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HMNB Clyde

Her Majesty's Naval Base, Clyde sited at Faslane on the Gare Loch, is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy. It is the navy's headquarters in Scotland and is best known as the home of Britain's nuclear weapons, in the form of nuclear submarines armed with Trident missiles. Faslane was first used as a base in the Second World War. During the 1960s, the British Government began negotiating the Polaris Sales Agreement with the United States regarding the purchase of a Polaris missile system to fire British-built nuclear weapons from five specially constructed submarines. In the end, only four were constructed; these four submarines were permanently based at Faslane. Faslane itself was chosen to host these vessels at the height of the Cold War because of its geographic position, which forms a bastion on the secluded but deep and navigable Gare Loch and Firth of Clyde on the west coast of Scotland; this position provides for rapid and stealthy access through the North Channel to the submarine patrolling areas in the North Atlantic, through the GIUK gap to the Norwegian Sea.

At the time it was chosen, the location was close to the American SSBN base at Holy Loch, which operated 1961–1992. One boat was always on patrol at any given time. In 1971 the base was home to the 3rd Submarine Squadron of Nuclear Fleet and Diesel Patrol Submarines, "the fighters", the 10th Submarine Squadron consisting of the four Polaris submarines, "the bombers"; the following notable vessels and units are based at Faslane. HMNB Clyde lies on the eastern shore of Gare Loch in Argyll and Bute, to the north of the Firth of Clyde and 25 mi west of Glasgow; the submarine base encompasses a number of separate sites, the primary two being: Faslane, 25 miles from Glasgow. Faslane is a Defence Equipment and Support site, operated in dual site organisation with Great Harbour, Greenock, by Babcock Marine and Technology, managed by Serco Denholm; the naval shore establishment at Faslane is HMS Neptune, Naval personnel appointed to the base who do not belong to a seagoing vessel make up Ship's Company.

Both the Gare Loch and Loch Long are sea lochs extending northwards from the Firth of Clyde. The base serves as home base to Britain's fleet of Vanguard-class nuclear-powered and nuclear-armed submarines, as well as conventionally armed nuclear-powered submarines, supported by the 43 Commando Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines. In command of HMNB Clyde is the Naval Base Commander, Commodore Donald Doull, who succeeded Commodore Mark Gayfer in Summer 2018; the base is home to a number of lodger units including Flag Officer Scotland and Northern Ireland, the Northern Diving Group and the Scottish Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence Police. It is base to 3,000 service personnel, 800 of their families and 4,000 civilian workers from Babcock Marine, forming a major part of the economy of Argyll and Bute and West Dunbartonshire. By 2020 all 11 Royal Navy submarines will be based on the Clyde at Faslane, seeing the number of people directly employed at the base rising to 8,200. In 2018, the Secretary of State for Scotland at the time, David Mundell said: "The UK’s entire submarine fleet will be based at Faslane by 2020.

This will reinforce Scotland’s vital role in protecting our country, guarantee skilled, secure jobs on the Clyde for years to come." Exercise Evening Star is the annual test of the emergency response routines to a nuclear weapon accident at Faslane. It is conducted by the Office for Nuclear Regulation. In 2011 the test failed as "a number of command and control aspects of the exercise were not considered to have been adequately demonstrated". In 2013–14 there were 99 radiation accidents concerning nuclear reactors, 6 with nuclear weapons; these are the highest numbers for at least six years. The MoD maintains; the SNP defence spokesman, Angus Robertson, called the figures "totally shocking". The MoD, argued that it was "entirely misleading" to focus only on the number of incidents, because they include "very minor issues such as the failure to fill out the correct form before painting works began". Indeed, the MOD stated that this "rigorous system shows how MoD takes all aspects of nuclear safety, ensuring lessons are learned, we can be clear that none of the events in the reports posed any risk to the health of our personnel, or to any members of the public."

