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HEC Paris

HEC Paris is an international business school established in 1881 and located in Jouy-en-Josas, France. Among the most selective French grandes écoles, HEC Paris offers its flagship Master in Management, MBA and EMBA programs, specialized MSc programs, a PhD program, executive education offerings. HEC Paris is the founding member of CEMS - Global Alliance in Management Education and holds the triple accreditation. With ESSEC and ESCP, it forms the informal group referred as the 3 Parisiennes. Established in 1881 by the Paris Chamber of Commerce, the École des hautes études commerciales de Paris wanted to be in the fields of management and trade what Centrale Paris was in the field of engineering. In order to gain recognition from the academic world, the school offered lessons similar to what was taught in secondary education and few classes in management. In 1921, the school introduced the case-based method of the Harvard Business School, but most of the lectures remained theoretical. In 1938, the HEC program was lengthened to 3 years.

Due to French corporations' demand for North American style management education, at the end of the 1950s, the case-based method was generalized and a one-year classe préparatoire was created to prepare for the entrance examination, which had become difficult. An evidence of the recognition of the diploma is that only 9% of HEC students attended university in 1959, whereas 47% had done so in 1929. In 1964, French President Charles de Gaulle inaugurated a new 250-acre wooded campus in Jouy-en-Josas. In 1967, HEC launched its executive education programs. Women have been accepted at HEC since 1973. Only 27 women were accepted that year and HEC jeunes filles, another school dedicated to women, was closed, its alumnae are considered as graduates of HEC. HECJF alumni include, for example, Édith Cresson, the first and to date the only woman to have held the office of Prime Minister of France. In 1988, HEC founded the CEMS network with the Bocconi University and the Cologne University. In 2015, the school adopted a new legal status to allow private investors to join the Board.

In 2017, HEC launched a portfolio of new dual degree programs called M2M with Yale, HKUST, FGV. HEC Paris has been ranked the best business school in France, among the top in the world. HEC alumni include 12 CEOs of F500 companies – 2017 more than any other business school in the world and third institution only to Harvard and Stanford -, several heads of states and governments, heads of international organizations, other prominent figures in politics and the arts. In 2017, HEC Alumni has been ranked by The Economist as the 2nd most powerful business school alumni network in the world. French students who attended a classe préparatoire are taught fundamental managerial sciences during their first year at HEC. Courses include economics, finance, psychology and mathematics. During this first year, students can spend a semester in a foreign university, they can enroll in a specific one-year program to get a bachelor's degree from a French university. Direct admissions, including international students, enter directly into the second year, where they begin a business intensive program.

Courses include corporate and market finance, marketing, mathematics, human resources, supply chain. Second-year students are given the opportunity to spend one semester in a foreign university. At the end of their second year, students choose specific majors and must pass through a less competitive application process. In order to graduate, students are required to have 8 months of internships. Since this is difficult during the summer, many students take a semester or year off for their internship between the second and third year; the final year of study covers intensive courses in the chosen major. HEC Paris has numerous double degree agreements with French and foreign institutions, including Sciences Po Paris, ENS Paris, Ecole Polytechnique in France, Yale University, HKUST, FGV abroad; some of them only make degrees of the partner institution available to HEC students, while others enable selected students of the partner institution to graduate from HEC. MSc International Finance MSc Managerial and Financial Economics MSc Strategic Management MSc/MS Marketing MSc Sustainability and Social Innovation The MBA program, created in 1969, has two intakes: September and January.

HEC's MBA consists in a 16-month-long curriculum, with 8 months of core courses and 8 months of customized program, including several specialization options, exchange programs, fieldwork projects. A typical class is composed of some 250 students – 90% of whom are international students – with more than 52 nationalities represented in the 2017 graduating class; the selection process seeks a balance between academic achievement, professional experience, international exposure, personal motivation. Knowledge of French is not an entry requirement, but participants are encouraged to have a basic knowledge of French by the start of the MBA Program, while mandatory and optional language courses are offered throughout the duration of the program. Exchange and dual degree programs are offered with about 40 international partner business schools, including HKUST, London Business School, Columbia Business School and Yale; the HEC Executive MBA is a program for top executives with a minimum of 8 years of corporate experience, which prepar

