HMS Sussex (1693)

HMS Sussex was an 80-gun third-rate ship of the line of the English Royal Navy, lost in a severe storm on 1 March 1694 off Gibraltar. On board were 10 tons of gold coins; this could now be worth more than $500 million, including the bullion and antiquity values, making it one of the most valuable wrecks ever. Sussex was launched at Chatham Dockyard on 11 April 1693, was the pride of the Royal Navy; as the flagship of Admiral Sir Francis Wheler, she set sail from Portsmouth on 27 December 1693, escorting a fleet of 48 warships and 166 merchant ships to the Mediterranean.'Nov. 22. Kensington. Instructions for Sir Francis Wheler, commander-in-chief of a squadron fitted out for the Straits; as soon as you join the Spanish armada, pursuant to the instructions of the Lords of the Admiralty, you shall act as most advisable for the annoying of the French, shall give the Duke of Savoy notice of your arrival in the Mediterranean. During your stay in the Mediterranean you are to correspond as as you can with Viscount Galway, our envoy extraordinary to the Duke of Savoy.

After a short stopover in Cadiz, the fleet entered the Mediterranean. On 27 February a violent storm hit the flotilla near the Strait of Gibraltar and in the early morning of the third day, Sussex sank. All but two "Turks" of the 500 crew on board drowned, including Admiral Wheler, whose body, legend has it, was found on the eastern shore of the rock of Gibraltar in his night-shirt. Due to the extent of the fatalities, it was not possible to establish the exact cause of the disaster, but it has been noted that'the disaster seemed to confirm suspicions voiced about the inherent instability of 80-gun ships with only two decks, such as the Sussex, a third deck would be added for new ships of this armament.'Besides Sussex, 12 other ships of the fleet sank. There were 1,200 casualties in total, in what remains one of the worst disasters in the history of the Royal Navy. Between 1998 and 2001, the American Company Odyssey Marine Exploration searched for the Sussex and claimed that it had located the shipwreck at a depth of 800 metres.

In October 2002, Odyssey agreed to a deal with the ship's rightful owner, the British government, on a formula for sharing any potential spoils. Odyssey would get 80 percent of the proceeds up to $45 million, 50 percent from $45 million to $500 million and 40 percent above $500 million; the British government would get the rest. The Americans were poised to start the excavation in 2003, but it was delayed amid a raft of complaints from some archaeological quarters, denouncing it as a dangerous precedent for the "ransacking" of shipwrecks by private firms under the aegis of archaeological research. Just as Odyssey was about to start an excavation, it was stopped by the Spanish authorities, in particular the government of Andalusia in January 2006. In March 2007, Andalusia gave assent for the excavation to start with the condition that Spanish archeologists would take part in the excavation in order to ascertain that the shipwreck to be excavated is indeed the Sussex and not a Spanish galleon.

On the same day, Odyssey Marine sent one of its survey vessels from Gibraltar, west of Cadiz to begin its Black Swan Project, which has resulted in Spain taking action against the company and cancelling its agreement to cooperate on the Sussex project. List of United Kingdom disasters by death toll Blessing of Burntisland Projectplan of the deep ocean shipwreck recovery company Website of Odyssey Marine Exploration with updated information The Story of a Shipwreck lost off Gibraltar in 1694 El Mundo, Chronica - Spanish objections

Panic Nation

Panic Nation: Unpicking the Myths We're Told About Food and Health published as Panic Nation: Exposing the Myths We're Told About Food and Health, is a nonfiction book by Stanley Feldman and Vincent Marks. It was published by John Blake in 2006; this book focuses on debunking many popular misconceptions about food and health that are common in the world today, in line with the introduction to the book that quotes Frederick II of the Holy Roman Empire who wrote in the thirteenth century:'One ought not to believe anything, save that which can be proven by nature and the force of reason.' The book comprises a series of essays written by experts in related fields. These experts address the state of knowledge in the specific fields and how this conflicts with common knowledge; the contributors are Stanley Feldman, Vincent Marks, Michael Fizpatrick, Maurice Hanssen, John Henry, Mick Hume, Lakshman Karalliedde, Malcolm Kendrick, Peter Lachmann, James le Fanu, Sandy Macnair, Sam Shuster and Dick Taverne QC.

