HMS Centaur (1797)
HMS Centaur was a 74-gun third rate of the Royal Navy, launched on 14 March 1797 at Woolwich. She served as Sir Samuel Hood's flagship in the Channel. During her 22-year career Centaur saw action in the Mediterranean, the Channel, the West Indies, the Baltic, fighting the French, the Dutch, the Danes, the Russians, she was broken up in 1819. Captain John Markham commissioned Centaur in June 1797 and the next year sailed for the Mediterranean. In November she participated in the occupation of Menorca. On 13 November, Centaur, HMS Leviathan, HMS Argo, together with some armed transports unsuccessfully chased a Spanish squadron. Argo did re-capture the British 16-gun Pylades-class sloop HMS Peterel, which the Spanish had taken the day before; the next year, on 2 February 1798, Centaur pursued two Spanish xebecs and a settee, all privateers in royal Spanish service. She captured the privateer La Vierga del Rosario, which carried fourteen brass 12-pounder guns and had a crew of 90 men; the other two vessels escaped.
A year on 16 February 1799 Centaur and Leviathan attacked the town of Cambrils. Once the defenders had abandoned their battery, the boats went in; the British dismounted the guns, burnt five settees and brought out another five settees or tartans laden with wine and wheat. One tartan, the Velon Maria, was a letter of marque, armed with one brass and two iron 12-pounders and two 3-pounders, she had a crew of 14 men. On 16 March 1799, she and Cormorant drove the Spanish frigate Guadaloupe aground near Cape Oropesa. Guadaloupe, of 40 guns, was wrecked. In June, Centaur was involved in a brief action off Toulon before elements of Admiral Keith's fleet joined her. Centaur and Montagu fired at a several settees off Toulon, they were able to capture and destroy four of the settees. In the Action of 18 June 1799, Markham's squadron captured a French squadron consisting of the 40-gun Junon, 36-gun Alceste, 32-gun Courageuse, 18-gun Salamine and 14-gun brig Alerte; the British took the captured vessels into service under their existing names, except that Junon became Princess Charlotte and Alerte became Minorca.
Soon after, Centaur returned to England. While working in the Channel in late 1800 and early 1801, on 25 January 1801 Centaur sent the Danish galiots Bernstorff and Rodercken into Plymouth; the Danish ships were carrying bale nuts. Under Captain Littlehales, while serving with the Channel Fleet and her sister ship, collided off the Black Rocks during the night of 10 March. Centaur lost her main-top-mast, which killed two men and injured four as they fell. Mars lost her head, bowsprit and main top-topmast and almost grounded near the Île de Bas. In the last moment Canada was able to get a tow rope on her. Canada towed Mars into Cawsand Bay; the subsequent court martial acquitted Mars's captain and lieutenant of any negligence, but sentenced a lieutenant from Centaur to the loss of six months' seniority and dismissal from his ship. Late in 1802, Centaur sailed to the West Indies where she joined Vice Admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth's squadron in Jamaica; when Commodore Sir Samuel Hood arrived to take command in the Leeward Islands, he raised his pennant in Centaur.
On 26 June 1803 Centaur participated in its citadel, Morne Fortunée. The fleet went on to capture the Dutch islands. On 21 August 1803, Centaur and Netley captured the American ship Fame and her cargo of flour and corn. On 31 August Centaur detained the Dutch ship Good Hope, carrying wine and cordage. On 20 September the British seized Demerara; the corvette Hippomenes, acting as a guard ship at Fort Stabroek, where she looked after the Governor's maritime affairs and served as harbour master for visiting ships, was the only vessel belonging to the Batavian Republic there and was included in the terms of capitulation. The British took her into service as HMS Hippomenes. In September Hood received the assignment to blockade the bays of Fort Royal and Saint Pierre, Martinique. On 22 October Centaur captured the French privateer Vigilante, she had a crew of 37 men. The pursuit took seven hours. Centaur was sailing past Cap des Salinés, early in the morning of 26 November when a battery fired at her.
