Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Black Power movement
The Black Power movement emphasized racial pride, economic empowerment, the creation of political and cultural institutions for African-American people in the United States. The movement grew out of the Civil rights movement, as black activists experimented with forms of self-advocacy ranging from political lobbying to armed struggle; the Black Power movement served as a focal point for the view that reformist and pacifist elements of the Civil Rights Movement were not effective in changing race relations. Motivated by a desire for safety and self-sufficiency, not available inside redline neighborhoods, Black Power activists founded black-owned bookstores, food cooperatives, media, printing presses, schools and ambulance services; the international impact of the movement includes the Black Power Revolution in Tobago. While black American thinkers such as Robert F. Williams and Malcolm X influenced the early Black Power movement, the Black Panther Party and its views are seen as the cornerstone.
It was influenced by philosophies such as pan-Africanism, black nationalism and socialism, as well as contemporary events including the Cuban Revolution and the decolonization of Africa. At the movement's peak in the early 1970s, some of its more militant leaders were killed during conflicts with police, prompting many activists to abandon the movement; the first popular use of the term "Black Power" as a social and racial slogan was by Stokely Carmichael and Willie Ricks, both organizers and spokespersons for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. On June 16, 1966, in a speech in Greenwood, during the March Against Fear, Carmichael led the marchers in a chant for black power, televised nationally. By the late 1960s, Black Power came to represent the demand for more immediate violent action to counter American white supremacy. Most of these ideas were influenced by Malcolm X's criticism of Martin Luther King Jr.'s peaceful protest methods. The 1965 assassination of Malcolm X, coupled with the urban uprisings of 1964 and 1965, ignited the movement.
New organizations that supported Black Power philosophies ranging from socialism to black nationalism, including the Black Panther Party BPP), grew to prominence. The organization Nation of Islam began as a black nationalist movement in the 1930s, inspiring groups. Malcolm X is credited with the group's dramatic increase in membership between the early 1950s and early 1960s. In March 1964, Malcolm X left the Nation due to disagreements with Elijah Muhammad. Malcolm X said Muhammad had engaged in extramarital affairs with young Nation secretaries—a serious violation of the group's teachings. On February 21, 1965, Malcolm X was shot and killed while speaking at the Audubon Ballroom in Washington Heights, New York. Three Nation members were convicted of assassinating him. After the Watts riots in Los Angeles in 1965, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee decided to break its ties with the mainstream civil rights movement, they argued that blacks needed to build power of their own, rather than seek accommodations from the power structure in place.
SNCC migrated from a philosophy of nonviolence to one of greater militancy after the mid-1960s. The organization established ties with radical groups such as the Students for a Democratic Society. In late October 1966, Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. In formulating a new politics, they drew on their experiences working with a variety of Black Power organizations; the Black Panther Party's Ten-Point Program included point five, "We want education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present day society." This sentiment was echoed in many of the other Black Power organizations. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Carter G. Woodson. With this backdrop, Stokely Carmichael brought political education into his work with SNCC in the rural South; this included political literacy. Bobby Seale and Huey Newton used education to address the lack of identity in the black community.
Seale had worked with youth in an after-school program before starting the Panthers. Through this new education and identity building, they believed they could empower black Americans to claim their freedom; the Black Panther Party utilized open-carry gun laws to protect party members and local black communities from law enforcement. Party members recorded incidents of police brutality by distantly following police cars around neighborhoods. Numbers grew starting in February 1967, when the party provided an armed escort at the San Francisco airport for Betty Shabazz, Malcolm X's widow and keynote speaker at conference held in his honor. By 1967, the SNCC began to fall apart due to policy disputes in its leadership and many members left for the Black Panthers. Throughout 1967 the Panthers staged rallies and disrupted the California State Assembly with armed marchers. In late 1967 the FBI developed COINTELPRO to investigate black nationalist groups and other civil rights leaders. By 1969, the Black Panthers and their allies had become primary COINTELPRO targets, singled out in 233 of the 295 authorized "black nationalist" COINTELPRO actions.
