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H. Rider Haggard

Sir Henry Rider Haggard was an English writer of adventure fiction set in exotic locations, predominantly Africa, a pioneer of the lost world literary genre. He was involved in agricultural reform throughout the British Empire, his stories, situated at the lighter end of Victorian literature, continue to be popular and influential. Henry Rider Haggard known as H. Rider Haggard or Rider Haggard, was born at Bradenham, the eighth of ten children, to Sir William Meybohm Rider Haggard, a barrister, Ella Doveton, an author and poet, his father was born in Russia, to British parents. Haggard was sent to Garsington Rectory in Oxfordshire to study under Reverend H. J. Graham, but unlike his elder brothers who graduated from various private schools, he attended Ipswich Grammar School; this was because his father, who regarded him as somebody, not going to amount to much, could no longer afford to maintain his expensive private education. After failing his army entrance exam, he was sent to a private crammer in London to prepare for the entrance exam for the British Foreign Office, which he never sat.

During his two years in London he came into contact with people interested in the study of psychical phenomena. In 1875, Haggard's father sent him to what is now South Africa to take up an unpaid position as assistant to the secretary to Sir Henry Bulwer, Lieutenant-Governor of the Colony of Natal. In 1876 he was transferred to the staff of Sir Theophilus Shepstone, Special Commissioner for the Transvaal, it was in this role that Haggard was present in Pretoria in April 1877 for the official announcement of the British annexation of the Boer Republic of the Transvaal. Indeed, Haggard raised the Union flag and read out much of the proclamation following the loss of voice of the official entrusted with the duty. At about that time, Haggard fell in love with Mary Elizabeth "Lilly" Jackson, whom he intended to marry once he obtained paid employment in Africa. In 1878 he became Registrar of the High Court in the Transvaal, wrote to his father informing him that he intended to return to England and marry her.

His father forbade it until Haggard had made a career for himself, by 1879 Jackson had married Frank Archer, a well-to-do banker. When Haggard returned to England, he married a friend of his sister, Marianna Louisa Margitson in 1880, the couple travelled to Africa together, they had a son named Jack and three daughters, Angela and Lilias. Lilias Rider Haggard became an author, edited The Rabbit Skin Cap and I Walked By Night, wrote a biography of her father entitled The Cloak That I Left. Moving back to England in 1882, the couple settled in Ditchingham, Louisa's ancestral home, they lived in Kessingland and had connections with the church in Bungay, Suffolk. Haggard turned to the study of law and was called to the bar in 1884, his practice of law was desultory and much of his time was taken up by the writing of novels which he saw as being more profitable. Haggard lived at 69 Gunterstone Road in Hammersmith, from mid-1885 to circa April 1888, it was at this Hammersmith address. Haggard was influenced by the larger-than-life adventurers whom he met in colonial Africa, most notably Frederick Selous and Frederick Russell Burnham.

He created his Allan Quatermain adventures under their influence, during a time when great mineral wealth was being discovered in Africa, as well as the ruins of ancient lost civilisations of the continent, such as Great Zimbabwe. Three of his books, The Wizard, Black Heart and White Heart. Haggard belonged to the Athenaeum and Authors' clubs. Years when Haggard was a successful novelist, he was contacted by his former love, Lilly Archer, née Jackson, she had been deserted by her husband, who had embezzled funds entrusted to him and had fled bankrupt to Africa. Haggard saw to the children's education. Lilly followed her husband to Africa, where he infected her with syphilis before dying of it himself. Lilly returned to England in late 1907, where Haggard again supported her until her death on 22 April 1909; these details were not known until the publication of Haggard's 1981 biography by Sydney Higgins. After returning to England in 1882, Haggard published a book on the political situation in South Africa, as well as a handful of unsuccessful novels, before writing the book for which he is most famous, King Solomon's Mines.

