Kurt Hans Biedenkopf is a German politician. He was the 1st Minister President of the Free State of Saxony from 1990 until 2002, as such serving as the 54th President of the Bundesrat in 1999/2000. Born in Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Rhineland-Palatinate, Biedenkopf studied law and political science, including at Davidson College in North Carolina and at Georgetown University, he is a Master of Laws and holds a Dr. jur.. He worked as a researcher and professor at various German universities including those in Bochum and Leipzig. Kurt Biedenkopf is a member of the Christian-Democratic Union, he entered his professional political career when he became secretary general of the CDU in 1973, under the leadership of chairman Helmut Kohl. He resigned from that office after disagreements with Kohl and went on to become one of his fiercest rivals within the party. From 1977 to 1983 Biedenkopf was a deputy chairman of the party. During the terms 1976-1980 and 1987-1990 he was a member of the Bundestag. In the 1980 state elections in North Rhine-Westphalia, Biedenkopf unsuccessfully ran against the incumbent Minister-President Johannes Rau.
He served as chairman of the CDU in North Rhine-Westphalia – the party’s largest chapter – until 1987, when he was succeeded by Norbert Blüm. In late 1989, he joined forces with Lothar Späth, Heiner Geißler, Rita Süssmuth and others in an unsuccessful effort to oust Kohl as CDU chairman. After the re-unification of Germany in 1990 Biedenkopf was elected as Minister-President in the newly formed state of Saxony, his party won the subsequent elections in 1994 and 1999 with an absolute majority. He held his office until April 2002. At the CDU's initiative, the state parliament resolved to declare Saxony a "free state" once again, recalling its 19th century history. Early in his tenure, Biedenkopf emerged as a kind of unofficial spokesman for the regions of East Germany, he enjoyed great popularity among a majority of the people of Saxony. Known for his autocratic leadership style, he was referred to as "the Saxon king" or "King Kurt." During his time in office, he doubled outlays on primary and secondary education and ramped up spending on research and development.
Ahead of the German presidential election in 1994, Biedenkopf was seen as a candidate. In 1979, it was revealed that Christel Broszey, Biedenkopf’s secretary in his position as deputy chairman of the Christian Democratic Party and was presumed to have fled to East Germany. Media reported. Before the introduction of the euro, Biedenkopf was the only German state leader to vote against the monetary union in the Bundesrat, the legislative body that represents the German states. Between 2004 and 2006, Biedenkopf and Christine Bergmann served as ombudsmen, observing the impact of the Schröder government’s labour market reforms, with a mandate to advise government and parliament on any recommended revisions to it. In 2005, he was appointed by Chancellor Gerhard Schröder to head a commission on the future of co-determination. Both Biedenkopf and Schröder served as mediators in a 2006 conflict over privatization plans at German railway operator Deutsche Bahn. In addition, Biedenkopf has been holding a number of paid and unpaid positions, including the following: Dresden Frauenkirche, Member of the Board of Trustees International Law Institute, Member of the International Advisory Board Independent Commission on Turkey, Member Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft, Member of the Board of Trustees Hertie School of Governance, Chairman of the Board of Trustees Lions Club Germany Foundation, Member of the Board of Trustees Staatliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Meissen, Chairman of the Supervisory Board Politics of Germany Kurt Biedenkopf in the CDU parliamentary group in the state parliament of Saxony
Tuck School of Business
The Tuck School of Business is the graduate business school of Dartmouth College, an Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire. Founded in 1900 through a donation made by Dartmouth alumnus Edward Tuck, the Tuck School was the first institution in the world to offer a master's degree in business administration; the Tuck School awards only one degree, the Master of Business Administration degree, through a full-time, residential program. The school does not offer an Executive MBA or a part-time program, believing that such programs, while lucrative, would dilute the focus of its full-time MBA program. Tuck does, offer an Advanced Management Program for executives, which spans either one or two weeks depending on the course. In addition, Tuck offers a 4-week, intensive summer program to liberal arts students seeking to build a foundation in core business concepts. Compared to other elite business schools, Tuck is known for its rural setting and small class size — each MBA class consists of about 280 students.
