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HMS Endeavour

HMS Endeavour known as HM Bark Endeavour, was a British Royal Navy research vessel that Lieutenant James Cook commanded to Australia and New Zealand on his first voyage of discovery from 1768 to 1771. She was launched in 1764 as the collier Earl of Pembroke, with the Navy purchasing her in 1768 for a scientific mission to the Pacific Ocean and to explore the seas for the surmised Terra Australis Incognita or "unknown southern land". Commissioned as His Majesty's Bark Endeavour, she departed Plymouth in August 1768, rounded Cape Horn and reached Tahiti in time to observe the 1769 transit of Venus across the Sun, she set sail into the uncharted ocean to the south, stopping at the islands of Huahine, Bora Bora, Raiatea west of Tahiti to allow Cook to claim them for Great Britain. In September 1769, she anchored off New Zealand, becoming the first European vessel to reach the islands since Abel Tasman's Heemskerck 127 years earlier. In April 1770, Endeavour became the first ship to reach the east coast of Australia, with Cook going ashore at what is now known as Botany Bay.

Endeavour sailed north along the Australian coast next stopping at the now-town of Seventeen Seventy/Agnes Water in late May 1770. She narrowly avoided disaster after running aground on the Great Barrier Reef, Cook had to throw her guns overboard to lighten her. Endeavour was beached on the Australian mainland for seven weeks to permit rudimentary repairs to her hull. Resuming her voyage, she limped into port in Batavia in October 1770, her crew sworn to secrecy about the lands that they had visited. From Batavia Endeavour continued westward, rounded the Cape of Good Hope on 13 March 1771 and reached the English port of Dover on 12 July, having been at sea for nearly three years; the ship was forgotten after her epic Pacific voyage, spending the next three years hauling troops and cargo to and from the Falkland Islands. She was renamed Lord Sandwich in 1775 after being sold into private hands, used to transport timber from the Baltic. Rehired as a British troop transport during the American War of Independence, she was scuttled in a blockade of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island in 1778.

The wreck has not been located but is thought to be one of a cluster of five in Newport Harbor. Relics from Endeavour are displayed at maritime museums worldwide, including an anchor and six of her cannons. A replica of Endeavour was launched in 1994 and is berthed alongside the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney Harbour; the US Space Shuttle Endeavour was named after this ship, she is depicted on the New Zealand fifty-cent coin. Endeavour was the merchant collier Earl of Pembroke, built by Thomas Fishburn for Thomas Millner, launched in June 1764 from the coal and whaling port of Whitby in North Yorkshire, she was a type known locally as the Whitby Cat. She was ship-rigged and sturdily built with a broad, flat bow, a square stern, a long box-like body with a deep hold. A flat-bottomed design made her well-suited to sailing in shallow waters and allowed her to be beached for loading and unloading of cargo and for basic repairs without requiring a dry dock, her hull, internal floors, futtocks were built from traditional white oak, her keel and stern post from elm, her masts from pine and fir.

Plans of the ship show a double keelson to lock the keel and frames in place. Some doubt exists about the height of her standing masts, as surviving diagrams of Endeavour depict the body of the vessel only, not the mast plan. While her main and foremast standing spars are accepted to be a standard 69 and 65 feet from an annotation on one surviving ship plan National Maritime Museum in Greenwich NMM ZAZ6594 which records these lengths has the mizzen as "16 yards 29 inches". If correct, this would produce an oddly truncated mast a full 9 feet shorter than the standards of the day. Late 20th-century research suggested the annotation may be a transcription error with "19 yards 29 inches" being the true reading, which would more conform with both the naval standards and the lengths of the other masts. A more recent critical review of contemporary sources doesn't require a supposed typo in 1771 to explain this shorter measurement for the mizzen whilst at the same time offers supporting evidence of its cap being at the taller supposed normal height.