Hood had Maxwell anchor in Petite Anse d'Arlette. A landing party made up of Centaur's marines and about 40 sailors destroyed the battery, they threw its six 24-pounders over the cliff. The militia guarding the battery had a brass 2-pounder gun but fled without putting up any resistance though the landing party had to climb a steep, narrow path; the premature explosion of the battery's magazine cost Centaur one man killed, three officers and six men wounded, the only casualties from the operation. Centaur discovered another battery, this one armed with two 42-pounders and a 32-pounder, between the Grande and Petite Anse d'Arlette; the French abandoned the battery. Once again, Centaur's men threw the guns over the cliff and destroyed a barracks and the ammunition stored there. Centaur was anchored in Fort Royal Bay, when on the morning of 1 December she sighted a schooner towing a sloop; the pair were about six miles away and Hood believed that they were on their way to St. Pierre, he therefore instructed Maxwell to take Centaur in pursuit.
Their prey did not notice them, but when they did, the schooner let go her tow and the vessels separated. After a pursuit that extended over 24 leagues, Centaur captured the schooner, she turned out to be the privateer Ma Sophie, out of Guadeloupe. She had a crew
Viscount St Vincent
Viscount St Vincent, of Meaford in the County of Stafford, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1801 for the noted naval commander John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent, with remainder to his nephews William Henry Ricketts and Edward Jervis Ricketts successively, after them to his niece Mary, wife of William Carnegie, 7th Earl of Northesk, he had been created Baron Jervis, of Meaford in the County of Stafford, Earl of St Vincent, in the Peerage of Great Britain, in 1797, with normal remainder to his heirs male. On Lord St Vincent's death in 1823 the barony and earldom became extinct while he was succeeded in the viscountcy according to the special remainder by his nephew, the second viscount. In 1823 he assumed by royal licence the surname of Jervis in lieu of Ricketts, his great-grandson, the fourth viscount, was part of the force, sent in 1884 to rescue General Gordon at Khartoum, died from wounds received at the Battle of Abu Klea in January 1885. He was succeeded by the fifth viscount.
As of 2013 the title is held by the eighth viscount, who succeeded his father in September 2006. John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent John Jervis, 1st Viscount St Vincent Captain William Henry Jervis, eldest nephew of the 1st and last Earl, died without male issue. Edward Jervis Jervis, 2nd Viscount St Vincent. William Jervis Jervis, eldest son of the 2nd Viscount. Carnegie Robert John Jervis, 3rd Viscount St Vincent, grandson of the 2nd Viscount. Edward John Leveson Jervis, 4th Viscount St Vincent, eldest son of the 3rd Viscount, killed in action at the Battle of Abu Klea. Carnegie Parker Jervis, 5th Viscount St Vincent, 2nd son of the 3rd Viscount. Ronald Clarges Jervis, 6th Viscount St Vincent, 3rd son of the 3rd Viscount. John Cyril Carnegie Jervis elder son of the 6th Viscount Ronald George James Jervis, 7th Viscount St Vincent, 2nd son of the 6th Viscount. Edward Robert James Jervis, 8th Viscount St Vincent, eldest son of the 7th ViscountThe heir apparent is the present holder's son Hon James Richard Anthony Jervis.
The only male line that still exists in remainder to the Viscountcy is the current male line of the 2nd Viscount. The male line of Mary Ricketts, daughter of the 2nd Viscount, with her husband the 7th Earl of Northesk, which the title would pass to on the extinction of the 2nd Viscount's line, became extinct with the death of the 14th Earl of Northesk. Earl of Northesk Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Ronald George James Jervis, 7th Viscount St Vincent
Limehouse is a district in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets in East London. Located 3.9 miles east of Charing Cross, it is on the northern bank of the River Thames opposite Rotherhithe and between Stepney to the west and north, Mile End and Bow to the northwest and Poplar to the east, the Isle of Dogs to the south. A part of the Canary Wharf commercial estate is in Limehouse. Limehouse stretches from the end of Cable Street and Butcher Row in the west with Stepney to Stainsby Road near Bartlett Park in the east with Poplar; the area gives its name to Limehouse Reach, a section of the Thames which runs south to Millwall after making a right-angled bend at Cuckold's Point, Rotherhithe. The west-to-east section upstream of Cuckold's Point is properly called the Lower Pool; the name relates to the local lime kilns or, more lime oasts, by the river and operated by the large potteries that served shipping in the London Docks. The name is from Old English līm-āst "lime-oast"; the earliest reference is to Les Lymhostes, in 1356.