In 1968 the Republic of New Afrika was founded, a separatist group seeking a black country in the southern United States, only to dissolve by the early 197
U.S. Route 1 in Maryland
U. S. Route 1 is the easternmost and longest of the major north–south routes of the older 1920s era United States Numbered Highway System, running from Key West, Florida to Fort Kent, Maine. In the U. S. state of Maryland, an 80.86-mile segment of the route runs through central Maryland between Mount Rainier and Rising Sun. US 1 is paralleled by several major highways as it passes through Maryland, including Interstate 95, the Baltimore–Washington Parkway, U. S. Route 29, U. S. Route 301. Thus, US 1 has lost its significance as a long distance route through the state, it is congested, because it remains a major route in the individual towns it traverses. US 1 leaves the District of Columbia and enters Maryland at the City of Mount Rainier in Prince George's County; the highway heads northeast from Eastern Avenue as Rhode Island Avenue, a four-lane divided street with parking through a downtown-like commercial area. US 1 meets 34th Avenue and Perry Street at a roundabout continues northeast through a densely populated residential area.
The highway leaves Mount Rainier and enters Brentwood, where the highway meets MD 208. US 1 passes through North Brentwood as a four-lane divided highway without parking through a mix of residences and commercial establishments; the median widens as the highway crosses the Northwest Branch Anacostia River and enters the City of Hyattsville. The highway begins to parallel CSX's Capital Subdivision and MARC's Camden Line as it reduces to a four-lane undivided highway, passing the District Court of Maryland for Prince George's County building. US 1 curves to the north and the highway's name changes to Baltimore Avenue at Farragut Street, shortly before intersecting US 1 Alternate. US 1 continues north through downtown Hyattsville, gaining a center turn lane before entering the town of Riverdale Park, where the highway intersects MD 410; the highway enters a densely populated residential area, passing between Riverdale Park to the east and the town of University Park to the west. Shortly after the highway enters the City of College Park on the east, US 1 intersects Queens Chapel Road at a five-way intersection with the Town of University Park still on the west side.
Only buses may enter Queens Chapel Road from US 1. The highway enters College Park and enters the commercial area that makes up the downtown of the college town, expanding to a four-lane divided highway. After the intersection with College Avenue and Regents Drive, US 1 passes through the campus of the University of Maryland at College Park, including the historic Rossborough Inn and Fraternity Row; the highway leaves the campus after crossing Paint Branch. US 1 continues through the northern part of College Park as a five-lane road with center turn lane, passing through a suburban commercial area; the highway intersects Greenbelt Road, unsigned MD 430, before meeting MD 193 at a partial interchange. All movements not provided in the interchange require using Greenbelt Road to connect between US 1 and MD 193. After intersecting Cherry Hill Road, US 1 becomes a divided highway and meets I-95/I-495 at a partial cloverleaf interchange. North of the interchange, the highway expands to a six-lane divided highway, leaving the town of College Park and passing by businesses and through a swath of the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, including the U.
S. National Agricultural Library. At Sunnyside Avenue, the highway reduces to a five-lane road with center turn lane and passes through a suburban commercial area in the unincorporated town of Beltsville; the highway meets Rhode Island Avenue at an oblique intersection and MD 212 at a more orthogonal intersection, where US 1 begins a concurrency with MD 212. Past this the road curves north and parallels CSX's Capital Subdivision; the highway passes between a commercial strip on the southbound side of the highway and an industrial area on the east side of the railroad tracks. US 1 leaves Beltsville after crossing Indian Creek; the highway temporarily expands to a four-lane divided highway before returning to a five-lane road, passing between an industrial area to the east and office parks to the west. The road comes to an intersection with the official eastern terminus of MD 212, where the signed MD 212 concurrency ends. After Muirkirk Meadows Drive, which leads to Muirkirk Road, US 1 reduces to a four-lane undivided highway, passes under the latter highway, intersects the eastern terminus of MD 200 before it enters a forested area.
US 1 veers away from the railroad tracks as it approaches Laurel, passing Maryland National Memorial Park before entering a suburban commercial area ahead of Contee Road, where the center turn lane returns. At Cypress Street, the southbound direction gains a third lane through the intersection with Cherry Lane, where the northbound direction gains a third lane. After passing Towne Centre at Laurel and Laurel Shopping Center, US 1 splits into a one-way pair; the three to four northbound lanes veer northeast as Second Street, while the three to four southbound lanes take the name Washington Boulevard. The one-way pair intersects Bowie Road, the old alignment of MD 197, before intersecting MD 198, which takes the form of a one-way pair, eastbound Gorman Avenue and westbound Talbott Avenue. US 1 continues through the city of Laurel, intersecting Main Street just west of the Laurel MARC Station before leaving Laurel by crossing the Patuxent River into Howard County. After crossing the Patuxent River, both directions of US 1 pass entrances to Laurel Park Race Course.
