H. L. Mencken

Henry Louis Mencken was an American journalist, satirist, cultural critic and scholar of American English. He commented on the social scene, music, prominent politicians and contemporary movements, his satirical reporting on the Scopes Trial, which he dubbed the "Monkey Trial," gained him attention. As a scholar, Mencken is known for The American Language, a multi-volume study of how the English language is spoken in the United States; as an admirer of the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, he was an outspoken opponent of organized religion, theism and representative democracy, the latter of which he viewed as systems in which inferior men dominated their superiors. Mencken was a supporter of scientific progress, was critical of osteopathic and chiropractic medicine, he was an ardent critic of economics. Mencken opposed the American entry into both World War I and World War II; some of the terminology in his private diary entries has been described by some researchers as racist and antisemitic, although this characterisation has been disputed.

His attitude to African-Americans reflected the conservative paternalism of his era and “the kind of anti-Semitism that appears in Mencken's private diary may be found elsewhere: for example, in the early letters of Eleanor Roosevelt and Adlai Stevenson.” He seemed to show a genuine enthusiasm for militarism, though never in its American form. "War is a good thing," he once wrote, "because it is honest, it admits the central fact of human nature... A nation too long at peace becomes a sort of gigantic old maid."His longtime home in the Union Square neighborhood of West Baltimore was turned into a city museum, the H. L. Mencken House, his papers were distributed among various city and university libraries, with the largest collection held in the Mencken Room at the central branch of Baltimore's Enoch Pratt Free Library. Mencken was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on September 12, 1880, he was August Mencken Sr. a cigar factory owner. He spoke German in his childhood; when Henry was three, his family moved into a new home at 1524 Hollins Street facing Union Square park in the Union Square neighborhood of old West Baltimore.

Apart from five years of married life, Mencken was to live in that house for the rest of his life. In his best-selling memoir Happy Days, he described his childhood in Baltimore as "placid, secure and happy."When he was nine years old, he read Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn, which he described as "the most stupendous event in my life." He became determined to read voraciously. In one winter while in high school he read William Makepeace Thackeray and "proceeded backward to Addison, Pope, Swift and the other magnificos of the Eighteenth century." He read the entire canon of Shakespeare and became an ardent fan of Rudyard Kipling and Thomas Huxley. As a boy, Mencken had practical interests and chemistry in particular, had a home chemistry laboratory in which he performed experiments of his own devising, some of them inadvertently dangerous, he began his primary education in the mid-1880s at Professor Knapp's School on the east side of Holliday Street between East Lexington and Fayette Streets, next to the Holliday Street Theatre and across from the newly constructed Baltimore City Hall.

The site today is the War Memorial and City Hall Plaza laid out in 1926 in memory of World War I dead. At 15, in June 1896, he graduated as valedictorian from the Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, at the time a males-only mathematics and science-oriented public high school, he worked for three years in his father's cigar factory. He disliked the work the sales aspect of it, resolved to leave, with or without his father's blessing. In early 1898 he took a writing class at the Cosmopolitan University; this was to be the entirety of Mencken's formal education in any other subject. Upon his father's death a few days after Christmas in the same year, the business passed to his uncle, Mencken was free to pursue his career in journalism, he applied in February 1899 to the Morning Herald newspaper and was hired part-time, but still kept his position at the factory for a few months. In June he was hired as a full-time reporter. Mencken served as a reporter at the Herald for six years. Less than two-and-a-half years after the Great Baltimore Fire, the paper was purchased in June 1906 by Charles H. Grasty, the owner and editor of The News since 1892, competing owner and publisher Gen. Felix Agnus, of the town's oldest and largest daily, The Baltimore American.

They proceeded to divide the staff and resources of The Herald between them. Mencken moved to The Baltimore Sun, where he worked for Charles H. Grasty, he continued to contribute to The Sun, The Evening Sun and The Sunday Sun full-time until 1948, when he stopped writing after suffering a stroke. Mencken began writing the editorials and opinion pieces. On the side, he wrote short stories, a novel, poetry, which he revealed. In 1908, he became a literary critic for The Smart Set magazine, in 1924 he and George Jean Nathan founded and edited The American Mercury, published by Alfred A. Knopf, it soon developed a national circulation and became influential on college campuses across America. In 1933, Mencken resigned as editor. In 1930, Mencken married Sara Haardt, a German-American professor of English at Goucher College in Baltimore and an author eighteen years his junior. Haardt had led an unsuccessful effort in Alabama to ratify the 19th Amendment; the two met