The name'Limehouse' is sometimes mistakenly thought to be derived from the nickname for the seamen that disembarked there, who had earned the name Lime-juicers or limeys after the obligatory ration of lime juice the Royal Navy gave their sailors to ward off scurvy. The name is found used in 1417:Inquisicio capta sup' litus Thomisie apud Lymhosteys pro morte Thome Frank. 17 Aug, 5 Henry V. inquest held before "les Lymehostes" within the liberty and franchise of the City, before Henry Bartone, the Mayor, the King's Escheator, as to the cause of the death of Thomas Franke, of Herewich, late steersman or "lodysman" of a ship called "la Mary Knyght" of Danzsk in Prussia. A jury sworn, viz. John Baille, Matthew Holme, Robert Marle, Henry Mark, Alexander Bryan, John Goby, Richard Hervy, Walter Steel, Peter West, Richard Stowell, John Dyse, Walter Broun, they find that the said Thomas Franke was killed by falling on the sharp end of an anchor From its foundation, like neighbouring Wapping, has enjoyed better links with the river than the land, the land route being across a marsh.
Limehouse became a significant port in late medieval times, with extensive docks and wharves. Although most cargoes were discharged in the Pool of London before the establishment of the docks, industries such as shipbuilding, ship chandlering and rope making were established in Limehouse. Limehouse Basin opened in 1820 as the Regent's Canal Dock; this was an important connection between the Thames and the canal system, where cargoes could be transferred from larger ships to the shallow-draught canal boats. This mix of vessels can still be seen in the Basin: canal narrowboats rubbing shoulders with seagoing yachts. From the Tudor era until the 20th century, ships crews were employed on a casual basis. New and replacement crews would be found wherever they were available - foreign sailors in their own waters being prized for their knowledge of currents and hazards in ports around the world. Crews would be paid off at the end of their voyages and permanent communities of foreign sailors became established, including colonies of Lascars and Africans from the Guinea Coast.
Large Chinese communities at both Limehouse and Shadwell developed, established by the crews of merchantmen in the opium and tea trades Han Chinese. The area achieved notoriety for opium dens in the late 19th century featured in pulp fiction works by Sax Rohmer and others. Like much of the East End it remained a focus for immigration, but after the devastation of the Second World War many of the Chinese community relocated to Soho. On 12 February 1832, the first case of cholera was reported in London at Limehouse. First described in India in 1817, it had spread here via Hamburg. Although 800 people died during this epidemic, it was fewer than had died of tuberculosis in the same year. Cholera visited again in 1848 and 1858; the use of Limehouse Basin as a major distribution hub declined with the growth of the railways, although the revival of canal traffic during World War I and World War II gave it a brief swansong. Today, Stepney Historical Trust works to advance the public's education in the history of the area.
Limehouse Basin was amongst the first docks to close in the late 1960s. By 1981, Limehouse shared the docklands-wide physical and economic decline which led to the setting up of the London Docklands Development Corporation. In November 1982, the LDDC published its Limehouse Area Development Strategy; this built on existing plans for Limehouse Basin, offered a discussion framework for future development, housing refurbishment and environmental improvements across the whole of Limehouse. It was based on four major projects: Limehouse Basin, Free Trade Wharf, what was known as the Light Rapid Transit Route and the Docklands Northern Relief Road, a road corridor between The Highway and East India Dock across the north of the Isle of Dogs. However, it was not until the mid-1980s with the abolition of the Greater London Council that the impetus for improvements to the infrastructure was provided; the key to development in Limehouse lay next door in the Isle of Dogs. Initial development plans on the island had been modest: light industrial development and a low rise business park.