He accepted a 10 percent royalty rather than £100 for the copyright. A sequel soon followed entitled Allan Quatermain, followed by She and its sequel Ayesha, swashbuckling adventure novels set in the context of the Scramble for Africa; the hugely popular King Solomon's Mines is sometimes considered the first of the Lost World genre. She is considered to be one of the classics of imaginative literature, and with 83 million copies sold by 1965, it is one of the best-selling books of all time. He is remembered for Nada the Lily and the epic Viking romance, Eric Brighteyes, his novels portray many of the stereotypes associated with colonialism, yet they are unusual for the degree of sympathy with which the native populations are portrayed. Africans play heroic roles in the novels, although the protagonists are European. Notable e

Vortex (satellite)

Vortex known as Chalet, was a class of spy satellite operated by the United States during the 1980s and 1990s to collect signals intelligence from high Earth orbit. The Vortex satellites were operated by the National Reconnaissance Office for the United States Air Force and listened to radio transmissions originating from Earth or space; the intercepted data is believed to have been fed into and analyzed by the National Security Agency ECHELON system. The satellites each had a mass of 1,800 kilograms and are operated from non-stationary geosynchronous orbits; each carried a 38-meter-diameter umbrella-like reflecting dish to collect radio signals from Earth. At least six launch attempts were made of Chalet/Vortex satellites between 1978 and 1989; the Chalet/Vortex satellites replaced the older generation of Canyon satellites, were superseded by the larger, more capable Mercury satellites. * – The rockets used for the first three launches included Transtages, however it was considered an integral component of the Titan IIIC rocket, an additional upper stage for Titan IIID launches.

Magnum SIGINT satellites – a similar, contemporary program run for the Central Intelligence Agency Mercury or "Advanced Vortex" SIGINT satellites – replacements for Vortex Richelson, Jeffrey T. ed. U. S. Military Uses of Space, 1945-1991 Vol 1, Guide. National Security Archive. 1991. Vortex satellite drawing SIGINT satellite overeview from Federation of American Scientists List of SIGINT satellites from FAS Jonathan's space report No 369 Vortex/Chalet history from Encyclopedia Astronautica Launch log from Jonathan's Space Report

Battle of Johnsonville

The Battle of Johnsonville was fought November 4–5, 1864, in Benton County and Humphreys County, during the American Civil War. Confederate cavalry commander Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest culminated a 23-day raid through western Tennessee by attacking the Union supply base at Johnsonville. Forrest's attack destroyed numerous boats in the Tennessee River and millions of dollars of supplies, disrupting the logistical operations of Union Major General George H. Thomas in Nashville; as a result, Thomas's army was hampered in its plan to defeat Confederate Lieutenant General John Bell Hood's invasion of Tennessee, the Franklin-Nashville Campaign. One of the critical routes used to supply the Federal forces in Tennessee was the Tennessee River. Supplies were offloaded at Johnsonville and shipped by rail to Nashville. In the fall of 1864 the supplies were principally meant for the Army of the Cumberland, commanded by Thomas. Meanwhile, Hood's army was marching through northern Alabama on its way to an invasion of Tennessee.

In late September 1864, Hood's army departed northwest from the vicinity of Atlanta, Georgia hoping its destruction of Union supply lines would lure Major General William T. Sherman's Union army into battle. Sherman pursued Hood as far as Gaylesville, but decided to return his army to Atlanta and conduct instead a March to the Sea through Georgia, he gave responsibility for the defense of Tennessee to Thomas. Lieutenant General Richard Taylor ordered Forrest on a wide-ranging cavalry raid through Western Tennessee to destroy the Union supply line to Nashville. Forrest's initial objective was Fort Heiman on the Tennessee River north of Johnsonville, possession of which would prevent Union transports from reaching Johnsonville, upriver; the first of Forrest's men began to ride on October 16, 1864. They were exhausted from a previous raid and Forrest gave them orders to disperse, obtain new mounts and supplies, return to the raid. Forrest himself began moving north on October 24 and reached Fort Heiman on October 28, where he emplaced artillery.

On October 29 and October 30, his artillery fire caused the capture of the steamers Mazeppa and Venus, as well as the gunboat Undine. At this point, the Union stopped river supply traffic to Johnsonville. Forrest repaired two of the boats and Venus, to use as a small flotilla to aid in his attack on Johnsonville; the boats and his cavalrymen departed on November 1, 1864, while the land component of his expedition encountered difficult road conditions following recent rains. On November 2, Forrest's flotilla was challenged by two Union gunboats, Key West and Tawah, Venus was run aground and captured; the Federals dispatched six more gunboats from Paducah, on November 3 they engaged in artillery duels with strong Confederate positions on either end of Reynoldsburg Island, near Johnsonville. The Federal fleet had difficulty attempting to subdue these positions and were occupied as Forrest prepared his force for the attack on Johnsonville. On the evening of November 3, 1864, Forrest's artillerist, Capt.

