Swan Hunter known as Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson, is a shipbuilding design and management company, based in Wallsend and Wear, England. At its apex, the company represented the combined forces of three powerful shipbuilding families: Swan and Wigham Richardson; the company was responsible for some of the greatest ships of the early 20th century, most famously RMS Mauretania which held the Blue Riband for the fastest crossing of the Atlantic, RMS Carpathia which rescued survivors from RMS Titanic. In 2006 Swan Hunter ceased vessel construction on Tyneside, but continues to provide design engineering services. Swan & Hunter was founded by George Burton Hunter, who formed a partnership with the widow of Charles Sheridan Swan under the name in 1880. In 1903, C. S. Swan & Hunter merged with Wigham Richardson to bid for the important contract to build RMS Mauretania on behalf of Cunard, their bid was successful, the new company, Swan Hunter and Wigham Richardson Ltd, went on to build what was to become, in its day, the most famous oceangoing liner in the world.
In 1903 the Company took a controlling interest in the Wallsend Slipway & Engineering Company, an early licensed manufacturer of Parsons steam turbine engines, which enabled Mauretania to achieve her great speed. Mauretania was launched from Wallsend on 20 September 1906 by the Duchess of Roxburghe; the firm expanded in the early part of the twentieth century, acquiring the Glasgow-based Barclay Curle in 1912. In 1966 Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson merged with Smiths Dock Company to form Associated Shipbuilders, which became Swan Hunter Group. Following the publication of the Geddes Report recommending rationalisation in British shipbuilding, the Company went on to acquire Clelands Shipbuilding Company and John Readhead & Sons in 1967. Meanwhile, Swan Hunter inherited both the Naval Yard at High Walker on the River Tyne of Vickers-Armstrongs and the Hebburn Yard of Hawthorn Leslie in 1968. In 1973 further expansion came with the purchase of Palmers Dock at Hebburn from Vickers-Armstrongs. In 1977, Swan Hunter Group was nationalised as part of British Shipbuilders.
The former flagship of the Royal Navy, HMS Ark Royal was built at Swan Hunter during this period, entering service in 1985. The Company was privatised again in 1987 but decided to close its Neptune Yard in 1988, it was forced to call in the receivers when the UK government awarded the contract for HMS Ocean to Kvaerner Govan in 1993. The receiver took steps to break up the business. However, the main shipyard in Wallsend was bought out from receivership by Jaap Kroese, a Dutch millionaire; the yard subsequently undertook several ad-hoc ship repair and conversion projects for private-sector customers. In 2000 Swan Hunter was awarded the contract to design and build two Landing Ship Dock ships for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary with two other ships being built by BAE Systems Naval Ships: the cost of the two Swan Hunter ships was to be £210 million including £62 million for lead yard services, with an inservice date of 2004. By July 2006, the costs had risen to £309 million and only one ship had been delivered.
As result of this, the second ship RFA Lyme Bay was transferred to BAE Systems Govan in Glasgow for completion. In 2001 Swan Hunter acquired Kværner's Port Clarence offshore yard at Teesside but in 2006 sold it to Wilton Engineering Group. In November 2006, after the failure to complete Lyme Bay within budget and resulting exclusion from future Royal Navy shipbuilding projects, Jaap Kroese announced that the business was finished and placed the Wallsend Yard's iconic cranes up for sale, he said that he was looking for a buyer for the land. During this time, Lyme Bay's earlier sister ship, Largs Bay, was noted as the last ship to be built and completed by Swan Hunter. In April 2007, Swan Hunter's cranes, along with its floating dock and other equipment, were sold to Bharati Shipyards, India's second-largest private-sector shipbuilder; the entire plant machinery and equipment from Swan Hunter was dismantled and transported to India over six months to be rebuilt at Bharati Shipyards. Swan's performed the conceptual design of Pioneering Spirit, provisionally named Pieter Schelte, the world's largest platform installation/decommissioning and pipelay vessel.