Peach latent mosaic viroid

Peach latent mosaic viroid is the type species of the genus Pelamoviroid, which belongs to the family Avsunviroidae. This family is characterized as having chloroplastic viroids with hammerhead ribozymes. Peach latent mosaic viroid is a 336-351nt circular RNA; this branched formation is stabilised by a pseudoknot between two kissing loops. Peach latent mosaic viroid was first described in the 1980s in Spain by a group of scientists, it is present in all peach- and nectarine-producing areas of the world including Europe, North America and South America and the frequency of occurring infection is high. Before the development of symptoms the disease is latent in peach trees for 5–7 years; the symptoms of the disease include necrosis of buds, delayed shoot development, necrotic branches, premature ageing of trees, flower streaking, ripening deformations, enlarged rounded stones, circular discoloured areas on the fruit skin and in some cases mosaic, vein banding or calico appearance on infected leaves.

Peach latent mosaic viroid is horizontally spread from plant to plant across a field by propagation of infected buds, pruning tools and green peach aphids. Vertical transmission of peach latent mosaic viroid through seeds can not occur. ICTV Online Report.

Elizabeth A. Phelps

Elizabeth Anya Phelps is the Pershing Square Professor of Human Neuroscience at Harvard University in the Department of Psychology. She is a cognitive neuroscientist known for her research at the intersection of memory and emotion, she was the recipient of the Social and Affective Neuroscience Society Distinguished Scholar Award and the 21st Century Scientist Award from the James S. McDonnell Foundation, as well as other honors and awards in her field. Phelps was honored with the 2018 Thomas William Salmon Lecture and Medal in Psychiatry at the New York Academy of Medicine, she received the 2019 William James Fellow Award from the Association for Psychological Science which acknowledged how her "multidisciplinary body of research has probed the influence of emotion across cognitive and behavioral domains using novel imaging techniques and neuropsychological studies grounded in animal models of learning."Phelps is a past-president of the APS, past-president of the Society for NeuroEconomics, a founding board member of the Society for Neuroethics.

She is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Phelps was born in Maryland, she attended college at Ohio Wesleyan University and earned a bachelor's degree in 1984, with a major in Psychology and a minor in Philosophy. Subsequently, Phelps went to Princeton University where she received a M. A. in 1986 and Ph. D in 1989 in Psychology, working under the supervision of William Hirst and Marcia K. Johnson. After graduation she worked as a research scientist at Dartmouth Medical School, the New School of Social Research and at New York University. Phelps joined the faculty at Harvard University in 2018, she had worked at NYU obtaining the rank of Full Professor in 2004 and Yale University as an Assistant and Associate Professor of Psychology. Phelps has served as the editor of the journal Emotion. Phelps's research focuses on how our emotions affect the way brain systems function in relation to memory and learning.

She aims to figure out. Her research centers around four topics: incorporating animal models of emotional learning to explain human behavior, influence of emotion on episodic memory, impact of emotion on perception and expression, explaining social behavior, decision making, economics using basic mechanisms of emotional learning. In an interview with Ira Flatow of Science Friday with NPR News, Phelps explained her study on extinction of memory, how she hopes it can be used to treat people with fearful memories. Phelps paired mild shocks to participants' wrist to create a fear memory, she examined the extinction of the fear memory by incorporating extinction training to one group of participants when the memory was vulnerable, observed that the group no longer showed signs of fear. The second group received the same extinction training but outside of the memory vulnerability window, still expressed fear. Repeated extinction training helps remove the fearful memory. In another study Phelps examined flashbulb memories using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

She observed 24 participants. As participants recalled the attacks, the fMRI displayed their amygdala lighting up, showing that the amygdala associated with emotional memories. Anderson, A. K. & Phelps, E. A.. Lesions of the human amygdala impair enhanced perception of salient events. Nature, 411, 305-309. Phelps, E. A.. Emotion and cognition: insights from studies of the human amygdala. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 27-53. Phelps, E. A. & LeDoux, J. E.. Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: from animal models to human behavior. Neuron, 48, 175-187. Phelps, E. A. O'Connor, K. J. Cunningham, W. A. Funayama, E. S. Gatenby, J. C. Gore, J. C. & Banaji, M. R.. Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 729-738. Phelps Lab