Indeed, one of the recorded events was the incorrect labelling of an empty pallet. Minor events were investigated so that performance could be continuously improved. "This comprehensive, independent recording process allows Clyde to maintain a robust reporting culture, undertake learning from experience and to take early corrective action," the UK Defence Minister, Philip Dunne, told MPs. Given the presence of these nuclear capable missiles, Faslane has attracted demonstrations by Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and other Scottish pressure groups, including Trident Ploughshares. Since 1982, a permanent peace camp is outside the base gates, where there are frequent demonstrations and regular Wednesday protests; the presence of Faslane is an issue in Scottish politics. The Scottish National Party, the Scottish Socialist Party, the Scottish Green Party all oppose the deployment of nuclear weapons although the Scottish National Party have made assurances that they would retain the base for the servicing of conventionally armed and conventionally powered naval units.


Decoding Communication

Decoding Communication is a book on theories and modern practice of communication by N. Chandramouli published by TRA publishing in 2012, it elaborates on "Communication Fundamentals", "Models of Communication" and studies the "Future through Communication". It draws on several theories including concepts of meme from Richard Dawkins 1976 book The Selfish Gene, the book builds on theories of Brand Trust, Brand Appeal and Propaganda; the books applies concepts of conservation to communication showing the importance of Sustainable Communication to the future of mankind. Chandramouli is the author of The Brand Trust Report, India's Most Attractive Brands and India's Most Reputed Brands

Solar eclipse of April 20, 2042

A total solar eclipse will occur on April 20, 2042. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby or obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide, it will be seen in Western Indonesia, Eastern Malaysia and the Philippines. Animated path This eclipse is a member of a semester series. An eclipse in a semester series of solar eclipses repeats every 177 days and 4 hours at alternating nodes of the Moon's orbit, it is a part of saros series 139, repeating 11 days, 8 hours, containing 71 events. The series started with partial solar eclipse on May 17, 1501, it contains hybrid eclipses on August 11, 1627 through December 9, 1825 and total eclipses from December 21, 1843 through March 26, 2601.

The series ends at member 71 as a partial eclipse on July 3, 2763. Members in the same column are one exeligmos thus occur in the same geographic area; the solar eclipse of June 13, 2132 will be the longest total solar eclipse since July 11, 1991 at 6 minutes, 55.02 seconds. The longest duration of totality will be produced by member 39 at 7 minutes, 29.22 seconds on July 16, 2186. This is the longest solar eclipse computed between 4000BC and 6000AD. After 16 July 2186, totality duration will decrease. All eclipses in this series occurs at the Moon’s ascending node; this eclipse is a part of the long period inex cycle, repeating at alternating nodes, every 358 synodic months. Their appearance and longitude are irregular due to a lack of synchronization with the anomalistic month. However, groupings of 3 inex cycles comes close; the metonic series repeats eclipses every 19 years. Eclipses occur in nearly the same calendar date. In addition, the octon subseries repeats 1/5 of every 3.8 years. All eclipses in this table occur at the Moon's ascending node.


Green Fields of America

The Green Fields of America is an ensemble which performs and promotes Irish traditional music in the United States. "The Green Fields of America" was formed in 1978 in Philadelphia and still led by musician and folklorist Mick Moloney. The band was created to tour some of Irish America's finest musicians and dancers. "The Green Fields of America" was the first group on either side of the Atlantic to bring together Irish vocal and dance traditions on the concert and festival stage. Featuring Irish stepdance they introduced their sound to general American audiences; the critically acclaimed album The Green Fields of America Live in Concert in 1989 subtitled "Irish Music and Dance in America" credited Mick Moloney, Robbie O'Connell, Jimmy Keane and Eileen Ivers, Séamus Egan, Donny Golden and Eileen Golden. Many had their performing starts with The Green Fields are Egan, Golden, Marie Reilly, Jean Butler and Michael Flatley. Playing such venues as Carnegie Hall, Wolf Trap, The Smithsonian Institution, The Festival of American Folklife, the Milwaukee Irish Fest, The National Folk Festival, the Five members of the band at the time – Liz Carroll, Jack Coen, Michael Flatley, Donny Golden and Mick Moloney – have all received National Heritage Awards.