Sydney Parkinson's sketches and paintings of Cook's Bark Endeavour along with the 1771 Woolwich Yard Bark Endeavour spar measurements National Maritime Museum in Greenwich NMM ZAZ6594, other contemporary sources suggest that the shorter mizzen mast was not stepped in the hold/keelson, but instead was stepped in the lower deck 10 ft above this as was sometimes done. This would bring its standing height at the cap to within a supposed normal height of around 8– 9 ft below the main mast cap and approx 5.5 ft below the foremast cap when comparing the heights of the standing mast tops from the level of the water line. Whereas the shorter mizzen stepped in the hold on the keelson instead of the lower deck would make the standing mizzen cap 18 ft below the main mast cap, not the case when critically examining Sydney Parkinson's drawings and the contemporary painting titled HMS Endeavour off the coast of New Holland, by Samuel Atkins c. 1794 at the top of this page. Zooming this painting reveals that the position of the mizzen channel is forward to inline with the mast which it is when looking at the angle of the mizzen chainplates on the original as fitted draught NMM ZAZ7844.

Using these mizzen chainplate angles from this as fitted draught

Philippe de Corguilleray

Philippe de Corguilleray, Sieur du Pont, was a Burgundian nobleman, known for leading a group of Calvinist men from Geneva to the French colony of France Antarctique in Brazil in 1556. The contingent he led included writer Jean de Léry. Philippe de Corguilleray, in retirement near Geneva, had been asked by Admiral Coligny to lead the contingent, following a letter from Villegagnon to Coligny asking for support in his effort to consolidate the French establishment in Rio de Janeiro, he was solicited by the Church of Geneva, accepted to lead the mission. Philippe de Corguilleray further recruited for the trip theologians, including Pierre Richier and Guillaume Chartrier, altogether 14 people from Geneva; the party arrived in Honfleur where they joined a French fleet of three ships financed by the king of France, the Vice-Admiral of, Sieur De Bois le Comte, a nephew of Villegagnon. They left for Brazil on 19 November 1556. France Antarctique

LyX

LyX is an open source document processor based on the LaTeX typesetting system. Unlike most word processors, which follow the WYSIWYG paradigm, LyX has a WYSIWYM approach, where what shows up on the screen depicts the semantic structure of the page and is only an approximation of it. Since LyX relies on the typesetting system of LaTeX without being a full-fledged LaTeX editor itself, it has the power and flexibility of LaTeX, can handle documents including books, theses, to academic papers, etc. LyX's interface is structured so that while knowledge of the LaTeX markup language is not necessary for basic usage, new LaTeX directives can be added into the document to support more complex features during editing — though not at the level of full control a full-fledged LaTeX editor can afford.. LyX is popular among technical authors and scientists for its advanced mathematical modes, though it is used by non-mathematically-oriented scholars as well for its bibliographic database integration and its ability to manage multiple files.

LyX has become a popular publishing tool among self-publishers. LyX is available for various operating systems, including Windows, MacOS, Linux, UNIX, OS/2 and Haiku. LyX can be redistributed and modified under the terms of the GNU General Public License and is thus free software. GUI with menus Automatically numbered headings and paragraphs, with table of contents Text is laid out according to standard typographic rules, including ligatures, indents and hyphenation Support for right-to-left languages like Arabic and Hebrew, along with support for bi-directional text Support for Chinese and Korean languages Support for the XeTeX and LuaTeX typesetting systems Standard operations like cut/paste, spell-checking Notes Textclasses and templates similar to the \documentclass command in LaTeX BibTeX/BibLaTeX Support Table Editor Math Editor Ability to import various common text formats Ability to natively export the document to DocBook SGML, XHTML and plain text SVN, Git, RCS, CVS-support for collaboration And others – see detailed list Matthias Ettrich started developing a shareware program called Lyrix in 1995.

It was announced on Usenet, where it received a great deal of attention in the following years. Shortly after the initial release, Lyrix was renamed to LyX due to a name-clash with a word processor produced by the company Santa Cruz Operation; the name LyX was chosen because of the file-suffix'.lyx' for Lyrix files. According to the project's wiki, the developers pronounce LyX like the English word "licks", or. WYSIWYM List of word processors Comparison of word processors Document processor Comparison of TeX editors Scientific WorkPlace – A proprietary software counterpart of LyX Qt 5 toolkit, used for the user interface in LyX. Official website LyX Wiki A comparative review of Scientific WorkPlace and LyX in Journal of Statistical Software