Stranger on My Land

Stranger on My Land is a 1988 made for television western film, premiered on American Broadcasting Company, directed by Larry Elikann and is Joseph Gordon-Levitt's debut role. Bud Witman takes part in the forced removal of villagers in Vietnam by detonating their homes that are on land, declared unsafe because of the war, he is injured while in combat. After surgery he is sent home and returns to a cattle ranch; some years the government starts proceedings for a proposed Air Force base extension in the area. Connie Priest, county surveyor, shows animosity toward the Witmans; some families have accepted the government's offers for their land, but the Witmans file suit in court to fight the sale. The court rules to enforce eminent domain and the government starts to prepare for the project, although the Witmans will not leave. If the land is not vacated before the ground freezes, the project will be delayed. There is a confrontation with Priest, he is interred on the ranch. Bud's combat buddy shows up to help in his plight.

The government intends to use deputized locals when they show up in force with a moving van to remove Bud. The public road leading to the ranch is crowded with spectators. Explosives are detonated by Bud. Priest volunteers to remove Bud from the property on his own terms that have not been disclosed to the operation's commanding military officer on site. Priest and his cohorts riddle the house with bullets and will not cease when commanded by the U. S. Marshall. Bud and his small force exit the house, they disable the Priest force except for Priest. Bud lures Priest into the wilds. Bud is shot but not incapacitated. Fisticuffs are used to disable Bud attempts to drown him. Priest retrieves from the stream his gun and is about to fire on Bud when the Marshall shoots and kills Priest; when Bud returns to the ranch the spectators flock to greet him. The judge that confirmed the order of eminent domain arrives at the ranch and notifies the commanding officer on site to back down as he intends to review the order the following day.

Tommy Lee Jones as Bud Whitman Jeff Allin as Marine Captain Richard Anderson as Maj. Walters Michael Paul Chan as Eliot Joseph Gordon-Levitt as Rounder Dee Wallace as Annie Whitman Barry Corbin as Gil Terry O'Quinn as Connie Priest Pat Hingle as Judge Munson Michael Flynn as Brewer Ben Johnson as Vern Whitman Parts of the film were shot in Salt Lake City and Kamas, Utah

Lander (spacecraft)

A lander is a spacecraft which descends toward and comes to rest on the surface of an astronomical body. By contrast with an impact probe, which makes a hard landing and is damaged or destroyed so ceases to function after reaching the surface, a lander makes a soft landing after which the probe remains functional. For bodies with atmospheres, the landing occurs after atmospheric entry. In these cases, landers may employ parachutes to maintain a low terminal velocity. Sometimes small landing rockets are fired just before impact to reduce the impact velocity. Landing may be accomplished by controlled descent and setdown on landing gear, with the possible addition of a post-landing attachment mechanism for celestial bodies with low gravity; some missions, used inflatable airbags to cushion the lander's impact rather than a more traditional landing gear. When a high velocity impact is planned not for just achieving the surface but for study of consequences of impact, the spacecraft is called an impactor.

Several terrestrial bodies have been subject of lander or impactor exploration: among them Earth's Moon, the planets Venus and Mercury, the Saturn moon Titan, the asteroids and comets. Beginning with Luna 2 in 1959, the first few spacecraft to reach the lunar surface were impactors, not landers, they were part of the American Ranger program. In the year 1966, the Soviet Luna 9 became the first spacecraft to achieve a lunar soft landing and to transmit photographic data to Earth; the American Surveyor program was designed to determine. As a result, these robotic missions required soft landers to sample the lunar soil and determine the thickness of the dust layer, unknown before Surveyor; the U. S. manned Apollo Lunar Modules with rovers and Soviet unmanned late big landers and sample return missions used a rocket descent engine for a soft landing of astronauts and lunar rovers on the Moon. The Altair spacecraft known as the "Lunar Surface Access Module" or "LSAM", was the planned lander for the Constellation program, prior to the cancellation of Project Constellation.

As of August 2012 NASA is developing vehicles that use a rocket descent engine permitting them land on the Moon and other locations. These vehicles include the Morpheus lander; the Project Morpheus lander may have sufficient thrust to propel a manned ascent stage. Russia has plans for Luna-Grunt mission to return samples from the Moon by 2021; the Chinese Chang'e 3 mission and its Jade Rabbit rover landed on 14 December 2013. China plans to repeat lander with the rover in Chang'e 4 mission after 2015 that will be followed by Chang'e 5 and Chang'e 6 sample return missions in 2017 and before 2020. Lander Vikram on Chandrayaan-2, a maiden soft landing effort by Indian Space Research Organization lost contact to control on September 6, 2019, some minutes before landing; the Soviet Venera program included a number of Venus landers, some of which were crushed during descent much as Galileo's Jupiter "lander" and others of which touched down. Venera 3 in 1966 and Venera 7 in 1970 became the first impact and soft landing on Venus.