Radio Telefís Éireann, Ireland’s national broadcaster, commemorated the twentieth-anniversary of the group on St. Patrick's Day, 1999. A nationally televised documentary on their history and cultural contributions was presented. Among the musicians joining Mick Moloney for the performance at Re-Imagining Ireland, were singer-songwriter Robbie O'Connell, Jerry O'Sullivan, the dancers Donny Golden and Sinead Lawlor. Old-time fiddler, guitarist and singer Bruce Molsky and singer-composer Tommy Sands were guest appearances; the current membership in the group consists of Moloney, O'Connell, long-time associate Billy McComiskey, Athena Tergis, Liz Hanley, Brendan Dolan and Niall O'Leary. The Green Fields of America Live in Concert • Green Linnet CSIF 1096 The Greenfields of America • The Greenfields of America • Compass 2009The musicians who have been members of the Green Fields of America include: Tim Britton, Denis Cahill, Liz Carroll, Karan Casey, Fr. Charlie Coen, Jack Coen, Brendan Dolan, John Doyle, Jimmy Eagan, Seamus Egan, Siobhan Egan, Frank Harte, Ivan Goff, Winifred Horan, Eileen Ivers, James Keane, Jimmy Keane, Tina Lech, Donna Long, Dana Lyn, Joanie Madden, Billy McComiskey, Sean McGlynn, Zan McLeod, Mick Moloney, Michelle Mulcahy, Brendan Mulvihill, Andy O’Brien, Robbie O’Connell, Eugene O’Donnell, Kieran O’Hare, Eamon O’Leary, Jerry O’Sullivan, Bill Ochs, Al Purcell, Mike Rafferty, Tommy Sands, Liz Hanley, Brenda Castles and Athena Tergis.

The latest and youngest member of the Green Fields is fifteen-year-old fiddler Haley Richardson. The dancers who have appeared with the band include: Kieran Barrett, Kevin Broesler, Jean Butler, Cara Butler, Melanie Deegan, Darrah Carr, Heather Donovan and Katherine Dwyer, Michael Flatley, Steve Gallagher, Donny Golden, Eileen Golden, Deirdre Goulding, Ciara Greene, Katie Grennan, Liam Harney, Deirdre Harten, John Jennings, Kieran Jordan, Sinead Lawler, Tara McHugh, Sheila McGrory, Chloe Mullarkey, Tim O’Hare, Niall O'Leary,Joe and Catherine Dwyer, Mairead Powell, Pat Roche, Sheila Ryan, Michael Smith, John Timm, Regan Wick, Linnane Wick

Woodridge (Washington, D.C.)

Woodridge is a residential neighborhood located in Ward 5 of Northeast Washington, D. C.. Woodridge is contained between Eastern Avenue N. E. to the east, Michigan Avenue N. E. to the north, South Dakota Avenue N. E. to the west, Bladensburg Road N. E. to the south. Its central commercial strips are Rhode Island Avenue NE and Bladensburg Road N. E. Woodridge borders the adjacent neighborhoods of Brookland, North Michigan Park, Fort Lincoln in Northeast Washington D. C. In addition to these neighborhoods in the District of Columbia, Woodridge borders the city of Mount Rainier and town of Cottage City in Maryland. In terms of public transportation, residents of Woodridge have access to the Brookland-CUA and Rhode Island Avenue Metro stations. District of Columbia Public Schools operates public schools. District of Columbia Public Library operates the Woodridge Neighborhood Library located at 18th and Rhode Island Ave. N. E

