists of a total of 165 houses located on the streets Godthåbsvej, Fuglebakkevej, Solsortevej and Egernvej. Grøndalshuset, on the corner with Sallingevej in Vanløse, is a housing estate designed by Frits Schlegel in 1936.
Grøndal station is located on the border between Vanløse. The station is served by the F trains. One of the stations on the new City Circle Line of the Copenhagen Metro will be located at Aksel Møllers Have. Handelsbanken's branch at Godthåbsvej 229 in Vanløse is used as a location at 0:10:37 in the 1972 Olsen-banden film The Olsen Gang's Big Score. Fuglebakken, Frederiksberg Source