As such, both factors, combined with Tuck's commitment to the full-time MBA program attribute to its high giving rate among the 10,300 Tuck alumni across 73 countries. 70% of all Tuck alumni give to the school, the highest rate among business schools worldwide. The MBA program has held a top-10 ranking in multiple publications, including U. S. News & World Report, The Economist, Business Insider, Vault. According to U. S. News & World Report, MBA graduates of Tuck earned an average $158,194 first year compensation, the fifth highest of all US-based MBA programs. Tuck's MBA program ties for 9th place with MIT for the highest average GMAT score of 722 for its entering class; the school is one of six Ivy League business schools, alongside Wharton, HBS, CBS, Yale SOM. At the turn of the 20th century, Dartmouth College president William Jewett Tucker decided to explore the possibility of establishing a school of business to educate the growing number of Dartmouth alumni entering the commercial world.
Additionally, Tucker was concerned about business leadership in a broad social sense, or, as he put it, "training commensurate with the larger meaning of business", so began soliciting interest among Dartmouth alumni. Through a renewed friendship, Tucker enlisted the support of his former roommate from his undergraduate years at Dartmouth, Edward Tuck, who had since become a wealthy banker and philanthropist. Enthusiastically agreeing to help, on September 8, 1899, Edward Tuck donated an initial grant of $300,000 — in the form of 1,700 shares of preferred stock in the Great Northern Railway Company of Minnesota — to found and endow the Amos Tuck School of Administration and Finance, named in memory of Tuck's father and Dartmouth alumnus, Amos Tuck. In January 1900, the Dartmouth Board of Trustees passed a vote to formally establish the school; the new school's tuition fee cost $100 for the few students. The curriculum involved both traditional liberal arts fields as well as economic and finance education.
The first-years were required to take Modern History, Political Science, Foreign Language, English Composition and Speaking. Undergraduate Dartmouth professors taught most of the first-year courses at Tuck, while outside guest instructors and business-people, such as an export merchant, an attorney, an insurance company president, an accountant, educated the second-year students. Edward Tuck, pleased with the breadth of experience found in the school's instructors, wrote to Dartmouth president Tucker in February 1902, "I am glad that it will be the aim of the school to bring students in touch with practical businessmen."While other business programs tended to offer specialized technical courses linked neither to the liberal arts tradition nor to the broader purposes of business, Tuck maintained itself as a school of general management in the broadest liberal sense, to which a study by the Carnegie Corporation observed, "The Tuck School went further than any other institution in the pre-war period in putting its work on a demanding intellectual level."
Thus, the Tuck School's emphasis on a broad education in general management was adopted by many other emerging business schools, was dubbed the "Tuck Pattern." Students of the first class held their studies in the Hubbard House, located on North Main Street across the College Green. A year in 1901, Tuck donated an additional $100,000 to build the original Tuck Hall; the school grew and prospered under the leadership of Frank H. Dixon, who served as the school's first secretary and left to join the Dartmouth economics department full-time in 1904, followed by Harlow Person, Tuck's first dean, from 1904 through 1919. Person, in 1911, invited 300 leaders of industry, including Frederick Winslow Taylor — who became a professor at Tuck — and Lillian Gilbreth, to a major conference on scientific management, which business historians consider the kick-off for what became the worldwide scientific management movement. Afterward, the school was led by a Tuck alumnus, William R. Gray, from 1919 through 1937.
During this period of growth, Dartmouth president Ernest Martin Hopkins wrote to Edward Tuck reflecting on the school's flourishing alumni and faculty. In the late 1920s, Hopkins sought to unify the Tuck School by establishing a central campus, uniting th
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London. Continuous publication began under its founder James Wilson in September 1843. In 2015, its average weekly circulation was a little over 1.5 million, about half of which were sold in the United States. Pearson PLC held a 50% shareholding via The Financial Times Limited until August 2015. At that time, Pearson sold their share in the Economist; the Agnelli family's Exor paid £287m to raise their stake from 4.7% to 43.4% while the Economist paid £182m for the balance of 5.04m shares which will be distributed to current shareholders. Aside from the Agnelli family, smaller shareholders in the company include Cadbury, Schroder and other family interests as well as a number of staff and former staff shareholders. A board of trustees formally appoints the editor. Although The Economist has a global emphasis and scope, about two-thirds of the 75 staff journalists are based in the London borough of Westminster.