The highway continues through North Laurel, with the one-way pair coming to
United States Marshals Service
The United States Marshals Service is a federal law enforcement agency within the U. S. Department of Justice, it is the oldest American federal law enforcement agency and was created by the Judiciary Act of 1789 during the presidency of George Washington as the Office of the United States Marshal. The USMS as it stands today was established in 1969 to provide guidance and assistance to Marshals throughout the federal judicial districts. USMS is an agency of the United States executive branch reporting to the United States Attorney General, but serves as the enforcement arm of the United States federal courts to ensure the effective operation of the judiciary and integrity of the Constitution; the Marshals Service is the primary agency for fugitive operations, the protection of officers of the Federal Judiciary, the management of criminal assets, the operation of the United States Federal Witness Protection Program and the Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System, as well as the execution of federal arrest warrants.
Throughout its history the Marshals have provided unique security and enforcement services including protecting African-American students enrolling in the South during the civil rights movement, escort security for United States Air Force LGM-30 Minuteman missile convoys, law enforcement for the United States Antarctic Program, protection of the Strategic National Stockpile. The office of United States Marshal was created by the First Congress. President George Washington signed the Judiciary Act into law on September 24, 1789; the Act provided that a United States Marshal's primary function was to execute all lawful warrants issued to him under the authority of the United States. The law defined marshals as officers of the courts charged with assisting Federal courts in their law-enforcement functions: And be it further enacted, That a marshal shall be appointed in and for each district for a term of four years, but shall be removable from office at pleasure, whose duty it shall be to attend the district and circuit courts when sitting therein, the Supreme Court in the district in which that court shall sit.
And to execute throughout the district, all lawful precepts directed to him, issued under the authority of the United States, he shall have the power to command all necessary assistance in the execution of his duty, to appoint as shall be occasion, one or more deputies. The critical Supreme Court decision affirming the legal authority of the federal marshals was made in In re Neagle, 135 U. S. 1. For over 100 years marshals were patronage jobs controlled by the district judge, they were paid by fees until a salary system was set up in 1896. Many of the first US Marshals had proven themselves in military service during the American Revolution. Among the first marshals were John Adams's son-in-law Congressman William Stephens Smith for the District of New York, another New York district marshal, Congressman Thomas Morris, Henry Dearborn for the district of Maine. From the nation's earliest days, marshals were permitted to recruit special deputies as local hires, or as temporary transfers to the Marshals Service from other federal law-enforcement agencies.
Marshals were authorized to swear in a posse to assist with manhunts, other duties, ad hoc. Marshals were given extensive authority to support the federal courts within their judicial districts, to carry out all lawful orders issued by federal judges, Congress, or the President. Federal marshals were by far the most important government officials in territorial jurisdictions. Local law enforcement officials were called "marshals" so there is an ambiguity whether someone was a federal or a local official. Federal marshals are most famous for their law enforcement work, but, only a minor part of their workload; the largest part of the business was paper work—serving writs, other processes issued by the courts, making arrests and handling all federal prisoners. They disbursed funds as ordered by the courts. Marshals paid the fees and expenses of the court clerks, U. S. Attorneys and witnesses, they rented the courtrooms and jail space, hired the bailiffs and janitors. They made sure the prisoners were present, the jurors were available, that the witnesses were on time.
The marshals thus provided local representation for the federal government within their districts. They took the national census every decade through 1870, they distributed presidential proclamations, collected a variety of statistical information on commerce and manufacturing, supplied the names of government employees for the national register, performed other routine tasks needed for the central government to function effectively. During the settlement of the American Frontier, marshals served as the main source of day-to-day law enforcement in areas that had no local government of their own. U. S. Marshals were instrumental in keeping order in the "Old West" era, they were involved in apprehending desperadoes such as Bill Doolin, Ned Christie, and, in 1893, the infamous Dalton Gang after a shoot-out that left Deputy Marshals Ham Hueston, Lafe Shadley, posse member Dick Speed, dead. Individual deputy marshals have been seen as legendary heroes in the face of rampant lawlessness with Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson, Dallas Stoudenmire, Bass Reeves as examples of well-known marshals.
