A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, it is sometimes used or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. Submarines are referred to as "boats" rather than "ships" irrespective of their size. Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first used during World War I, are now used in many navies large and small. Military uses include attacking enemy surface ships, or other submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, conventional land attack, covert insertion of special forces. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage and facility inspection and maintenance. Submarines can be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair.
Submarines are used in tourism and undersea archaeology. Most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines, this structure is the "sail" in American usage and "fin" in European usage. A "conning tower" was a feature of earlier designs: a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller at the rear, various hydrodynamic control fins. Smaller, deep-diving and specialty submarines may deviate from this traditional layout. Submarines use diving planes and change the amount of water and air in ballast tanks to change buoyancy for submerging and surfacing. Submarines have one of the widest ranges of capabilities of any vessel, they range from small autonomous examples and one- or two-person subs that operate for a few hours to vessels that can remain submerged for six months—such as the Russian Typhoon class, the biggest submarines built.
Submarines can work at greater depths than are practical for human divers. Modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell. Whereas the principal meaning of "submarine" is an armed, submersible warship, the more general meaning is for any type of submersible craft; the definition as of 1899 was for any type of "submarine boat". By naval tradition, submarines are still referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size. In other navies with a history of large submarine fleets they are "boats". Although referred to informally as "boats", U. S. submarines employ the designation USS at the beginning such as USS Alabama. According to a report in Opusculum Taisnieri published in 1562: Two Greeks submerged and surfaced in the river Tagus near the City of Toledo several times in the presence of The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, without getting wet and with the flame they carried in their hands still alight. In 1578, the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle.
A few years the Scottish mathematician and theologian John Napier wrote in his Secret Inventions that "These inventions besides devises of sayling under water with divers, other devises and strategems for harming of the enemyes by the Grace of God and worke of expert Craftsmen I hope to perform." It's unclear whether he carried out his idea. The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in 1620 by Cornelis Drebbel, a Dutchman in the service of James I of England, it was propelled by means of oars. By the mid-18th century, over a dozen patents for submarines/submersible boats had been granted in England. In 1747, Nathaniel Symons patented and built the first known working example of the use of a ballast tank for submersion, his design used leather bags. A mechanism was used to cause the boat to resurface. In 1749, the Gentlemen's Magazine reported that a similar design had been proposed by Giovanni Borelli in 1680. Further design improvement stagnated for over a century, until application of new technologies for propulsion and stability.
The first military submarine was Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person. It was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, the first to use screws for propulsion. In 1800, France built a human-powered submarine designed by Nautilus; the French gave up on the experiment in 1804, as did the British when they considered Fulton's submarine design. In 1864, late in the American Civil War, the Confederate navy's H. L. Hunley became the first military submarine to sink an enemy vessel, the Union sloop-of-war USS Housatonic. In the aftermath of its successful attack against the ship, H. L. Hunley sank because it was too close to its own exploding torpedo. In 1866, Sub Marine Explorer was the first submarine to dive, cruise underwater, resurface under the control of the crew; the design by German American Julius H. Kr
Red Rose Forest is a community forest in western and central Greater Manchester, England. It was founded in 1991 and is expected to take 40 years to develop and mature, with the aim of involving communities in safeguarding and creating a woodland flora for the future, helping preserve the fast disappearing flora of British woodlands; the population within the forest boundary amounts to 1.5 million, making it the largest urban community forest in the United Kingdom. The main aim is to get greenery; this includes green roofs and green spaces. Red Rose Forest's Green Streets team works with local communities on unique and innovative greening projects to improve the quality of life for urban communities; the value of greening as a means of tackling a range of social and economic issues is huge. Red Rose Forest offers many ways for the people to get involved in their environment including the general public through their Friends of the Forest scheme, businesses through sponsorship and communities through the Green Streets project.
The forest area covers 292 square miles and takes in the districts of Manchester, Bolton, Bury and Wigan. The population within the forest boundary amounts to 1.5 million, making it the largest urban community forest in the UK. Over the 40-year lifespan of the project it is planned to plant 25 million trees in the forest. For new woodland the costs of planting is between £7 - £10 for each tree as compared to £300 in an urban area. Since the scheme started 1,183 hectares of woodland have been planted in the forest area. Community Forests in England Greater Manchester parks to get 2,000 new trees Moo-ve over lawnmowers
James "Jim" DeWolfe is a former political figure in Nova Scotia, Canada. He represented Pictou East in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly from 1998 to 2006 as a Progressive Conservative. DeWolfe was born in 1949 in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, the son of William Elliott DeWolfe and Hazel Macdonald, he was educated at the Technical University of Nova Scotia. In 1968, he married Diane Breen, he was employed by the Bank of Nova Scotia from 1967 to 1968 and worked as a cartographer with the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources for 29 years. DeWolfe entered provincial politics in the 1998 election, defeating Liberal incumbent Wayne Fraser by more than 1500 votes in the Pictou East riding, he was re-elected in the 1999, 2003 elections. On May 1, 2006, DeWolfe announced he was leaving politics and would not reoffer in the 2006 election. O'Handley, Kathleen. Canadian Parliamentary Guide 2005. ISBN 1-4144-0141-8