The Limehouse Studios were an early development on the island: this was, technically, a misnomer, however, as the studios were located in South Quay, not, as the name suggests, Limehouse. By 1984
£sd is the popular name for the pre-decimal currencies once common throughout Europe in the British Isles and hence in several countries of the British Empire and subsequently the Commonwealth. The abbreviation originates from the Latin currency denominations librae and denarii. In the United Kingdom, one of the last to abandon the system, these were referred to as pounds and pence; this system originated in the classical Roman Empire. It was re-introduced into Western Europe by Charlemagne, was the standard for many centuries across the continent. In Britain, it was King Offa of Mercia who adopted the Frankish silver standard of librae and denarii in the late 8th century, the system was used in much of the British Commonwealth until the 1960s and 1970s, with Nigeria being the last to abandon it in the form of the Nigerian pound on 1 January 1973. Under this system, there were 20 shillings, or 240 pence, in a pound; the penny was subdivided into 4 farthings until 31 December 1960, when they ceased to be legal tender in the UK, until 31 July 1969 there were halfpennies in circulation.
The advantage of such a system was its use in mental arithmetic, as it afforded many factors and hence fractions of a pound such as tenths, eighths and sevenths and ninths if the guinea was used. When dealing with items in dozens and division are straightforward; as countries of the British Empire became independent, some abandoned the £sd system while others retained it as long as the UK itself. Australia, for example, only changed to using a decimal currency on 14 February 1966. Still others, notably Ireland, decimalised only; the UK abandoned the old penny on Decimal Day, 15 February 1971, when one pound sterling became divided into 100 new pence. This was a change from the system used in the earlier wave of decimalisations in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, in which the pound was replaced with a new major currency called either the "dollar" or the "rand"; the British shilling was replaced by a 5 new pence coin worth one-twentieth of a pound. For much of the 20th century, £sd was the monetary system of most of the Commonwealth countries, the major exceptions being Canada and India.
Similar systems based on Roman coinage were used elsewhere. In the classical Roman Empire, standard coinage was established to facilitate business transactions. 12 denarii were rated equal to 1 gold solidus – a 4th-century Roman coin, rare but which still circulated. Following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, new currencies were introduced in Western Europe though Roman currencies remained popular. In the Eastern Roman Empire, the currencies evolved away from the solidi and denarii. In the eighth century, Charlemagne re-introduced and refined the system by decreeing that the money of the Holy Roman Empire should be the silver denarius, containing 22.5 grains of silver. As in the old Roman Empire, this had the advantage that any quantity of money could be determined by counting coins rather than by weighing silver or gold. Different monetary systems based on units in ratio 20:1 & 12:1 were used in Europe in medieval times; the English name pound is a Germanic adaptation of the Latin phrase libra pondo'a pound weight'.
There were several ways to represent amounts of money in writing and speech, with no formal convention. Spoken, unless there was cause to be punctilious, "two pound and six". Whether "pound" or "pounds" was used depended upon the speaker, varying with class and context. 1/–, colloquially "a bob". 11d. 1 1⁄2d. As spoken, the lf in halfpenny and halfpence was always silent. 3d, with reference to the above, this became thruppence referred to as a "threepenny bit". 6d known as half a shilling. 2/– 2/6 4/3 5/– £1.10s.– £1/19/11 3⁄4d. £14.8s.2d Halfpennies and farthings were represented by the appropriate symbol after the whole p
The quarterdeck is a raised deck behind the main mast of a sailing ship. Traditionally it was where the ship's colours were kept; this led to its use as the main ceremonial and reception area on board, the word is still used to refer to such an area on a ship or in naval establishments on land. Many such facilities have areas decorated like shipboard quarterdecks. In the 20th century the word came to be applied to the area at the stern of the ship used for secondary weapons and seaplane catapults. In modern military designs the stern has been roofed over by the helicopter deck but a large space remains underneath, used for sonar equipment or small boats and, still referred to as the quarterdeck in Commonwealth navies. There are ancient traditions of offering special deference to the quarterdeck. Greek and Carthaginian warships all carried shrines which were given special respect; this continued into Christian times, in medieval British warships, the religious shrine was set up on the quarterdeck.