For the year to March 2016, the Economist Group declared operating profit of £61m. The Economist takes an editorial stance of classical and economic liberalism that supports free trade, free immigration and cultural liberalism; the publication has described itself as "a product of the Caledonian liberalism of Adam Smith and David Hume". It targets educated, cultured readers and claims an audience containing many influential executives and policy-makers; the publication's CEO described this recent global change, first noticed in the 1990s and accelerated in the beginning of the 21st century as a "new age of Mass Intelligence". The Economist was founded by the British businessman and banker James Wilson in 1843, to advance the repeal of the Corn Laws, a system of import tariffs. A prospectus for the "newspaper" from 5 August 1843 enumerated thirteen areas of coverage that its editors wanted the publication to focus on: Original leading articles, in which free-trade principles will be most rigidly applied to all the important questions of the day.
Articles relating to some practical, agricultural, or foreign topic of passing interest, such as foreign treaties. An article on the elementary principles of political economy, applied to practical experience, covering the laws related to prices, rent, exchange and taxes. Parliamentary reports, with particular focus on commerce and free trade. Reports and accounts of popular movements advocating free trade. General news from the Court of St. James's, the Metropolis, the Provinces and Ireland. Commercial topics such as changes in fiscal regulations, the state and prospects of the markets and exports, foreign news, the state of the manufacturing districts, notices of important new mechanical improvements, shipping news, the money market, the progress of railways and public companies. Agricultural topics, including the application of geology and chemistry. Colonial and foreign topics, including trade, produce and fiscal changes, other matters, including exposés on the evils of restriction and protection, the advantages of free intercourse and trade.
Law reports, confined chiefly to areas important to commerce and agriculture. Books, confined chiefly, but not so to commerce and agriculture, including all treatises on political economy, finance, or taxation. A commercial gazette, with prices and statistics of the week. Correspondence and inquiries from the news magazine's readers. Wilson described it as taking part in "a severe contest between intelligence, which presses forward, an unworthy, timid ignorance obstructing our progress", a phrase which still appears on its masthead as the publication's mission, it has long been respected as "one of the most competent and subtle Western periodicals on public affairs". The publication was a major source of financial and economic information for Karl Marx in the formulation of socialist theory. In January 2012, The Economist launched a new weekly section devoted to China, the first new country section since the introduction of a section about the United States in 1942. In August 2015, The Economist Group bought back 5 million of its shares from Pearson.
Pearson's remaining shares would be sold to Exor. The editors of The Economist have been: James Wilson 1843–1857 Richard Holt Hutton 1857–1861 Walter Bagehot, 1861–1877 Daniel Conner Lathbury, 1877–1881 Robert Harry Inglis Palgrave, 1877–1883 Edward Johnstone, 1883–1907 Francis Wrigley Hirst, 1907–1916 Hartley Withers, 1916–1921 Sir Walter Layton, 1922–1938 Geoffrey Crowther, 1938–1956 Donald Tyerman, 1956–1965 Sir Alastair Burnet, 1965–1974 Andrew Knight, 1974–1986 Rupert Pennant-Rea, 1986–1993 Bill Emmott, 1993–2006 John Micklethwait, 2006–2014 Zanny Minton Beddoes, 2015–present When the news magazine was founded, the term "economism" denoted what would today be termed "economic liberalism"; the Economist supports free trade and free immigration. The activist and journalist George Monbiot has described it as neo-liberal while accepti
Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business
The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business known as AACSB International, is an American professional organization. It was founded in 1916 to provide accreditation to schools of business, it was known as the American Association of Collegiate Schools of Business and as the International Association for Management Education. Not all members of the association are accredited. In 2016 it lost recognition by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation; the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business was founded as an accrediting body in 1916 by a group of seventeen American universities and colleges. The first accreditations took place in 1919. For many years the association accredited only American business schools, but in the latter part of the twentieth century it advocated a more international approach to business education; the first school it accredited outside the United States was the University of Alberta in 1968, the first outside North America was the French business school ESSEC, in 1997.