Bill Tilghman, Heck Thomas, Chris Madsen formed a legendary law enforcement trio known as "The Three Guardsmen" when they worked together policing the vast, lawless Oklahoma and Indian Territories. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 tasked marshals to enforce the law and arrest fugitive slaves. Any negligence in doing so expo
Howard University is a private, federally chartered black university in Washington, D. C, it is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with higher research activity and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. From its outset Howard has been open to people of all sexes and races. Howard offers more than 120 areas leading to undergraduate and professional degrees. Howard is classified as a Tier 1 national university and ranks second among HBCUs by U. S. News & World Report. Howard is the only HBCU ranked in the top 40 on the Bloomberg Businessweek college rankings; the Princeton Review ranked the school of business first in opportunities for minority students and in the top five for most competitive students. The National Law Journal ranked the law school among the top 25 in the nation for placing graduates at the most successful law firms. Howard has produced four Rhodes Scholars between 1986 and 2017. Between 1998 and 2018, Howard University produced two Marshall Scholars, eleven Truman Scholars, seventy Fulbright Scholars, a Schwarzman Scholar and twenty-two Pickering Fellows.
Howard produces the most black doctorate recipients of any university. Shortly after the end of the American Civil War, members of The First Congregational Society of Washington considered establishing a theological seminary for the education of African-American clergymen. Within a few weeks, the project expanded to include a provision for establishing a university. Within two years, the University consisted of the Colleges of Liberal Medicine; the new institution was named for General Oliver Otis Howard, a Civil War hero, both the founder of the University and, at the time, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. Howard served as President of the University from 1869–74. U. S. Congress chartered Howard on March 2, 1867, much of its early funding came from endowment, private benefaction, tuition. (In the 20th and 21st centuries an annual congressional appropriation, administered by the U. S. Department of Education, funds Howard University and Howard University Hospital After five years of being an institution, Howard University became the place of education for over 150,000 freed slaves.
Many improvements were made on campus. Howard Hall was made a dormitory for women. From 1926-1960, Howard University's first African-American presideant, Dr. Mordecai Wyatt Johnson, Sr. reigned. The Great Depression years of the 1930s brought hardship to campus. Despite appeals from Eleanor Roosevelt, Howard saw its budget cut below Hoover administration levels during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Howard University has played an important role in American history and the Civil Rights Movement on a number of occasions. Alain Locke, Chair of the Department of Philosophy and first African American Rhodes Scholar, authored The New Negro, which helped to usher in the Harlem Renaissance. Ralph Bunche, the first Nobel Peace Prize winner of African descent, served as chair of the Department of Political Science. Beginning in 1942, Howard University students pioneered the "stool-sitting" technique of occupying stools at a local cafeteria which denied service to African Americans blocking other customers waiting for service.
This tactic was to play a prominent role in the Civil Rights Movement. By January 1943, students had begun to organize regular sit-ins and pickets at cigar stores and cafeterias around Washington, D. C. which refused to serve them because of their race. These protests continued until the fall of 1944. Stokely Carmichael known as Kwame Toure, a student in the Department of Philosophy and the Howard University School of Divinity, coined the term "Black Power" and worked in Lowndes County, Alabama as a voting rights activist. Historian Rayford Logan served as chair of the Department of History. E. Franklin Frazier served as chair of the Department of Sociology. Sterling Allen Brown served as chair of the Department of English; the first sitting president to speak at Howard was Calvin Coolidge in 1924. His graduation speech was entitled, "The Progress of a People," and highlighted the accomplishments to date of the blacks in America since the Civil War, his concluding thought was, "We can not go out from this place and occasion without refreshment of faith and renewal of confidence that in every exigency our Negro fellow citizens will render the best and fullest measure of service whereof they are capable."
In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered a speech to the graduating class at Howard, where he outlined his plans for civil rights legislation and endorsed aggressive affirmative action to combat the effects of years of segregation of blacks from the nation's economic opportunities. At the time, the Voting Rights bill was still pending in the House of Representatives. In 1975 the historic Freedman's Hospital closed after 112 years of use as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital. Howard University Hospital opened that same year and continues to be used as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital with service to the surrounding community. In 1989, Howard gained national attention when students rose up in protest against the appointment of then-Republican National Committee Chairman Lee Atwater as a new member of the university's board of trustees. Student activists disrupted Howard's 122nd anniversary celebrations, occupied the university's Administration building.