The Soviet Vega program placed in 1985 two balloons in the Venusian atmosphere, they were the first aerial tools on other planets. The Soviet Union's Mars 1962B was the first Earth based mission intended to reach the surface as impact on Mars in 1962. In 1971, the lander of the Mars 3 probe conducted the first soft landing on Mars, but communication was lost within a minute after touchdown, which occurred during one of the worst global dust storms since the beginning of telescopic observations of the Red Planet. Three other landers, Mars 2 in 1971 and Mars 5, Mars 6 in 1973, either crashed or failed to enter the planet's atmosphere. All four landers used an aeroshell-like heat shield during atmospheric entry. Mars 2 and Mars 3 landers carried the first small skis-walking Martian rovers that did not work on the planet; the Soviet Union planned the heavy Marsokhod Mars 4NM mission Mars sample return Mars 5NM mission but they did not occur due to need of the N1 superlauncher, never flown successfully.

A double-launching Soviet Mars 5M sample return mission was planned for 1979 but cancelled due to complexity and technical problems. Viking 1 and Viking 2 were launched in August and September 1975, each comprising an orbiter vehicle and a lander. Viking 1 landed in July 1976 and Viking 2 in September 1976; the Viking rovers were the first successful. The mission ended in May 1983. In the 1970s, the US planned the Voyager-Mars mission; this would have consisted of two orbiters and two landers, launched by a single Saturn V rocket, but the mission was cancelled. Mars 96 was the first complex post-Soviet Russian mission with an orbiter and penetrators. Planned for 1996, it failed at launch. A planned repeat of this mission, Mars 98, was cancelled due to lack of funding; the U. S. Mars Pathfinder was launched in December 1996 and released the first acting rover on Mars, named Sojourner, in July 1997, it failed in September 1997 due to electronics failure caused by the cold temperatures. Mars Pathfinder was part of the cancelled Mars Environmental Survey program with a set of 16 landers planned for 1999–2009.

The Mars Polar Lander ceased communication on 3 December 1999, prior to reaching the surface, is presumed to have crashed. The European Beagle 2 lander deployed from the Mars Express spacecraft but the signal confirming a landing which should have come on 25 December 2003 was not received. Indeed


A phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that breaks a phosphodiester bond. Phosphodiesterase refers to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, which have great clinical significance and are described below. However, there are many other families of phosphodiesterases, including phospholipases C and D, sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, DNases, RNases, restriction endonucleases, as well as numerous less-well-characterized small-molecule phosphodiesterases; the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases comprise a group of enzymes that degrade the phosphodiester bond in the second messenger molecules cAMP and cGMP. They regulate the localization and amplitude of cyclic nucleotide signaling within subcellular domains. PDEs are therefore important regulators of signal transduction mediated by these second messenger molecules; these multiple forms of phosphodiesterase were isolated from rat brain using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the early 1970s, were soon afterward shown to be selectively inhibited by a variety of drugs in brain and other tissues.

The potential for selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors to be used as therapeutic agents was predicted in the 1970s. This prediction has now come to pass in a variety of fields; the PDE nomenclature signifies the PDE family with an Arabic numeral a capital letter denotes the gene in that family, a second and final Arabic numeral indicates the splice variant derived from a single gene. The superfamily of PDE enzymes is classified into namely PDE1-PDE12, in mammals; the classification is based on: amino acid sequences substrate specificities regulatory properties pharmacological properties tissue distributionDifferent PDEs of the same family are functionally related despite the fact that their amino acid sequences can show considerable divergence. PDEs have different substrate specificities; some are cAMP-selective hydrolases. Others can hydrolyse both cAMP and cGMP. PDE3 is sometimes referred to as cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase. Although PDE2 can hydrolyze both cyclic nucleotides, binding of cGMP to the regulatory GAF-B domain will increase cAMP affinity and hydrolysis to the detriment of cGMP.