Robert S. Sullivan, dean of Rady School of Management, became chair of the association in 2013; the association struggled with its Council for Higher Education Accreditation recognition in 2016. At a board meeting on January 26, 2015, the council deferred recognition pending satisfaction of its policy requirements; the association withdrew from CHEA recognition on September 23, 2016, in pursuit of ISO certification in order to pivot towards a more global presence. List of AACSB-accredited schools Regional accreditation Triple accreditation Andrea Everard, Jennifer Edmonds, Kent Pierre; the Longitudinal Effects of the Mission - Driven Focus on the Credibility of the AACSB. Journal of Management Development 32:995–1003 W. Francisco, T. G. Noland, D. Sinclari. AACSB Accreditation: Symbol of Excellence or march toward Mediocrity. Journal of College Teaching & Learning 5:25–30 Harold Hamilton. AACSB Accreditation: Are the Benefits worth the Cost for a Small School? A Case Study. Proceedings of the American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences Track Section of Management February 17-21, 2000, Las Vegas, Nevada: 205–206 Anthony Lowrie, Hugh Willmott.
Accreditation Sickness in the Consumption of Business Education: The Vacuum in AACSB Standard Setting. Management Learning 40:411–420 N. Orwig, R. Z. Finney. Analysis of the Mission Statements of AACSB – Accredited Schools. Competitiveness Review 17:261–273 E. J Romero. AACSB Accreditation: Addressing Faculty Concerns. Academy of Management Learning and Education 7:245~255 J. A. Yunker. Doing Things the Hard Way – Problems with Mission-Linked AACSB Accreditation Standards and Suggestions for Improvement. Journal of Education for Business 75:348–353
Nanyang Technological University
The Nanyang Technological University is the second oldest public autonomous research university in Singapore. With a population of 33,500 students and 10,000 faculty and staff, NTU is the second largest university in Singapore; the University is organised into eight colleges and schools, including the College of Engineering, College of Science, Nanyang Business School, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, College of Humanities and Social Sciences. NTU is home to several autonomous institutions such as Singapore's National Institute of Education, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Earth Observatory of Singapore, Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, Institute on Asian Consumer Insight, the launched NTU Institute of Science and Technology for Humanity. NTU's main campus covers 200 hectares of land; the primary campus grounds are located in the western part of Singapore, along 50 Nanyang Avenue. It has two other campuses in Singapore's healthcare and start-up districts and one-north respectively.
In 1955, prior to Singapore's independence from the British, Nanyang University was established south of the current Nanyang Technological University campus, with the centre of the present Yunnan Garden as its heart. Its administration building houses the Chinese Heritage Centre, a national monument. In 1980, Nanyang University merged with the University of Singapore to form the current National University of Singapore. In complement, Nanyang Technological Institute, a tertiary institution affiliated to the National University of Singapore, was formed to take over Nanyang University's campus in 1981. Nanyang Technological Institute was set up on 1 August 1981 with a charter to train three-quarters of Singapore’s engineers; when NTI started in 1982, it had a total student population of 582 in three engineering disciplines – civil and structural and electronic, mechanical and production engineering. By 1990, the institute’s undergraduate student population had grown to 6,832; the first two graduate students were admitted in 1986.