Michael Gard, in a paper in the book Biopolitics and the'obesity epidemic': governing bodies, commented that the "consistent line of the 30 chapters is that pressure groups and bad scientists have managed to grossly exaggerate the health risks of things like salt, cholesterol, fast food and passive smoking." Writing in the New Statesman, William Sidelsky said, "The basic problem, according to the authors, is that our society is in thrall to the'precautionary principle'. Ours is a worst-case-scenario mentality whereby any small or medium-sized risk is converted into a portent of near-certain catastrophe." He added, "It is hard not to concede. The tone of the book may be trenchant, but the arguments are sensible and even-handed." Junk food Fast food Criticism of fast food Diet and obesity Precautionary principle Feldman, Stanley A. Panic Nation: Unpicking the Myths We're Told About Food and Health. London: John Blake. P. 288. ISBN 978-1-84454-271-0


Armalyte is a horizontally scrolling shooter developed by Cyberdyne Systems in 1988. Armalyte is a left-to-right scrolling shooter in the style of Gradius, including a weapons upgrade feature and large end-of-level bosses. Armalyte was released for the Commodore 64 by their sixth software release, it was marketed by Thalamus as the sequel to Delta, a left-to-right horizontally scrolling shoot'em up, but Delta was created by a different programming team. The in-game credits list the members of Cyberdyne Systems as John Kemp, Dan Phillips, Robin Levy. Music and sound effects were provided by Martin Walker, the programmer of Thalamus' fourth release Hunter's Moon. On its release Armalyte retailed for £9.99 and £12.99 for the cassette and disk versions in the United Kingdom. Cyberdyne Systems announced that Armalyte 2 was being developed for the Commodore 64, with an intended 1990 release date. However, the moving away of key team member Robin Levy made it impossible to progress on the graphical elements, the game was cancelled.

In 1991 a game called Armalyte was released on the Atari ST by Arc Development. This wasn't a port of Armalyte. A remake for the Game Boy Advance was in the works at one point, but never completed. In 2013 Dan Phillips and Robin Kemp formally announced that they had reunited and were resuming work on Armalyte 2. However, they stressed that due to the geographic separation between them and their lack of access to working Commodore 64 hardware, it would be a long time before the game was finished, if and that it might consist of no more than a single level; the aim of Armalyte is to progress to the end of a long, horizontally scrolling level where the screen will cease scrolling and battle will commence with a Boss. Beating the Boss allows the player to progress to the next level. There are eight levels in all. Smaller Bosses are encountered midway through each level and these have to be beaten to progress further. During each level the player encounters numerous small enemy ships, many of which fly in fixed formation.

Levels feature scenery which can destroy the player's ship if touched. Weapons can be upgraded through an upgrade system. A crucial difference with a number of earlier Gradius-style shoot'em ups is that any weapons upgrades gained during a level are not lost if the player's ship is destroyed. However, at the start of the next level, the player's ship loses all upgrades (except for the Batteries and Generators, The player's ship begins the game with a forward-firing laser that produces two shots, a battery with a single storage cell that powers the ship's'Super Weapon'. In the one player game there is an automatic drone ship that has the same capability as the main ship and which follows the main ship around the screen. In the two player game the drone is replaced by a second ship, controllable by the second player. A number of "munitions pods" are positioned throughout the levels and, if shot transform sequentially into a variety of power-ups: Extra forward fire - increases the number of forward shots from two to four.

Tail fire - adds rear-firing shots. Vertical cannon - adds vertical fire. Trident - adds two flanking guns to enhance the forward firing rate. Converge - adds two more shots to the forward-firing gun by diverting ammo from the tail gun. Generator - increases the recharge rate of the ship's battery. Battery - adds an extra storage cell to the ship's battery, up to a maximum of four; the power-ups are collected by colliding the ship with them. If the munitions pod is captured without having been converted to a power-up it makes the ship invulnerable for 5 seconds; when there is charge in the ship's battery, the player can fire a'Super Weapon'. There are three types of Super Weapon each of, fired in the forward direction: Type A - a long, sustained blast that can pass through scenery features. Type B - releases several small laser blasts around the spacecraft. Type C - similar to Type A, only the blast is much shorter and does not pass through scenery features. Firing these weapons reduces the charge in the battery, with Type A the greatest drain, Type C the least.

The drone ship in single player mode is indestructible and follows the player's ship around the screen. When the main ship fires any of its weapons, the drone will fire the same weapon at the same time; the drone ship can be made to freeze in its position by pressing the space bar on the keyboard, thus allowing the main ship to move independently. In the Two Player Mode, the drone ship is replaced by another ship, controllable by the second player and has all the same features; the number of Munitions Pods is doubled in the Two Player Mode. The player's ship is controlled with a joystick. Short presses of the joystick fire button fire the standard lasers on the ship, holding the button down for a longer time fires the Super Weapon. To toggle between the three types of Super Weapon the player must press the Commodore key on the computer keyboard; the automatic drone ship can be controlled by pressing the space bar on the keyboard: the default mode sees the drone ship follow the player's ship around the screen, but pressing the space bar freezes the drone ship at its current position.

The run/stop key is used to pause the game, the Q key is used to quit the game. In the two player game, the'?' Key is used to switch the type of the second player's Super Weapon. Armalyte was critically acclaimed