The basic design of the lifting systems was completed by the end of 2008, detail design of the hulls by May 2010. In 2008 the company said. In 2016, Jaap Kroese died. At the time, the company had 40 contractors. In 2016, Swan Hunter was relaunched into the subsea industry by Gerard Kroese, the eldest son of former owner Jaap Kroese. Swan Hunter started to offer specialist equipment, engineering & project management services to the offshore renewables and subsea oil & gas energy markets. On 12 October 2016, the company announced the issue of a letter of intent for the design and build of a basket carousel loading tower; the company announced further equipment pool growth through a 15Te tensioner and 450Te reel drive system. Swan Hunter announced loading tower readiness on 5 May 2017 with completion of mobilisation onto EMAS Chiyoda Subsea's world-class multi-lay vessel'Lewek Constellation' shortly thereafter; the Company owned three main yards: The Neptune Yard at Walker-on-Tyne inherited from Wigham Richardson The Wallsend West Yard at Wallsend inherited from Charles Sheridan Swan The Naval Yard at High Wa
Oerlikon 20 mm cannon
The Oerlikon 20 mm cannon is a series of autocannons, based on an original German 20 mm Becker design that appeared early in World War I. It was produced by Oerlikon Contraves and others, with various models employed by both Allied and Axis forces during World War II, many versions still in use today. During World War I, the German industrialist Reinhold Becker developed a 20 mm caliber cannon, known now as the 20 mm Becker using the Advanced Primer Ignition blowback method of operation; this had a cyclic rate of fire of 300 rpm. It was used on a limited scale as an aircraft gun on Luftstreitkräfte warplanes, an anti-aircraft gun towards the end of that war; because the Treaty of Versailles banned further production of such weapons in Germany, the patents and design works were transferred in 1919 to the Swiss firm SEMAG based near Zürich. SEMAG continued development of the weapon, in 1924 had produced the SEMAG L, a heavier weapon that fired more powerful 20x100RB ammunition at a higher rate of fire, 350 rpm.
In 1924 SEMAG failed. The Oerlikon firm, named after the Zürich suburb of Oerlikon where it was based acquired all rights to the weapon, plus the manufacturing equipment and the employees of SEMAG. In 1927 the Oerlikon S was added to the existing product line; this fired a still larger cartridge to achieve a muzzle velocity of 830 m/s, at the cost of increased weight and a reduced rate of fire. The purpose of this development was to improve the performance of the gun as an anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapon, which required a higher muzzle velocity. An improved version known as the 1S followed in 1930. Three sizes of gun with their different ammunition and barrel length, but similar mechanisms, continued to be developed in parallel. In 1930 Oerlikon reconsidered the application of its gun in aircraft and introduced the AF and AL, designed to be used in flexible mounts, i.e. manually aimed by a gunner. The 15-round box magazine used by earlier versions of the gun was replaced by drum magazine holding 15 or 30 rounds.
In 1935 it made an important step by introducing a series of guns designed to be mounted in or on the wings of fighter aircraft. Designated with FF for Flügelfest meaning "wing-mounted", these weapons were again available in the three sizes, with designations FF, FFL and FFS; the FF fired a larger cartridge than the AF, 20x72RB, but the major improvement in these weapons was a significant increase in rate of fire. The FF weighed 24 kg and achieved a muzzle velocity of 550 to 600 m/s with a rate of fire of 520 rpm; the FFL of 30 kg fired a projectile at a muzzle velocity of 675 m/s with a rate of fire of 500 rpm. And the FFS, which weighed 39 kg, delivered a high muzzle velocity of 830 m/s at a rate of fire of 470 rpm. Apart from changes to the design of the guns for wing-mounting and remote control, larger drums were introduced as it would not be possible to exchange magazines in flight. For the FF series drum sizes of 45, 60, 75 and 100 rounds were available, but most users chose the 60-round drum.
The 1930s were a period of global re-armament, a number of foreign firms took licenses for the Oerlikon family of aircraft cannon. In France, Hispano-Suiza manufactured development of the FFS as the Hispano-Suiza HS.7 and Hispano-Suiza HS.9, for installation between the cylinder banks of its V-12 engines. In Germany, Ikaria further developed the FF gun as firing 20x80RB ammunition, and the Imperial Japanese Navy, after evaluating all three guns, ordered developments of the FF and FFL as the Type 99-1 and Type 99-2. The incorporation of the improvements of the FFS in a new anti-aircraft gun produced, in 1938, the Oerlikon SS. Oerlikon realized further improvements in rate of fire on the 1SS of 1942, the 2SS of 1945 which achieved 650 rpm. However, it was the original SS gun, adopted as anti-aircraft gun, being widely used by Allied navies during World War II; this gun used a 400-grain charge of IMR 4831 smokeless powder to propel a 2,000-grain projectile at 2,800 feet per second. The Oerlikon FF was installed as armament on some fighters of the 1930s, such as the Polish PZL P.24G.