Three engineering schools were added, the School of Accountancy from the National University of Singapore was transferred to NTI in 1987. A school of applied science was started. In 1990, the government announced that the Institute of Education would be merged with the College of Physical Education to form the National Institute of Education and that it would be part of the new NTU upon its establishment in 1991. In 1991, NTI merged with the National Institute of Education to form the Nanyang Technological University; the alumni rolls of the former Nanyang University were transferred to NTU in 1996. Nanyang Technological University admitted students jointly with the affiliated National University of Singapore and charged the same fees. Students made only one application and they would be accepted by either university; this arrangement ended in 2004 as both universities began to distinguish themselves with an end of its official affiliation. Students apply separately to both universities. NTU became autonomous in 2006 and stands as one of the two largest public universities in Singapore today.
The main campus of Nanyang Technological University is the 200-hectare Yunnan Garden Campus, situated adjacent to the town of Jurong West. It is the largest university campus on the island of Singapore, housing Singapore's largest on-campus residence infrastructure including 24 halls of residence for undergraduates and two graduate halls; the campus grounds were donated by the Singapore Hokkien Association to Nanyang University. In 1981, the Nanyang University grounds were granted to the Nanyang Technological Institute, a newly formed English-medium engineering college. With the formation of the NTU through NTI's merger with the National Institute of Education, the grounds were presented to the university; the former Nanyang University administration building was restored into the Chinese Heritage Centre and was gazetted as a national monument in 1998 - now overlooking the Yunnan Garden. As of 2019, the Yunnan Garden is undergoing major renovations that will be completed in 2021; the Nanyang University Memorial and original Nanyang University Arch were declared national monuments of Singapore in 1998.
The NTU Art & Heritage Museum is an approved public museum under the National Heritage Board’s Approved Museum Scheme. There is a small lake between the Chinese Heritage Centre and Hall of Residence 4 called Nanyang Lake. Only members of NTU Anglers' Club permit holder, the fishing club at NTU, are allowed to fish in this lake; the campus served as the Youth Olympic Village for the inaugural Youth Olympic Games in 2010. A third campus, Novena Campus, is situated close to LKCMedicine’s partner teaching hospital, Tan Tock Seng Hospital in downtown Novena for medical teaching and research at the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine; the new 20-storey Clinical Sciences Building was completed in 2016. The CSB is home to LKCMedicine researchers, with the laboratories interconnected through collaborative spaces. NTU has 24 Halls of Residence for undergraduates, each with a capacity of between 500 and 659 residents, they accommodate 14,000 local and international students, with every freshman guaranteed a hostel room.
All halls offer single and double occupancy rooms. Double rooms are shared by residents of the same gender; every hall has communal facilities like lounges, air-conditioned reading rooms and laundry rooms with washing machines and dryers. Presently, freshmen stud
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth trained Congregationalist ministers throughout its early history; the university secularized, by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence as one of the top centers of higher education. Following a liberal arts curriculum, the university provides undergraduate instruction in 40 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 57 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, enables students to design specialized concentrations or engage in dual degree programs. Dartmouth comprises five constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, the Tuck School of Business, the Guarini School of Graduate and Advanced Studies.
The university has affiliations with the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, the Rockefeller Institute for Public Policy, the Hopkins Center for the Arts. With a student enrollment of about 6,400, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.9% for the Class of 2023. Situated on a terrace above the Connecticut River, Dartmouth's 269-acre main campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England; the university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its undergraduate focus, strong Greek culture, wide array of enduring campus traditions, its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I. Dartmouth is included among the highest-ranked universities in the United States by several institutional rankings, has been cited as a leading university for undergraduate teaching and research by U. S. News & World Report.
In 2018, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education listed Dartmouth as the only "majority-undergraduate," "arts-and-sciences focused," "doctoral university" in the country that has "some graduate coexistence" and "very high research activity." In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouth graduates ranked 41st in terms of the most sought-after and valued in the world. The university has produced many prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U. S. Senate and the U. S. House of Representatives, 24 U. S. governors, 10 billionaire alumni, 10 U. S. Cabinet secretaries, 3 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 U. S. Supreme Court justices, a U. S. vice president. Other notable alumni include 79 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 13 Pulitzer Prize winners, numerous MacArthur Genius fellows, Fulbright Scholars, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 corporations, high-ranking U. S. diplomats, scholars in academia and media figures, professional athletes, Olympic medalists. Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister from Columbia, who had sought to establish a school to train Native Americans as Christian missionaries.