Western alienation

In Canadian politics, Western alienation is the notion that the Western provinces – British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba – have been alienated, in extreme cases excluded, from mainstream Canadian political affairs in favour of the central provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Western alienation claims that these latter two are politically represented, economically favoured, more than the former, which has given rise to the sentiment of alienation among many western Canadians. Following Confederation in 1867, the first Canadian Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, announced a "National Policy" to "broaden the base of the Canadian economy and restore the confidence of Canadians in the development of their country"; the policy aimed to build a transcontinental railway, to settle the prairies, to develop a manufacturing base in Eastern Canada. Following a rapid increase in the price of oil between 1979 and 1980, the government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau introduced the National Energy Program, which intended to increase Canadian ownership in the oil industry, increase Canada's oil self-sufficiency and redistribute the wealth generated by oil production towards the federal government.

The program was unpopular in the west, where most of Canada's oil is produced. It heightened distrust of the federal government in Alberta. Many Albertans believed that the NEP was an unjustified intrusion of the federal government into an area of provincial jurisdiction, designed to strip their province of its natural wealth. By keeping the oil prices below world market prices, the Eastern provinces were being subsidized at the expense of the Western provinces. There are a number of factors. Political factors include low political representation and the pronounced attention paid to the ongoing issue of Quebec sovereignty by the federal government. A more potent but ambiguous claim is that the political agenda is controlled predominantly by politicians from Eastern Canada, who focus more on the vote-rich central regions of Quebec and Ontario at the expense of western interests. Economic factors include a general redistribution of income from Western provinces to eastern ones through taxation and equalization payments.

One source of western alienation is the distribution of population in Canada. As of 2011, it was estimated that 23.6% of Canadians reside in Quebec and 38.4% in Ontario—62% of the national population. Westerners who feel alienated from the rest of Canada believe that politicians favour areas with larger populations, namely Quebec and Ontario where they can win more seats, therefore formulate policies that favour them; such policies may not be directly detrimental to the west, or intentionally discriminatory towards the region, but such perceived favouritism can have the effect of alienating Western Canadians. Because of this uneven population distribution, Western Canadians are less represented in both the House of Commons and the Senate. While Alberta and British Columbia have 607,543 and 733,343 citizens per senator Quebec and Ontario have 329,292 and 535,493; because the constitution entitles a province to at least the same number of members of the House of Commons as the province had senators in 1982, some provinces, notably the Maritime Provinces, have more members in the House of Commons than their population would otherwise warrant.

The average number of citizens per riding in British Columbia and Alberta is somewhat higher than the national average of 109,167. Nonetheless, Ontario has disproportionately few seats while Manitoba and Saskatchewan have levels similar to the Maritimes. Another source of Western irritation can be traced to the Quebec sovereignty movement; some Western Canadians argue that Quebec receives undue attention from the rest of the country due to concerns about its desire to secede from Canada or obtain sovereignty-association. The immense amounts of time and resources allowed to make sure Quebec stays within Canada, such as official bilingualism, have been deemed excessive by some in the Western and Eastern separatist movements. For example, the Canadian government paid for actors and their transportation from all over Canada to participate in "love-ins" across Quebec during the 1995 referendum, in an attempt to promote Canadian federalism. Following the referendum, citizens were more outraged to learn about the now infamous sponsorship scandal, which saw millions of federal dollars being illegally funneled into Quebec in an attempt to bolster Canadian nationalism.

Bloc Québécois have nationalist policies and their entry into federal politics in 1991 has further irritated the west, as the party supports policies perceived by the west as detrimental to them, including: carbon taxes and other measures aimed at the oil industry, the gun registry. During the same-sex marriage debate, some Albertan conservatives suggested that the federal law be amended to make the definition of marriage a provincial issue, believing the Bloc reasonably ought be swayed to support that as opposed to a law compelling the Albertan government to recognize the change. Economic factors, including equalization payments and other transfer payments, have caused great discontent in Alberta. In 2005, Alberta's share of equalization payments was calculated to be $1.1 billion, less than that provided by, but higher on a per capita basis than, Ontario. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to t