John Morton, positioned his guns across the river from the Federal supply base at Johnsonville. On the morning of November 4, Undine and the Confederate batteries were attacked by three Union gunboats from Johnsonville under U. S. Navy Lt. Edward M. King and by the six Paducah gunboats under Lt. Cmdr. LeRoy Fitch. Capt. Frank M. Gracey abandoned Undine, setting her on fire, which caused her ammunition magazine to explode, ending Forrest's brief career as a naval commander. Despite this loss, the Confederate land artillery was effective in neutralizing the threat of the Federal fleets. Fitch was reluctant to take his Paducah gunboats through the narrow channel between Reynoldsburg Island and the western bank, so limited himself to long-range fire. King withered under the Confederate fire, which hit one of his vessels 19 times, returned to Johnsonville. Capt. Morton's guns bombarded the Union supply depot and the 28 steamboats and barges positioned at the wharf. All three of the Union gunboats—Key West and Elfin—were disabled or destroyed.

The Union garrison commander ordered that the supply vessels be burned to prevent their capture by the Confederates. Forrest observed, "By night the wharf for nearly one mile up and down the river presented one solid sheet of flame.... Having completed the work designed for the expedition, I moved my command six miles during the night by the light of the enemy's burning property." Forrest caused enormous damage at low cost. He reported only 2 men killed and 9 wounded, he described the Union losses as 4 gunboats, 14 transports, 20 barges, 26 pieces of artillery, $6,700,000 worth of property, 150 prisoners. One Union officer described the monetary loss as about $2,200,000. An additional consequence of the raid was that the Union high command became nervous about Sherman's plan to move through Georgia instead of confronting Hood and Forrest directly. Forrest's command, delayed by heavy rains, proceeded to Perryville and reached Corinth, Mississippi, on November 10, 1864. During the raid, on November 3, Confederate theater commander Gen. P.

G. T. Beauregard designated Forrest's cavalry for assignment to Hood's Army of Tennessee for the Franklin–Nashville Campaign. Hood elected to delay his advance from Tuscumbia, north into Tennessee, until Forrest was able to link up with him there on November 16; the Battle of Johnsonville is now the focus of two Tennessee state parks: Nathan Bedford Forrest State Park, situated on the Benton County side of the river, Johnsonville State Historic Park, situated on the Humphreys County side. The Civil War Trust (a d

Edward Hutchinson (captain)

Edward Hutchinson was the oldest child of Massachusetts and Rhode Island magistrate William Hutchinson and his wife, the dissident minister Anne Hutchinson. He is noted for making peace with the authorities following his mother's banishment from Massachusetts during the Antinomian Controversy, returning to Boston, dying in the service of the colony that had treated his family so harshly. Born in Alford, in eastern England, Hutchinson sailed to New England at the age of 20, a year ahead of the remainder of his family. Following the events of the Antinomian Controversy, he, his father, his uncle Edward were among 23 signers of a compact for a new government which they soon established at Portsmouth on Rhode Island. Young Hutchinson only remained there a short while, had returned to Boston to occupy the family house. Here he had 11 children with two wives, he became a charter member of the Military Company of Massachusetts (today known as the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts in 1638 and became its lieutenant in 1654.

He served a one-year term. He served as a Deputy to the General Court in 1658, in this capacity voiced his opposition to the persecution of the Quakers that took place in the late 1650s. During King Phillips War, in 1675, Captain Hutchinson and Captain Thomas Wheeler were given an assignment to negotiate with the Nipmuck Indians to keep them out of the war. While searching for the tribal chief, the two captains, with a company of men, were ambushed, both were wounded. Two weeks Hutchinson died from his wounds, was interred in a cemetery in Marlborough, Massachusetts. Hutchinson is the ancestor of three United States presidents, as well as the loyalist governor of Massachusetts, Thomas Hutchinson. Baptized in Alford, England on 28 May 1613, Edward Hutchinson was the son of cloth merchant and magistrate William Hutchinson and his famed wife Anne Hutchinson. Edward was the oldest of the Hutchinson's 15 children, in 1633 when Edward's pregnant mother realized that she was going to emigrate from England, she allowed Edward to travel to New England a year ahead of the family, he sailed aboard the Griffin with his uncle Edward Hutchinson and wife being on the same ship as the Reverend John Cotton who soon became teaching minister in the Boston church.

