SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

H. L. Hunley (submarine)

H. L. Hunley referred to as Hunley, was a submarine of the Confederate States of America that played a small part in the American Civil War. Hunley demonstrated the dangers of undersea warfare, she was the first combat submarine to sink a warship, although Hunley was not submerged and, following her successful attack, was lost along with her crew before she could return to base. The Confederacy lost 21 crewmen in three sinkings of Hunley during her short career, she was named for her inventor, Horace Lawson Hunley, shortly after she was taken into government service under the control of the Confederate States Army at Charleston, South Carolina. Hunley, nearly 40 feet long, was built at Mobile and launched in July 1863, she was shipped by rail on August 12, 1863, to Charleston. Hunley sank on August 1863, during a test run, killing five members of her crew, she sank again on October 15, 1863, killing all eight of her second crew, including Horace Hunley himself, aboard at the time though he was not a member of the Confederate military.

Both times Hunley was returned to service. On February 17, 1864, Hunley attacked and sank the 1,240-displacement ton United States Navy screw sloop-of-war USS Housatonic, on Union blockade-duty in Charleston's outer harbor. Hunley did not survive the attack and sank, taking with her all eight members of her third crew, was lost. Located in 1995, Hunley was raised in 2000 and is on display in North Charleston, South Carolina, at the Warren Lasch Conservation Center on the Cooper River. Examination, in 2012, of recovered Hunley artifacts suggests that the submarine was as close as 20 feet to her target, when her deployed torpedo exploded, which caused the submarine's own loss. Horace Lawson Hunley provided financing for James McClintock to design three submarines: Pioneer in New Orleans, American Diver built in Mobile and Hunley. While the United States Navy was constructing its first submarine, USS Alligator, in late 1861, the Confederacy were doing so as well. Hunley, McClintock, Baxter Watson first built Pioneer, tested in February 1862 in the Mississippi River and was towed to Lake Pontchartrain for additional trials.

But the Union advance towards New Orleans caused the men to abandon development and scuttle Pioneer the following month. The Bayou St. John Confederate submarine may have been constructed about this time. Hunley and McClintock moved to Mobile to begin development of a second submarine, American Diver with the collaboration of two others, their efforts were supported by the Confederate States Army. Lieutenant William Alexander of the 21st Alabama Infantry Regiment was assigned to oversee the project; the builders experimented with electric and steam propulsion for the new submarine, before falling back on a simple hand-cranked propulsion system. American Diver was ready for harbor trials by January 1863. Nonetheless, it was decided to tow the submarine down the bay to Fort Morgan and attempt an attack on the Union blockade. However, the submarine foundered in the heavy chop caused by foul weather and the currents at the mouth of Mobile Bay and sank; the crew escaped. Construction of Hunley began soon after the loss of American Diver.

At this stage, Hunley was variously referred to as the "fish boat", the "fish torpedo boat", or the "porpoise". Legend held that Hunley was made from a cast-off steam boiler — because a cutaway drawing by William Alexander, who had seen her, showed a short and stubby machine. In fact, Hunley was designed and built for her role, the sleek, modern-looking craft shown in R. G. Skerrett's 1902 drawing is an accurate representation. Hunley was designed for a crew of eight, seven to turn the hand-cranked propeller and one to steer and direct the boat; each end was equipped with ballast tanks that could be flooded by valves or pumped dry by hand pumps. Extra ballast was added through the use of iron weights bolted to the underside of the hull. In the event the submarine needed additional buoyancy to rise in an emergency, the iron weight could be removed by unscrewing the heads of the bolts from inside the vessel. Hunley was equipped with two watertight hatches, one forward and one aft, atop two short conning towers equipped with small portholes and slender, triangular cutwaters.