Locally produced derivatives of the Oerlikon cannon were used much more extensively, on aircraft, on ships and on land. In the air, the Ikaria MG FF was used as armament on a number of German aircraft, of which the most famous is the Messerschmitt Bf 109; the Japanese Navy used their copy of the FF, designated the Type 99 Mark One cannon on a number of types including the Mitsubishi A6M Zero. In the war, they equipped fighters including the Zero with the Type 99 Mark Two, a version of the more powerful and faster-firing Oerlikon FFL; the French firm of Hispano-Suiza was a manufacturer of aircraft engines, it marketed the moteur-canon combination of its 12X and 12Y engines with a H. S.7 or H. S.9 cannon installed between the cylinder banks. The gun fired through the hollow propeller hub, this being elevated above the crankcase by the design of the gearing; such armament was installed on the Morane-Saulnier M. S.406 and some other types. Similar German installations of the MG FF were not successful.
The Oerlikon became best known in its naval applications. The Oerlikon was not looked upon favorably by the Royal Navy as a short-range anti-aircraft gun. All through 1937-1938 Lord Louis Mountbatten a Captain in the Royal Navy, waged a lone campaign within the Royal Navy to set up an unprejudiced trial for the Oerlikon 20 mm gun, but it was all in vain, it was not until the Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet, Admiral Sir Roger Backhouse, was appointed First Sea Lord tha
HMS Scorpion (G72)
HMS Scorpion was an S-class destroyer of the Royal Navy, the eleventh of her name, commissioned on 11 May 1943. She was to be named Sentinel, but this was changed following the loss of the Dragonfly-class river gunboat Scorpion in the Bangka Strait in February 1942, she served in the Royal Navy during the Second World War in the Arctic Ocean, fought in the Battle of North Cape. She was sold to the Netherlands in 1945 and scrapped in 1963. Scorpion joined the 23rd Destroyer Flotilla of the Home Fleet at Scapa Flow on 11 May 1943 and was deployed on patrol in the Northwestern Approaches. On 20 October she joined an escort group of nine destroyers, a Norwegian corvette and two minesweepers which sailed to the Kola Inlet as part of Operation FR, tasked to bring back merchant ships, waiting in Russian ports over the summer while the Arctic Convoys were suspended. Covered by dense fog, convoy RA54A arrived safely in Loch Ewe on 14 November, while the destroyer flotilla turned around to escort Convoy JW 54B to Archangel.
She returned to Scapa Flow, but was out again on 10 December to screen the battleship Duke of York and cruiser Jamaica, ordered to sea to cover Convoy JW 55A. The Kriegsmarine did not emerge and so she sailed with the battleship all the way through to the Kola Inlet, an unusual and risky move that surprised the Russians. Scorpion covered Duke of York as she returned west to refuel in Akureyri in Iceland on 21 December 1943; the Home Fleet left Iceland on 23 December to cover Convoy RA 55A and Convoy JW 55A, alerted of German intentions to intercept one of the convoys by Ultra intelligence. On 26 December the German battleship Scharnhorst, escorted by five destroyers, attempted to attack the ships of Convoy JW 55A, but were driven away by Admiral Burnett's three light cruisers and cut off by Admiral Fraser's force. During the action Duke of York hit Scharnhorst's starboard boiler room with a 14 inch shell, slowing her to 10 knots as she attempted to evade the British fleet; this provided the destroyers with an opportunity to attack with torpedoes.
Closing from astern and Savage fired star-shell, blinding the Germans to the approach of Scorpion and the Norwegian Stord on the starboard side of the battleship. The two destroyers launched 16 torpedoes, scoring one hit, driving Scharnhorst into firing range of Saumarez and Savage, which scored two more hits; this allowed the slower Duke of York to catch up and sink her. After the battle Scorpion picked up 30 survivors and sailed on to the Kola Inlet, arriving there on 27 December, she returned to Scapa Flow with the rest of the fleet on New Year's Eve. In March 1944 Scorpion was assigned to the "Ocean Escort" force for Convoy JW 58, one of the largest Arctic convoys of the war. All ships arrived safely and Scorpion returned with Convoy RA 58. Scorpion was assigned to Force S, alongside several other S-class destroyers, part of the Normandy invasion fleet. During May she took part in preparatory exercises before sailing to Spithead early in June, she crossed the channel on 5 June and took up position off Ouistreham to bombard targets in support of Allied landing forces in the Queen Sector of Sword Beach.