While Edward's uncle, was admitted to the Boston church in 1633, the young Edward wasn't admitted until 10 August 1634, just about the time that the remainder of the family arrived in Boston from England. In 1636 Hutchinson sailed back to England, while there he married Katherine Hamby in Lawford in Essex, his father-in-law, Robert Hamby, had been a legal counselor in Ipswich. With his wife, he returned to the colonies the same year, it was about this time that his mother became embroiled in the events of the Antinomian Controversy; as the controversy came to a peak, his mother was brought to trial in November 1637 sentenced to banishment by the General Court of the colony. She was not allowed to leave, until enduring a second trial in March 1638, this time by the clergy, she was held in detention in the interim. Many members of the colony who shared the views of Mrs. Hutchinson, including Edward, met on 7 March 1638 to sign a document establishing a new government, most of the signers left the Massachusetts colony shortly thereafter to go build houses on Aquidneck Island.

Edward was one of the few family members who stayed in Boston in March, was present at his mother's church trial, when he argued on her behalf that she should not be condemned for holding opinions in which she was not yet settled. It was deemed by the church that since he showed natural love for his mother, that he too should be admonished, along with a few others who were close to Mrs. Hutchinson, by removing the dissent from the family members, the ministers were able to proceed with the excommunication against her. Hutchinson accompanied his mother and siblings from Boston to Aquidneck Island in early April 1638, there he became one of the founding settlers of the island community, named Pocasset, but was soon renamed Portsmouth. However, since no charges were preferred against him by the Massachusetts authorities, he soon returned to Boston, he and his young family became the residents and caretakers of the family house there. Ownership of the house went to his uncle, Richard Hutchinson, ironmonger of London, who never came to New England, but had many land and business interests there.

Hutchinson's mother, Anne Hutchinson, many of his younger siblings perished in an Indian massacre in New Netherland in August 1643, he learned of this in early September, about the same time that Governor John Winthrop recorded it in his journal. It is not clear when he learned that one of his siblings survived the attack and was taken hostage, but it was two and a half years after her capture that Winthrop wrote, "A daughter of Mistress Hutchinson was carried away by the Indians near the Dutch." After several years of living with the Siwanoy natives, Edward's young sister Susanna was released in an exchange, brought back to Boston. While no record has survived detailing which of her siblings took her in, Kirkpatrick believes that it was Edward's house where she came to live. Hutchinson's wife had seven children before her untimely death about 1650, he soon after married the widow Abigail Button. Court records from the time show that in 1656 Abigail testified against Eunice Cole at her witch trial, Cole being the only woman convicted of witchcraft in

Hospital OS

Hospital OS is a research and development project for a hospital management software to support small hospitals. It is supported by the Thailand Research Fund and released under the GNU GPL. With the effort to facilitate the hospitals in the remote areas where technology seems to face difficulties to reach, the developers designed and developed the hospital information system called "Hospital OS"; this software is an open source program aimed to provide efficient medical service and hospital management. Despite the lack of budget and technological advance in rural communities, the developers endeavor to create the effective information system together with proficient people and aim to build a sustainable development to every community in Thailand. Hospital OS is implemented in 95 small rural hospitals and 402 health centres serving at least 5 million patients. GNU Health HOSxP List of open-source health software Official website Hospital OS on SourceForge.net OpenClinical Open Source downloads: Hospital OS Nalinee Chanyavanich.