Within days, both Atwater and Howard's President, James E. Cheek, resigned. In April 2007, the head of the faculty senate called for the ouster of Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert, saying the school was in a state of crisis and it was time to end "an intolerable condition of incompetence
West End, Atlanta
The West End neighborhood of Atlanta is on the National Register of Historic Places and can be found southwest of Castleberry Hill, east of Westview, west of Adair Park Historic District, just north of Oakland City. It would be difficult to find a neighborhood more linked to the city's, state's, region's, nation's historical development than the West End district of Atlanta. Architectural styles within the district include Craftsman Bungalow, Queen Anne, Stick style, Folk Victorian, Colonial Revival, American Foursquare and Neoclassical Revival. In this century, West End has endured many changes in its metamorphosis to an intown neighborhood while retaining its own distinctive character and vitality; this has been accomplished both by adaptation and participation in change and by its citizens' recognition of the district's special history. Before there was a West End or an Atlanta, the area was a crossroads. Newnan Road connected the town of that name to Lawrenceville. Crossing this road was the Sandtown Road going west to an Indian town of that name.
Near this junction around 1830, Charner Humphries established an inn/tavern which came to be known as Whitehall due to the unusual fact that it had a coat of white paint when most other buildings were of washed or natural wood. From a frontier outpost in the 1830s, the district evolved into an independent political entity linked by rail and roads to its neighbor Atlanta. In April 1871, Richard Peters and George Adair bought out the charter of the Atlanta Street Railway Company and on September 1 of that year opened the first section connecting Five Points to the West End – a route that passed by both of their homes; the following year the West End & Atlanta Street Railroad started service to West End and Westview Cemetery. By the 1880s many wealthy Atlantans built large estates here and when they came, the main street of Gordon Street became a bustling commercial district. In 1894, it was annexed by Atlanta as a distinct ward following two decades of planned suburbanization. From 1894 to 1930, West End grew in population and prosperity.
An examination of building permits for Peeples, Gordon and Lawton Streets shows a large number of single family residences being built and increasing commercial buildings and churches going up along Gordon and at the long established business district at Gordon and Lee. National and local prosperity and the mobility created by the automobile in the 1920s helped West End to grow. Fifty businesses were now clustered at Gordon and Lee with branches of Sears, Piggly-Wiggly, Goodyear. Churches and schools increased to serve the growing population. Schools began to dot West End, the largest being the 1923 Joseph E. Brown High School at Peeples and Beecher. West End became a desirable suburban community in the 1880s, grew in population and prosperity, so that by 1930 there were more than 22,000 residents. Notable residents in this early period included Atlanta mayor Dennis Hammond, Evan Howell, governor James Smith, John Conley, Thomas Stokes, L. Z. Rosser, J. P. Allen, T. D. Longino, J. N. McEachern, as well as several authors such as Frank L. Stanton, Madge Bigham and Joel Chandler Harris, known for his Uncle Remus Tales.
Both during his life and up to the present, Harris has been West End's most famous resident. He attracted such figures as President Theodore Roosevelt and Andrew Carnegie to Atlanta, the former returning after Harris' death to lecture for the Uncle Remus Memorial Association. After 1930, West End was an still vital Atlanta community; this vitality is most evident in the West End Businessmen's Association. In 1937, the Association pushed for extension of the National Housing Act title providing for home modernization loans, in subsequent decades for economic accessibility and population stabilization, including segregation. With the group's support, Gordon Street was widened, Interstate 20 was built across West End's northern fringe, the old business district was demolished in favor of a mall development. Completed in 1973, the mall's accessibility was augmented by part of the city's latest transportation system, a MARTA station, across the street; the West End Businessmen's Association was successful in many areas, but it failed in stopping "white flight".
By 1976, West End was eighty-six percent Afro-American. The West End is home to the West Hunter Street Baptist Church was moved to Gordon Street; this church has been one of Atlanta's leading black churches for decades and since 1961 was led, until his death, by the Reverend Ralph David Abernathy. Jesse Jackson came to West End to speak at the opening of the new church. A close friend and confidante of Martin Luther King, Jr. Abernathy participated in most of the civil rights campaigns of the 1960s and 1970s and succeeded King as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. In honor of his nationally recognized contributions to the civil rights movement, Gordon Street was renamed Ralph David Abernathy Boulevard, in 1991. In addition, neighborhood residents formed the West End Neighborhood Development, Inc. in 1974, with the goal of improving the socioeconomic position of their community and its residents. In order to increase awareness of the West End neighborhood, WEND has sponsored a tour of homes, a yearly festival in Howell Park, a driving tour booklet highlighting neighborhood homes and cultural and religious centers.