On 7 June she was assigned to patrol the Eastern Task Force area following the loss of her sister ship, the Norwegian Svenner to German T-boats. On 9 June she was detached with Scourge to reinforce the O-class destroyer flotilla against the threat posed by the German heavy destroyers from Brest, she spent the rest of June and August on patrol in the English Channel protecting convoys from E-boats. Scorpion returned to escorting the Arctic convoys in September 1944, screening the battleship Rodney in support of Convoy JW 60 and Convoy RA 60. In October she was diverted to support Operation Lycidas, screening two escort carriers and Trumpeter, as they carried out aerial minelaying around the Norwegian coast. In November, sailing with Savage, she carried Norwegian troops to the Kola Inlet, their role being to join Red Army as it pushed the Germans away from Murmansk back into Norway, lending authority to the Norwegian Government in exile, she joined the escort for Convoy RA 60A on 11 November. In the month she supported two more operations with escort carriers off the Norwegian coast near Karmøy on 20 November and near Mosjøen on 27 November.
She escorted Convoy JW 63 over the New Year period, her anti-aircraft gunners accidentally shooting at two Wildcats, launched to intercept a German aircraft. She escorted four more Arctic convoys early in 1945, RA 63 in January, RA 64 in February, JW 65 and RA 65 in March, she was deployed to support three more operations in the North Sea in February, Operations Selenium and Groundsheet. She continued in service with the Home Fleet until VJ Day in August 1945 when she was placed in reserve. In October 1945 Scorpion was sold to the Dutch Navy and renamed Kortenaer, serving as a destroyer until 1957 when she was converted to a fast frigate, she was broken up in 1963. A Home on the Rolling Main A. G. F. Ditcham who served as an officer on Scorpion during the war. Pen and Sword 2013 ISBN 978-1-84832-175-5
HMS Teazer (R23)
HMS Teazer was a T-class destroyer of the Royal Navy that saw service during the Second World War. She was converted to a Type 16 fast anti-submarine frigate, with the new pennant number F23. During September 1943, Teazer underwent builder's trials before being commissioned. Upon commissioning, she was accepted into the 24th Destroyer Flotilla. Upon deployment with the flotilla, Teazer underwent working up exercises in Scapa Flow before sailing for the Mediterranean theatre, where, in November, she supported ground operations by the British X Corps in the Minturno sector. In July 1944, she was placed under U. S Navy command and was one of the ships scheduled to support the landing in the South of France as part of Operation Dragoon. During the Allied withdrawal form the Aegean Sea in 1944, Teazer was responsible for the sinking of the transport ship KT Erpel and the submarine chaser UJ2171 off Cape Spatha. In May 1945, following a refit in January and February, she was assigned to Task Force 57 and Task Force 37 in the Pacific and was responsible for providing an escort screen to the large Royal Navy carriers used in raids on the Japanese Home Islands.
With the surrender of the Japanese, she was present at the surrender ceremony on 27 August 1945 in Tokyo Bay. Between 1946 and 1953, Teazer was held in reserve at Devonport. Between 1953 and 1954, she was converted into a Type 16 fast anti-submarine frigate, by Mountstuart Dry Docks, with the new pennant number F23 In January 1959, she replaced Grenville in the 2nd Training Squadron. Following decommissioning, Teazer was placed on the disposal list in September 1961, she was subsequently sold to Arnott Young, for scrapping, arriving there on 7 August 1965. In 1957, Teazer was used during the making of the film Yangtse Incident, she depicted both HMS Concord. Doctor Who companion, Ben Jackson, was assigned to Teazer, as shown on his uniform cap. Within the "Whoniverse", Teazer was still in service in 1966. In July that year, she had left England, bound for the West Indies, leaving Jackson seconded to a shore posting and disappointed. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy.