"Hospital OS Software, Key to Sustainable Development in Thai Hospitals – Interesting Developments". LinuxMedNews. Archived from the original on 2007-04-18

Kingman Lake

Kingman Lake is a 110-acre artificial lake located in the Anacostia River in Washington, D. C. in the United States. The lake was created in 1920 when the United States Army Corps of Engineers used material dredged from the Anacostia River to create Kingman Island; the Corps of Engineers blocked the flow of the Anacostia River to the west of Kingman Island, creating the lake. Kingman Lake is managed by the National Park Service. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in the 18th century, the Anacostia River was a fast-flowing and silt-free river with few mudflats or marshes. White settlers cleared much of the surrounding forest for farmland and extensive soil erosion led to a heavy load of silt and effluent in the Anacostia. In 1805, local landowner Benjamin Stoddert built a wooden bridge over the Anacostia River at the present site of Benning Bridge; the bridge was sold to Thomas Ewell. Thereafter the structure was known as Benning's Bridge; the wooden bridge was rebuilt several times after 1805.

This included construction of a steel bridge in 1892. The construction of Benning and other bridges and the diversion of inflowing streams to agricultural use slowed the river's current, allowing much of the silt to settle and be deposited. Between 1860 and the late 1880s, large mudflats formed on both banks of the Anacostia River due to this deforestation and runoff. At this time, the city allowed its sewage to pour untreated into the Anacostia. Marsh grass began growing in the flats, trapping the sewage and leading public health experts to conclude that the flats were unsanitary. Health officials feared that the flats were a prime breeding ground for malaria- and yellow fever-carrying mosquitoes. By 1876, a large mudflat had formed just to the south of the western end of Benning Bridge, another mudflat about 740 feet wide had developed in the river south of that. By 1883, a stream named "Succabel's Gut" traversed the upper flat and another dubbed "Turtle Gut" the lower, both flats hosted substantial populations of American lotus, lily pads, wild rice.

In 1898, officials with the United States Army Corps of Engineers and the District of Columbia convinced the United States Congress that the Anacostia River should be dredged to create a more commercially viable channel that would enhance the local economy as well as provide land where factories or warehouses might be built. The material dredged from the river would be used to build up the flats and turn them into dry land, eliminating the public health dangers they caused. Most of the reclaimed mudflats were subsequently declared to be parkland and named Anacostia Water Park in 1919; the original dredging plan called for a channel 15 feet wide on the Anacostia's west bank from the 11th Street Bridges to Massachusetts Avenue SE, narrowing to a 9 feet wide channel from Massachusetts Avenue SE to the Maryland-District border line. In addition to this channel the McMillan Commission proposed building a dam across the Anacostia River at Massachusetts Avenue SE or at Benning Bridge to form a large lake for fishing and recreational boating.

The Commission proposed using dredged material to build islands within the lake. The Washington Post reported in July 1914 that Congress had approved the plan for a dam on the river at Massachusetts Avenue SE. By 1916, the Corps of Engineers was still planning a dam, with access to the 9 feet deep lake behind it controlled by locks; the Corps planned to create several large islands in the lake and planned to replace Benning Bridge with a drawbridge to accommodate the cargo traffic through the lake. The firm of Sanford and Brooks began the dredging in January 1903, at which time the Army Corps of Engineers began surveying the surrounding land to determine whether the federal government or private landowners had title to the marshes themselves. By 1920, the Corps of Engineers had dropped the dam idea and proposed creating a 6 feet deep lake on one side of the Anacostia River by linking several of the mid-river islands it had built with dikes; that same year, Congress prohibited the Corps from extending Anacostia Park beyond Benning Bridge, which forced the Corps to drop its plans for a drawbridge.

By March 1926, the Corps had begun calling the lake it had created Kingman Lake, after the well-regarded former head of the Corps, Brigadier General Dan Christie Kingman. The name was formally proposed in September. Improvements to the island and lake continued: The Corps spent $55,000 for a rock and concrete riprap wall around Kingman Lake, another $20,000 for gates and conduits at the north and south ends of the lake to maintain a constant water level in lake; the Corps wanted to install a lock in the southern end of the lake to give pleasure boats access to it, began laying plans for a second lake on the eastern side of the Anacostia River opposite Kingman Lake. That same year, the National Aeronautic Association proposed filling in all or part of Kingman Lake to build a new city airport. In early 1929, a channel 6 feet deep was dredged under Benning Bridge as it passed over Kingman Lake; the dredging ship Benning dredged about half of Kingman Lake to deepen it. By this time, the conduit and gates had been installed in the lake's lower exit, the upper gates were expected to be installed soon.

About 200 acres of the weste