Former SNCC chairman and
A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure. The term was used in Venice to describe the part of the city to which Jews were restricted and segregated. However, early societies may have formed their own versions of the same structure. Ghettos in many cities have been nicknamed "the hood", colloquial slang for neighborhood. Versions of ghettos appear across the world, each with their own names and groupings of people; the word "ghetto" comes from the Jewish area of Venice, the Venetian Ghetto in Cannaregio, traced to a special use of Venetian ghèto, or "foundry". By 1899 the term had been extended to crowded urban quarters of other minority groups; the etymology of the word is uncertain, as there is no agreement among etymologists about the origins of the Venetian language term. According to various theories it comes: from the above-mentioned Venetian ghèto. Another possibility is from the Italian Egitto in memory of the exile of the Israelites in Egypt.
A Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews in the diaspora. Jewish quarters, like the Jewish ghettos in Europe, were the outgrowths of segregated ghettos instituted by the surrounding authorities. A Yiddish term for a Jewish quarter or neighborhood is Di yiddishe gas, or "The Jewish street". Many European and Middle Eastern cities once had a historical Jewish quarter. Jewish ghettos in Europe existed; as a result, Jews were placed under strict regulations throughout many European cities. The character of ghettos has varied through times. In some cases, the ghetto was a Jewish quarter with a affluent population. In other cases, ghettos were places of terrible poverty and during periods of population growth, ghettos had narrow streets and tall, crowded houses. Residents had their own justice system. During World War II, ghettos were established by the Nazis to confine Jews and Romani people into packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe; the Nazis most referred to these areas in documents and signage at their entrances as "Jewish quarter".
These Nazi ghettos sometimes coincided with traditional Jewish ghettos and Jewish quarters, but not always. On June 21, 1943, Heinrich Himmler issued a decree ordering the dissolution of all ghettos in the East and their transformation into Nazi concentration camps. A mellah is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in an analogue of the European ghetto. Jewish populations were confined to mellahs in Morocco beginning from the 15th century and since the early 19th century. In cities, a mellah was surrounded by a wall with a fortified gateway; the Jewish quarter was situated near the royal palace or the residence of the governor in order to protect its inhabitants from recurring riots. In contrast, rural mellahs were separate villages inhabited by the Jews; the Shanghai Ghetto was an area of one square mile in the Hongkou District of Japanese-occupied Shanghai to which about 20,000 Jewish refugees were relocated by the Japanese-issued Proclamation Concerning Restriction of Residence and Business of Stateless Refugees after having fled from German-occupied Europe before and during World War II.
The development of ghettos in the United States is associated with different waves of immigration and internal urban migration. The Irish and German immigrants of the mid-19th century were the first ethnic groups to form ethnic enclaves in United States cities; this was followed by large numbers of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, including many Italians and Poles between 1880 and 1920. These European immigrants were more segregated than blacks in the early twentieth century. Most of these remained in their established immigrant communities, but by the second or third generation, many families were able to relocate to better housing in the suburbs after World War II; these ethnic ghetto areas included the Lower East Side in Manhattan, New York, which became notable as predominantly Jewish, East Harlem, which became home to a large Puerto Rican community in the 1950s. Little Italys across the country were predominantly Italian ghettos. Many Polish immigrants moved to sections like Polish Hill of Pittsburgh.
Brighton Beach in Brooklyn is the home of Russian and Ukrainian immigrants. During the Great Depression, many people would congregate in large open parking lots, they built shelters out of whatever materials they could find at the time. These congregations of shelters were called "ghettos". A used definition of a ghetto is a community distinguished by a homogeneous race or ethnicity. Additionally, a key feature that developed throughout the postindustrial era and continues to symbolize the demographics of American ghettos is the prevalence of poverty. Poverty constitutes the separation of ghettos from suburbanized or private neighborhoods; the high percentage of poverty justifies the difficulty of out-migration, which tends to reproduce constraining social opportunit