London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475. Critchley, Mike. British Warships Since 1945: Part 3: Destroyers. Liskeard, UK: Maritime Books. ISBN 0-9506323-9-2. Raven, Alan. War Built Destroyers O to Z Classes. London: Bivouac Books. ISBN 0-85680-010-4. Whitley, M. J.. Destroyers of World War 2. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-326-1. Naval-History.net HMS Teazer
HMS Saumarez (G12)
HMS Saumarez was an S-class destroyer of the Royal Navy, completed on 1 July 1943. As a flotilla leader, her standard displacement was 20 tons heavier than other ships of her class, she continued the tradition of flotilla leaders being named after prominent British seamen, in her case Vice-Admiral James Saumarez, 1st Baron de Saumarez of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. After working up, the Saumarez was allocated to the 3rd Destroyer Flotilla, Home Fleet, shortly after to the 23rd Destroyer Flotilla, working with the Arctic convoys, she was one of the escorts which sailed from Seyðisfjörður, Iceland on 23 October, taking with them five Russian minesweepers and six Russian motor launches, to bring back from the Kola Inlet thirteen ships, there since the Spring. The convoy sailed from Arkhangelsk on 1 November and arrived in United Kingdom ports on 13 and 14 November without loss, although it had been delayed by thick fog. Saumarez escorted an outgoing Arctic convoy shortly afterwards, which arrived without loss or damage.
On 22 December Convoy RA 55A sailed from Kola, escorted by eight destroyers, including Saumarez, two Canadian destroyers, three corvettes and a minesweeper. The outgoing convoy, JW 55B, had left Loch Ewe on 20 December and was expected to reach Bear Island on Christmas Day about the same time as RA 55A. Cruiser cover was provided east of Bear Island by Belfast and Norfolk, heavy cover by the battleship Duke of York and the cruiser Jamaica. Early on 26 December the Admiralty signalled, she was detected by the cruisers and after some hours trying to evade them and strike at the convoy, headed for home. The German vessel was hit by Duke of York and a long chase followed. In the ensuing action, Saumarez's guns fired continuously for eleven minutes, followed by torpedo attacks. A shell from Scharnhorst, which did not explode, passed through the Director Control Tower, killing eleven men and putting the tower out of action. A near miss damaged the forced lubrication system. Duke of York and the cruisers sank three hours after the first sighting.
The four destroyers, Savage and the Norwegian Stord had scored at least three hits. Saumarez steamed to Murmansk on one engine and after temporary repairs by the Russians left for the UK. Following a refit, completed in March 1944, she was again part of the escort of a pair of Arctic convoys, JW 58 and RA 58, both of which reached their destinations unscathed; the successful Fleet Air Arm attack on the German battleship Tirpitz, which took place on 3 April, was synchronised with the passage of JW 58. In Operation Neptune, the landings in Normandy in June 1944, Saumarez was Senior Officer's ship of the 23rd Destroyer Flotilla, which gave gun support to Force S in the assault on Ouistreham. Saumarez and the destroyer Onslaught engaged a convoy of three or four minesweepers and one merchant vessel off St Peter Port, Guernsey on 14 August; the convoy was hit and both destroyers sustained slight damage and casualties. In September Saumarez was part of the escort of another Arctic convoy, she was refitted at Newcastle from November to January 1945, prior to joining the 26th Destroyer Flotilla, British East Indies Fleet.
Early in January 1945, Saumarez left from the Clyde to rendezvous with the aircraft carrier Formidable and escort her from Alexandria to Colombo. She arrived at Colombo on 8 Trincomalee on 10 March. On 11 March Saumarez took part with the destroyers Volage and Rapid, they found and destroyed a junk in Stewart Sound, but Rapid and Volage sustained damage and casualties from hits from a coastal gun reported to be 6 inch or larger. On 25 March, a further sweep was made. A Japanese convoy was engaged. Although the destroyers attacked with gunfire and torpedoes they made few hits and, being low on ammunition, called on two Liberator bombers to sink the enemy. One of these sank one of Risui with bombs. Volage sank Teshio Maru, with gunfire. Both escorts were sunk. Saumarez was in Force 63 in April, when she bombarded Sumatra, she was part of the escorting destroyers of the 21st Aircraft Carrier Squadron that took part in Operation Dracula from April to May 1945. She was part of the Carrier Force in Operation Bishop, formed to protect the convoys in the seaborne assault on Rangoon, took part in Operation Dukedom, mounted to attack a Japanese naval force reported sailing from Singapore on 10 May 1945.
On this occasion, she was part of the newly constituted Force 61. The Japanese cruiser Haguro and destroyer Kamikaze had left the Malacca Strait on 14 May and early next day a Grumman Avenger torpedo bomber operating from the escort aircraft carrier HMS Emperor sighted them. Saumarez and Vigilant in one division and Venus and Virago in a second, were diverted to intercept; the destroyers attacked both ships early on 16 May. Haguro, overwhelmed by their torpedoes, went to the bottom at 0209 in a position some forty-five miles southwest of Penang, although she had straddled Saumarez twice prior. Kamikaze was managed to escape. Saumarez was refitted at Durban from June to August. Although Japan had formally surrendered on 2 September, the occupation of Western Malaya was carried out as planned originally. Saumarez was one of the fifteen destroyers screening the operation; the 26th Destroyer Flotilla left the East Indies Headquarters at Colombo on 17 November and arrived in the UK early in December.