This mechanism, as well as others, allows for cross-regulation of the cGMP pathways. PDE12 oligoadenylates. Phosphodiesterase enzymes have been shown to be different in different types of cells, including normal and leukemic lymphocytes and are targets for pharmacological inhibition due to their unique tissue distribution, structural properties, functional properties. Inhibitors of PDE can prolong or enhance the effects of physiological processes mediated by cAMP or cGMP by inhibition of their degradation by PDE. Sildenafil is an inhibitor of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, which enhances the vasodilatory effects of cGMP in the corpus cavernosum and is used to treat erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil is currently being investigated for its myo- and cardioprotective effects, with particular interest being given to the compound's therapeutic value in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Paraxanthine, the main metabolite of caffeine, is another cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor which inhibits PDE9, a cGMP preferring phosphodiesterase.

PDE9 is expressed as high as PDE5 in the corpus cavernosum. PDE inhibitors have been identified as new potential therapeutics in areas such as pulmonary arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, depression, asthma, COPD, protozoal infections and schizophrenia. PDE are important in seizure incidence. For example, PDE compromised the antiepileptic activity of adenosine. In addition, using of a PDE inhibitor in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure indicated the antiepileptic effect by increasing the time latency to seizure incidence and decreasing the seizure duration in vivo. Cilostazol inhibits PDE3; this inhibition allows red blood cells to be more able to bend. This is useful in conditions such as intermittent claudication, as the cells can maneuver through constricted veins and arteries more easily. Dipyridamole inhibits PDE-3 and PDE-5; this leads to intraplatelet accumulation of cAMP and/or cGMP. Zaprinast inhibits the growth of asexual blood-stage malaria parasites in vitro with an ED50 value of 35 μM, inhibits PfPDE1, a P. falciparum cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, with an IC50 value of 3.8 μM.

Xanthines such as caffeine and theobromine are cAMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitors. However, the inhibitory effect of xanthines on phosphodiesterases are only seen at dosages higher than what people consume. Sildenafil and Vardenafil are PDE-5 inhibitors and are used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Phosphoric+Diester+Hydrolases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings

Authorpe railway station

Authorpe was a railway station on the East Lincolnshire Railway, which served the village of Authorpe in Lincolnshire between 1848 and 1964. The station was closed to passengers in 1961, withdrawal of goods facilities took place in 1964; the line through the station is closed. The station was opened on 3 September 1848 after the hamlet of Authorpe, it was constructed by Peto and Betts civil engineering contractors who, in January 1848, had taken over the contract to construct the section of the East Lincolnshire Railway between Louth and Boston from John Waring and Sons. This section was the last to be completed in September 1848 at an agreed cost of £123,000. Authorpe station was one mile to the north of Aby for Claythorpe station and straddled a level crossing over Scrub Lane which runs through the centre of Authorpe. Staggered platforms were situated either side of the crossing gates, which were controlled by a signal box located on the down side of the line and to the north of the crossing.

The signal box controlled the goods yard opposite the up platform which comprised two sidings. Opposite the signal box on the north side of the crossing was the stationmaster's house incorporating a booking office. A small brick waiting shelter was provided for passengers using the up platform; the station was closed to passengers on 11 September 1961, the same day as Aby for Claythorpe, but goods facilities remained for a further two-and-a-half years until 30 March 1964. The stationmaster's house has been extended; the trackbed adjacent to the house is now incorporated into the garden, comprised within, the down platform. The degraded remains of the up platform remain in an overgrown state, it is possible that the goods shed may have survived. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Clinker, C. R.. Clinker's Register of Closed Passenger Stations and Goods Depots in England and Wales 1830-1977.

Bristol: Avon-Anglia Publications & Services. ISBN 0-905466-19-5. Hill, Roger. British Railways Past and Present: Lincolnshire. Kettering, Northants: Past & Present Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85895-083-9. Ludlam, A. J.. The East Lincolnshire Railway. Headington, Oxford: The Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-85361-416-4. Philip Conolly, W.. British Railways Gazetteer. Hersham, Surrey: Ian Allan Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7110-0320-0. Stennett, Alan. Lost Railways of Lincolnshire. Newbury, Berkshire: Countryside Books. ISBN 978-1-84674-040-4. Authorpe station on navigable O. S. map