All hands were required to salute it by taking off their caps. This led to the habit of saluting. Today, quarterdeck refers not to a specific deck, but to a ceremonial area designated as such by the captain used as the ship's reception area while in harbour; as in the days of sail, it is a place where the captain has prerogatives. In port, the quarterdeck is the most important place on the ship, is the central control point for all its major activities. Underway, its importance diminishes; the quarterdeck is on the main deck, but may be elsewhere in some types of ship. It is marked off by special lines, deck markings, decorative cartridge cases, or fancy knotwork. Special attention is paid to the quarterdeck's cleanliness and physical appearance; those standing watch on the quarterdeck must be in the uniform of the day and present a smart appearance at all times. Personnel not in the uniform of the day avoid crossing the quarterdeck unless their work requires it. On ships with a well-defined quarterdeck area, uniformed personnel should salute.
Smoking and recreational activities are prohibited on the quarterdeck unless specially authorised by the commanding officer. The starboard gangway to the quarterdeck is used by officers and their visitors. In bad weather, all personnel use the lee gangway. On smaller ships with only one gangway, it is used by everyone. Flagships sometimes have an additional starboard gangway for the flag officer and officers of his staff. In Medieval times, warships had a single deck, with raised structures at each end. Following the introduction of cannon, the sterncastle was replaced with a simpler structure consisting of the halfdeck above the main deck, extending forwards from the stern to the mainmast; the halfdeck was extended the entire length of the ship, becoming the main deck, leaving the quarterdeck as the only significant deck above the main deck. The captain or master commanded the ship from the quarterdeck; the quarterdeck was traditionally the place where the captain walked when on deck on the windward side.
The navigator used it when taking his sights when fixing the vessel's position. On most ships, it was customary that only officers could use the quarterdeck, others being allowed there only when assigned for specific duties. By extension, on flush-decked ships the after part of the main deck, where the officers took their station, was known as the quarterdeck; as powered ships came into use, the term was applied to the same approximate area of the ship. It came to be applied to the area at the stern of the ship, sometimes a separate stepped deck used for secondary weapons and seaplane catapults. In modern designs the stern has been roofed over by the helicopter deck but a large space remains underneath, used for sonar equipment and small boats and, still referred to as the quarterdeck in Commonwealth navies. In Sea Scouts, quarterdeck training is introductory training for youth to equip them with leadership and management abilities to run their ship. Deck
Arzon or Arzhon-Rewiz in Breton is a commune located at the extremity of the Rhuys peninsula in the Morbihan department in the Brittany region in northwestern France. Arzon is said to be the French village with the longest coastal area in France. Arzon marks the east entrance to the Gulf of Morbihan. There are two seaside resorts in the commune: Port-Navalo, dating from the nineteenth century Le Crouesty, in constant development since the 1970sSeveral hamlets are located on the territory of the commune: Monteno, Kerners, Béninze, Kerjouanno. Arzon is a popular summer resort. In winter and spring, only two "gendarmes" work in Arzon, but in the summer there are far more to cope with the influx of tourists. Inhabitants of Arzon are called Arzonais. Arzon is twinned with Ireland. Communes of the Morbihan department INSEE statistics Arzon Town Hall Arzon Tourist Office Yacht Club Crouesty Arzon French Ministry of Culture list for Arzon
Battle of Cape St Vincent (1797)
The Battle of Cape St Vincent was one of the opening battles of the Anglo-Spanish War, as part of the French Revolutionary Wars, where a British fleet under Admiral Sir John Jervis defeated a larger Spanish fleet under Admiral Don José de Córdoba y Ramos near Cape St. Vincent, Portugal. After the signing of the Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1796 allying Spanish and French forces against Great Britain, the British navy blockaded Spain in 1797, impairing communications with its Spanish Empire; the Spanish declaration of war on Britain and Portugal in October 1796 made the British position in the Mediterranean untenable. The combined Franco-Spanish fleet of 38 ships of the line outnumbered the British Mediterranean Fleet of fifteen ships of the line, forcing the British to evacuate their positions in first Corsica and Elba. Early in 1797, the Spanish fleet of 27 ships of the line, which were supposed to join the French fleet at Brest lay at Cartagena, on the Mediterranean Sea, with the intention of sailing to Cádiz as an escort of a 57 merchant convoy, carrying mercury—necessary for gold and silver production—which would enter that Spanish harbour along with warships Neptuno and Bahama, prior to running into the British force.
