Her Majesty's Naval Base, Clyde sited at Faslane is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy. It is the service's headquarters in Scotland and is best known as the home of Britain's nuclear weapons, in the form of nuclear submarines armed with Trident missiles. Faslane was first used as a base in the Second World War. During the 1960s, the British Government began negotiating the Polaris Sales Agreement with the United States regarding the purchase of a Polaris missile system to fire British-built nuclear weapons from five specially constructed submarines. In the end, only four were constructed; these four submarines were permanently based at Faslane. Faslane itself was chosen to host these vessels at the height of the Cold War because of its geographic position, which forms a bastion on the secluded but deep and navigable Gare Loch and Firth of Clyde on the west coast of Scotland; this position provides for rapid and stealthy access through the North Channel to the submarine patrolling areas in the North Atlantic, through the GIUK gap to the Norwegian Sea.
At the time it was chosen, the location was close to the American SSBN base at Holy Loch, which operated 1961–1992. One boat was always on patrol at any given time. In 1971 the base was home to the 3rd Submarine Squadron of Nuclear Fleet and Diesel Patrol Submarines, "the fighters", the 10th Submarine Squadron consisting of the four Polaris submarines, "the bombers". Included: Commodore Derrick G. Kent: August 1967 – May 1969 Commodore Peter G. La Niece: May 1969 – February 1971 Commodore Peter E. C. Berger: February 1971 – August 1973 Commodore Anthony J. Cooke: August 1973 – October 1975 Commodore Alan J. Leahy: October 1975 – May 1978 Commodore Colin N. MacEacharn: May 1978 – October 1980 Commodore George M. F. Vallings: October 1980 – October 1982 Commodore David H. Morse: October 1982 – October 1984 Commodore David Pentreath: October 1984 – June 1986 Commodore Patrick B. Rowe: June 1986 – December 1988 Commodore Robert N. Woodard: December 1988 – June 1990 Commodore David A. J. Blackburn: June 1990 – 1992 Commodore Stuart M. Tickner: 1992 Commodore John A. Trewby: March 1992 – February 1994 Commodore B.
Brian Perowne: February 1994 – 1996 Commodore Frederick G. Thompson: 1996–1999 Commodore Richard J. Lord: 1999 – January 2001 Commodore K. John Borley: January 2001 – June 2004 Commodore Carolyn J. Stait: June 2004 – October 2007 Commodore Christopher J. Hockley: October 2007 – January 2011 Commodore Michael P. Wareham: January 2011 – September 2013 Commodore Keith A. Beckett: September 2013 – October 2014 Commodore A. Mark Adams: October 2014 – February 2016 Commodore Mark E. Gayfer: February 2016–June 2018 Commodore Donald Doull: June 2018 - present The following notable vessels and units are based at Faslane. HMNB Clyde lies on the eastern shore of Gare Loch in Argyll and Bute, to the north of the Firth of Clyde and 25 mi west of Glasgow; the submarine base encompasses a number of separate sites, the primary two being: Faslane, 25 miles from Glasgow. Faslane is a Defence Equipment and Support site, operated in dual site organisation with Great Harbour, Greenock, by Babcock Marine and Technology, managed by Serco Denholm.
The naval shore establishment at Faslane is HMS Neptune, Naval personnel appointed to the base who do not belong to a seagoing vessel make up Ship's Company. Both the Gare Loch and Loch Long are sea lochs extending northwards from the Firth of Clyde; the base serves as home base to Britain's fleet of Vanguard-class nuclear-powered and nuclear-armed submarines, as well as conventionally armed nuclear-powered submarines, supported by the 43 Commando Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines. In command of HMNB Clyde is the Naval Base Commander, Commodore Donald Doull, who succeeded Commodore Mark Gayfer in Summer 2018; the base is home to a number of lodger units including Flag Officer Scotland and Northern Ireland, the Northern Diving Group and the Scottish Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence Police and Guarding Agency. It is base to 3,000 service personnel, 800 of their families and 4,000 civilian workers from Babcock Marine, forming a major part of the economy of Argyll and Bute and West Dunbartonshire.
By 2020 all 11 Royal Navy submarines will be based on the Clyde at Faslane, seeing the number of people directly employed at the base rising to 8,200. Secretary of State for Scotland David Mundell said: "The UK’s entire submarine fleet will be based at Faslane by 2020; this will reinforce Scotland’s vital role in protecting our country, guarantee skilled, secure jobs on the Clyde for years to come." Exercise Evening Star is the annual test of the emergency response routines to a nuclear weapon accident at Faslane. It is conducted by the Office for Nuclear Regulation. In 2011 the test failed as "a number of command and control aspects of the exercise were not considered to have been adequately demonstrated". In 2013–14 there were 99 radiation accidents concerning nuclear reactors, 6 with nuclear weapons; these are the highest numbers for at least six years. The MoD maintains; the SNP defence spokesman, Angus Robertson, called the figures "totally shocking". The MoD, argued that it was "entirely misleading" to focus only on the number of incidents, because they include "very minor issues such as the failure to fill out the correct form before painting works began".