The hatches, bigger than original estimates, measure about 16.5 inches wide and nearly 21 long, making entrance to and egress from the hull difficult. The height of the ship's hull was 4 feet 3 inches. By July 1863, Hunley was ready for a demonstration. Supervised by Confederate Admiral Franklin Buchanan, Hunley attacked a coal flatboat in Mobile Bay. Following this, the submarine was shipped by rail to Charleston, South Carolina, arriving on August 12, 1863. However, the Confederate military seized the submarine from her private builders and owners shortly after arriving, turning her over to the Confederate Army. Hunley would operate as a Confederate Army vessel from on, although Horace Hunley and his partners would remain involved in her further testing and operation. While sometimes referred to as the CSS Hunley, she was never commissioned into service. Confederate Navy Lieutenant John A. Payne of CSS Chicora volunteered to be Hunley′s captain, seven men from Chicora and CSS Palmetto State volunteered to operate her.

On August 29, 1863, Hunley′s new crew was preparing to make a test dive, when Lieutenant Payne accidentally stepped on the lever controlling the sub's diving planes as she was running on the surface. This

Plumas-Eureka State Park

Plumas-Eureka State Park is a California state park located in the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Range in Plumas County, California. The park, as a mining museum and protects the history of the active mid-19th century California Gold Rush mining period; as a large natural area it shows and protects the serenity of the mountain's meadows, forests and granite peaks. Camping, biking and hiking are offered; the historic mining area includes a museum in the miner's bunkhouse, the Mohawk Stamp Mill, Bushman five-stamp mill, stables, a blacksmith shop, the mine office, a miner’s home "Moriarity House". A California Historical Landmark marker is located in the park honoring the mining areas of Jamison City, Eureka Mills and the Eureka Mine. Plumas-Eureka State Park is in the Sierra Nevada Coniferous Forest ecosystem of the Temperate Coniferous Forests Biome; the park's animals include black bear, weasel, marten, mountain lion, bobcat and many others. The park encompasses some of its headwaters. Plumas-Eureka State Park is located about 60 miles north of Lake Tahoe in Northern California.

It is five miles west of Blairsden on County Road A-14. This is one of the 48 California state parks proposed for closure in January 2008 by California's Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger as part of a deficit reduction program since rescinded following public outcry. Plumas-Eureka State Park, except during the winter season, is open to the public. List of California state parks Protected areas of the Sierra Nevada official Plumas-Eureka State Park website Plumas-Eureka Park Association website

Welsh Language Music Day

Welsh Language Music Day is a music festival founded by BBC Radio 1 DJ Huw Stephens. Events take place on the day at its base in Cardiff, as well as in London, as far as Brooklyn and Budapest; the festival takes place annually in Stephens' hometown of Cardiff, Wales, as well as hosting events in other UK cities including London and Swansea. The first Welsh Language Music Day took place in February 2013. Artists who have been highlighted include Mellt, Gwenno Saunders, The Gentle Good, Adwaith, Meic Stevens, Los Blancos, Alffa. Organisations across Wales are involved in the yearly event, including Sŵn, BBC Horizons, Forté Project, Clwb Ifor Bach and Big Fish Little Fish. Events have been held across the UK, including venues in Cardiff as well as: Kings Place, London Clwb Ifor Bach, Womanby Street, Cardiff Castle Emporium, Womanby Street, Cardiff St John’s Church, Cardiff Blackwood Miners Welfare Institute, Blackwood Whitehall, Pwllheli Tafarn yFic, Pwllheli Y Galeri, Caernarfon Clwb Canol Dre, Caernarfon Bangor University Venue Cymru, LlandudnoIndependent events have been organised by Menter Iaith in the following: Conwy Maldwyn Fflint Wrexham Sir Dinbych Ceredigion During each years' events, organisers research the streaming popularity of Welsh language music acts globally.

The 2018 event found the most popular Welsh artists on Spotify were: The Joy Formidable Super Furry Animals Cate Le Bon Catatonia Iwan Rheon Gwenno Saunders Yws Gwynedd Bryn Fon Al Lewis SŵnamiThe survey found the following artists were most popular on Shazam: Catatonia Super Furry Animals Gwenno Saunders Casi Yws Gwynedd Bryn Fon Meic Stevens Dafydd Iwan Omaloma Elin Fflur Music of Cardiff Music of Newport Music of Wales Culture and recreation in Cardiff Huw Stephens Welsh language Official website Official website