Saumarez went to Plymouth for preparation for service in the Mediterranean. Early in March 1946 Saumarez sailed for the Mediterranean, for service in the 3rd Destroyer Floti
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers. They were developed in the late 19th century by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" were "large and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been shortened to "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War. Before World War II destroyers were light vessels with little endurance for unattended ocean operations. After the war, the advent of the guided missile allowed destroyers to take on the surface combatant roles filled by battleships and cruisers; this resulted in larger and more powerful guided missile destroyers more capable of independent operation.
At the start of the 21st century, destroyers are the global standard for surface combatant ships, with only two nations operating the heavier class cruisers, with no battleships or true battlecruisers remaining. Modern guided missile destroyers are equivalent in tonnage but vastly superior in firepower to cruisers of the World War II era, are capable of carrying nuclear tipped cruise missiles. At 510 feet long, a displacement of 9,200 tons, with armament of more than 90 missiles, guided missile destroyers such as the Arleigh Burke-class are larger and more armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers; some European navies, such as the French, Spanish, or German, use the term "frigate" for their destroyers, which leads to some confusion. The emergence and development of the destroyer was related to the invention of the self-propelled torpedo in the 1860s. A navy now had the potential to destroy a superior enemy battle fleet using steam launches to fire torpedoes. Cheap, fast boats armed with torpedoes called torpedo boats were built and became a threat to large capital ships near enemy coasts.
The first seagoing vessel designed to launch the self-propelled Whitehead torpedo was the 33-ton HMS Lightning in 1876. She was armed with two drop collars to launch these weapons, these were replaced in 1879 by a single torpedo tube in the bow. By the 1880s, the type had evolved into small ships of 50–100 tons, fast enough to evade enemy picket boats. At first, the threat of a torpedo boat attack to a battle fleet was considered to exist only when at anchor. In response to this new threat, more gunned picket boats called "catchers" were built which were used to escort the battle fleet at sea, they needed significant seaworthiness and endurance to operate with the battle fleet, as they became larger, they became designated "torpedo boat destroyers", by the First World War were known as "destroyers" in English. The anti-torpedo boat origin of this type of ship is retained in its name in other languages, including French, Portuguese, Greek, Dutch and, up until the Second World War, Polish. Once destroyers became more than just catchers guarding an anchorage, it was realized that they were ideal to take over the role of torpedo boats themselves, so they were fitted with torpedo tubes as well as guns.
At that time, into World War I, the only function of destroyers was to protect their own battle fleet from enemy torpedo attacks and to make such attacks on the battleships of the enemy. The task of escorting merchant convoys was still in the future. An important development came with the construction of HMS Swift in 1884 redesignated TB 81; this was a large torpedo boat with three torpedo tubes. At 23.75 knots, while still not fast enough to engage enemy torpedo boats reliably, the ship at least had the armament to deal with them. Another forerunner of the torpedo boat destroyer was the Japanese torpedo boat Kotaka, built in 1885. Designed to Japanese specifications and ordered from the Glasgow Yarrow shipyards in 1885, she was transported in parts to Japan, where she was assembled and launched in 1887; the 165-foot long vessel was armed with four 1-pounder quick-firing guns and six torpedo tubes, reached 19 knots, at 203 tons, was the largest torpedo boat built to date. In her trials in 1889, Kotaka demonstrated that she could exceed the role of coastal defense, was capable of accompanying larger warships on the high seas.
The Yarrow shipyards, builder of the parts for Kotaka, "considered Japan to have invented the destroyer". The first vessel designed for the explicit purpose of hunting and destroying torpedo boats was the torpedo gunboat. Small cruisers, torpedo gunboats were equipped with torpedo tubes and an adequate gun armament, intended for hunting down smaller enemy boats. By the end of the 1890s torpedo gunboats were made obsolete by their more successful contemporaries, the torpedo boat destroyers, which were much faster; the first example of this was HMS Rattlesnake, designed by Nathaniel Barnaby in 1885, commissioned in response to the Russian War scare. The gunboat was armed with torpedoes and designed for hunting and destroying