Wheelock's ostensible inspiration for such an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became an ordained minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747, moved to Long Island to preach to the Montauks. Wheelock founded Moor's Indian Charity School in 1755; the Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue school's operations, Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money. The first major donation to the school was given by Dr. John Phillips in 1762, who would go on to found Phillips Exeter Academy. Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches. With these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock; the head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth. Although the fund provided Wheelock ample financial support for the Charity School, Wheelock had trouble recruiting Indians to the institution because its location was far from tribal territories.
In seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire. The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources and secure a charter; the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, provided the land upon which Dartmouth would be built and on December 13, 1769, issued a royal charter in the name of King George III establishing the College. That charter created a college "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing & all parts of Learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing & christianizing Children of Pagans as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences and of English Youth and any others." The reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity School's unspent trust funds. Named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth—an important supporter of Eleazar Wheelock's earlier efforts but who, in fact, opposed creation of the College and never donated to it—Dartmouth is the nation's ninth oldest college and the last institution of higher learning established under Colonial rule.
The College granted its first degrees in 1771. Given the limited success of the Charity School, Wheelock intended his ne
Andrew Michael Spence is a Canadian American economist and recipient of the 2001 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, along with George Akerlof and Joseph E. Stiglitz, for their work on the dynamics of information flows and market development. Spence is most famous for his job-market signaling model, which triggered the enormous volume of literature in this branch of contract theory. In this model, employees signal their respective skills to employers by acquiring a certain degree of education, costly to them. Employers will pay higher wages to more educated employees, because they know that the proportion of employees with high abilities is higher among the educated ones, as it is less costly for them to acquire education than it is for employees with low abilities. For the model to work, it is not necessary for education to have any intrinsic value if it can convey information about the sender to the recipient and if the signal is costly. Spence did his middle and high school education at the University of Toronto Schools of the University of Toronto.
In 1966, he was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship at Oxford University upon graduation from Princeton University with a degree in philosophy. He studied mathematics at Oxford, he obtained a PhD in Economics from Harvard. Spence is a Philip H. Knight Professor Emeritus and former Dean of the Stanford Graduate School of Business. Spence joined the faculty of New York University's Stern School of Business on September 1, 2010, he joined the faculty of SDA Bocconi School of Management in Italy in July 2011. He is a senior fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution and the Philip H. Knight Professor Emeritus of Management in the Graduate School of Business. Spence is a Commissioner for the Global Commission on Internet Governance. Additionally, Spence is a member of the Berggruen Institute's 21st Century Council, he is the author of three books and 50 articles, has been a consistent contributor to Project Syndicate, an international newspaper syndicate, since 2008. Among his beliefs are that high-frequency trading should be banned.
Spence had both Bill Steve Ballmer in a graduate-level economics class at Harvard. In a 1999 Fortune interview, however and Ballmer admitted not attending class and passing only after cramming for four days before the final. Spence is an Honorary Fellow of Magdalen College, where he studied as a Rhodes Scholar, he was the recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 2001, as well as the John Bates Clark Medal from the American Economics Association in 1981. Spence, Michael. "Job Market Signaling". Quarterly Journal of Economics. 87: 355–374. Doi:10.2307/1882010. JSTOR 1882010. Market Signaling: Informational Transfer in Hiring and Related Screening Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1974. ISBN 978-0674549906; the Next Convergence: The Future of Economic Growth in a Multispeed World. New York: Farrar and Giroux. May 2011. ISBN 9781429968713. Spence lives in Milan, Italy with his wife and children. List of economists Michael Spence Senior Fellow at Hoover Institution, Stanford University Signaling in Retrospect and the Informational Structure of Markets 2001 lecture at NobelPrize.org Michael Spence.
The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty. Liberty Fund. 2008. Profile and Papers at Research Papers in Economics/RePEc Archive of Michael Spence articles on Project Syndicate