Don José de Córdoba and the Spanish fleet left Cartagena on 1 February and might have reached Cádiz safely but for a fierce Levanter, the easterly wind, blowing between Gibraltar and Cádiz, which pushed the Spanish fleet further out into the Atlantic than intended. As the winds died down, the fleet began working its way back to Cádiz. In the meantime, the British Mediterranean Fleet, under Admiral Sir John Jervis, had sailed from the Tagus with ten ships of the line to try to intercept the Spanish fleet. On 6 February, Jervis was joined off Cape St. Vincent by a reinforcement of five ships of the line from the Channel Fleet under Rear-Admiral William Parker. On 11 February, the British frigate HMS Minerve, under the command of Commodore Horatio Nelson, passed through the Spanish fleet unseen thanks to heavy fog. Nelson reached the British fleet of fifteen ships off Spain on 13 February, passed the location of the Spanish fleet to Jervis, commanding the fleet from his flagship Victory. Unaware of the size of his opponent's fleet—in the fog, Nelson had not been able to count them—Jervis's squadron sailed to intercept.
Unaware of the British presence, the Spanish continued toward Cádiz. Early on the 14th, Jervis learnt. During the night came the sounds that the British fleet had been waiting to hear – the signal guns of the Spanish ships in the fog. At 2:50 a.m. came the report that the Spanish fleet was some fifteen miles distant. By early morning, at 5:30 a.m. Niger reported them to be closer still; as the dawn came, it brought a foggy February morning. In the increasing light, Jervis saw his fleet around him, he turned to his officers on the quarter-deck of Victory and said, "A victory to England is essential at this moment." Jervis gave orders for the fleet to prepare for the coming action. Captain Thomas Troubridge in Culloden was in the lead. At 6:30 a.m. Culloden signalled that she could see five enemy sail to the south east, with Blenheim and Prince George turned toward the Spanish ships. Jervis had no idea of the size of the fleet he was up against; as they loomed up out of the fog, a signal lieutenant in Barfleur described them as "thumpers, looming like Beachy Head in a fog."
As dawn broke, Jervis's ships were in position to engage the Spanish. On the quarter-deck of Victory, Captain Robert Calder and Captain Benjamin Hallowell counted the ships, it was at this point Jervis discovered that he was outnumbered nearly two-to-one: "There are eight sail of the line, Sir John" "Very well, sir" "There are twenty sail of the line, Sir John" "Very well, sir" "There are twenty five sail of the line, Sir John" "Very well, sir" "There are twenty seven sail of the line, Sir John" "Enough, sir, no more of that. Meanwhile, the Canadian Captain Hallowell became so excited that he thumped the Admiral on the back, "That's right Sir John, and, by God, we'll give them a damn good licking!"As the light grew, it became obvious that the Spanish ships were formed in two loose columns, one of about 18 ships to windward and the other, of about nine ships, somewhat closer to the British. At about 10:30 a.m. the Spanish ships in the weather column were seen to wear turn to port. This gave the impression that they might form a line and pass along the weather column of the British fleet, exposing the smaller British column to the fire of the larger Spanish division.
At 11:00 a.m. Jervis gave his order: Form in a line of battle ahead and astern of Victory as most convenient; when this order was completed the British fleet had formed a single line of battle, sailing in a southerly direction on a course to pass between the two Spanish columns. At 11:12 a.m. Jervis made his next signal: Engage the enemy and at 11:30 a.m. Admiral intends to pass through enemy lines. To the British advantage, the Spanish fleet was formed into two groups and was unprepared for battle, while the British were in line. Jervis ordered the British fleet to pass between the two groups, minimising the fire they could put into him, while letting him fire in both directions Culloden tacked to reverse her course and take after the Spanish column. Blenheim and Prince George did the same in succession; the Spanish lee divis