Gilles Poux

Gilles Poux is the communist mayor of La Courneuve, since October 1996. He was born 7 June 1957 in Capdenac-Gare, he has lived in La Courneuve since 1982. He has one daughter. Gilles Poux studied at the comprehensive school of Decazeville; as a high school student, Poux was involved in the student movement against the Haby reforms of 1975. From 1976 to 1978 he received a BTS Technical at Marseilles, he continued his studies at the University of Toulouse II – Le Mirail, in 1979, in Nanterre, in 1980. At the same time, he participated in the demonstrations at Larzac, against the decision to enlarge the military camp there; as a student, he became head of the Union of Communist Students. From 1980 to 1981, Poux fulfilled his military obligations in Provins. On 11 January 1982 he was hired as a technician at the Babcock factory in La Courneuve; as an employee of the Babcock company, Poux took on union responsibilities. Meanwhile, Poux was involved in local politics, from 1988 to 1995, as secretary of the French Communist Party cell of La Courneuve.

Elected councilman of La Courneuve in 1989, on a slate of the Union of the Left led by James Marson, Poux became deputy-mayor on 1 March 1995, delegate for employment and public procurement. On 26 October 1996, he succeeded James Marson as mayor. In 2001, Poux led the Union of the Left slate in La Courneuve, was elected to the council in the first round, with 57.47% of votes cast. He was re-elected mayor on 18 March 2001. Poux created several new festivals in the city: the Feast of the City, La Courneuve Plage, A Sunday in the Country. On several occasions, Poux marched alongside employees of the city. In particular, he refused the announced closure of the Alstom factory-Rateau, in 2003, supported the workers on strike. With them he won the preservation of the La Courneuve factory site. With other leftist mayors, he took anti-eviction action and had electricity cuts within the city stopped. From January 2005, he enlarged and accelerated the urban renewal begun by his predecessor in mid-1980. In 2004, the newspaper Le Canard Enchaîné called Poux's integrity into question, saying that he had received an allocation of housing in May 2004 at the OPHLM in La Courneuve, when his income did not make him eligible for this type of housing.

In 2005, following the shooting death of little Sid Ahmed on 19 June 2005, Poux met with the Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy, who announced that he wanted to "clean up the city of Kärcher". After having first welcomed the progress due to the joint efforts of the prefecture and municipal services, Poux pronounced as unfulfilled commitments from the state. In 2006, he initiated a local referendum, held on 1 October 2006, on the right of resident aliens in the town to vote, to stand in local elections, challenged by the departmental prefect of Seine-Saint-Denis. In March 2008, Poux was re-elected mayor in the second round ahead of the Socialist slate headed by Stephane Troussel and the right-wing slate led by Kamel Hamza. On 5 May 2009, he announced that his city had filed a complaint with the High Authority against Discrimination and for Equality for Territorial Discrimination. Poux initiated a local referendum, held on 7 December 2003, to allow the people of his city to have the final choice about joining the urban community Plaine Commune, created in 2000.

Open to foreign residents in the city, the vote was challenged by the departmental prefect, but the municipal attorney validated the decision of Courneuviens to join. Poux became Vice President of Urban Renewal and Urban Policy of Plaine Commune on 1 January 2005, on the entry of the city into the community. In 2008, Poux was one of eight delegates to SEDIF and was elected vice president of the commission on 15 May 2008. Ignoring a request by Patrick Braouezec, Poux cosigned a petition calling for the return of water distribution to being directly controlled by SEDIF, advocated, on 10 October 2008, to return to commission control management delegated to a private operator. At the end of March 2007, the French Communist Party nominated Poux to be a candidate to succeed Muguette Jacquaint, to represent the 3rd district of Seine-Saint-Denis in the National Assembly. Coming in third with 17.99% of the vote, behind Daniel Goldberg and the candidate for the right, Poux was eliminated from the second round.

Thus, this communist bastion of Waldeck Rochet and Jack Ralite passed into the hands of the Socialist Party. In the cantonal elections in March 2011, the FCP made the township of La Courneuve the symbol of its determination to recapture the General Council seat. Opposed by the Socialist incumbent Stephane Troussel, Poux received 32% of votes in the first round against 47% of the vote for the incumbent, in whose favor he withdrew in the second round. During the national assembly elections in June 2012, Poux was the alternate for Marie-George Buffet. Although overtaken in three out of four cities, including La Courneuve, Buffet lead the first round and benefited from the withdrawal of the Socialist candidate. Blog of Gilles Poux