Indeed, the MOD stated that this "rigorous system shows how MoD takes all aspects of nuclear safet
Royal Regiment of Scotland
The Royal Regiment of Scotland is the senior and only Scottish line infantry regiment of the British Army Infantry. It consists of four regular and two reserve battalions, plus an incremental company, each an individual regiment. However, each battalion maintains its former regimental pipes and drums to carry on the traditions of their antecedent regiments; as part of restructuring in the British Army, the Royal Regiment of Scotland's creation was announced by the Secretary of State for Defence, Geoff Hoon in the House of Commons on 16 December 2004, after the merger of several regiments and the reduction in total regular infantry battalions from 40 to 36 was outlined in the defence white paper, Delivering Security in a Changing World, several months earlier. The regiment consists of a total of seven battalions: one of these was formed by the amalgamation of the Royal Scots and King's Own Scottish Borderers, while the others are each formed from one of the remaining single-battalion regiments of the Scottish Division.
Along with the Rifles, it is the largest infantry regiment in the British Army. Of all of the new regiments formed following the announcement of 16 December 2004, the Royal Regiment of Scotland is the only one where the former regimental titles have been prominently retained with the new numbered battalion designations as subtitles. There is however a common regimental cap badge, tactical recognition flash, stable belt and Glengarry headdress but distinctively coloured hackles are worn by each separate battalion on the Tam o' Shanter headdress to maintain their individual identity and the pipes and drums of each battalion continue to wear the ceremonial uniforms and tartans of their former regiments. Along with the Rifles, the Royal Regiment of Scotland is one of only two line infantry regiments to maintain its own regular military band within the Corps of Army Music, formed through the amalgamation of the Highland band and Lowland band of the Scottish Division. In addition, there are two Territorial bands, the Highland Band and the Lowland Band of the Royal Regiment of Scotland, which are administered by the regiment's two Territorial battalions.
The regiment has its own Parachute Display Team, the Golden Lions and shinty team, the Scots Shinty Club. In 1948, every regiment of line infantry was reduced to a single battalion; the subsequent process of reducing the overall number of infantry regiments in the Army through disbandment or amalgamation of the traditional county regiments that were formalised in the Childers Reforms of 1881 to form larger multi-battalion regiments, has continued to affect most of the British Army Infantry since the 1957 Defence White Paper outlined the first mergers. The creation of the Royal Regiment of Scotland encountered considerable opposition amongst former soldiers and nationalist groups; the new regiment is primarily a kilted one and there are concerns that the much older Lowland units, which traditionally wore trews, will be absorbed into a Highland tradition. However, the Ministry of Defence's case that change was necessary to enhance operational efficiency through economies of scale and create more flexible conditions of service and to resolve chronic recruiting and retention problems amongst the eight single-battalion Scottish regiments appears to have been accepted by the majority of serving personnel, indeed was recommended by the Chief of the General Staff, Sir Mike Jackson.
Jackson delegated the decision on how the reduction of battalions would be achieved to the Council of Scottish Colonels. The Council recommended that the Royal Scots should be amalgamated with the King's Own Scottish Borderers reflecting the former regiment's long term poor recruiting record and high reliance on Commonwealth recruits; the status of the Black Watch was controversial. When the confirmed plan to amalgamate the regiments was announced, 1st Battalion The Black Watch was deployed away from Basra at Camp Dogwood in a dangerous region of Iraq. Hoon was accused by the SNP of "stabbing the soldiers in the back" and being motivated purely by political and administrative concerns, with little regard to the effect on morale; this controversy was further exacerbated in the minds of some by the fact that the Colonel of the Black Watch, Lieutenant-General Alistair Irwin, was a member of the Army Board at the time that the options to change the size and structure of the infantry by forming large regiments, including to amalgamate regiments of the Scottish Division into a single regiment, were being considered in the Ministry of Defence and final decisions taken.
The regiment was formed of six regular and two Territorial battalions on 28 March 2006. On 1 August 2006, the Royal Scots Battalion and King's Own Scottish Borderers Battalion were amalgamated into the 1st Battalion, Royal Scots Borderers, leaving the final regular roll of five regular battalions. In 2012, as part of the Army 2020 reform package, it was announced that the 5th Battalion, while not losing its name and history as the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, would be reduced to the status of an incremental company, similar to the three companies in the Guards Division, be transferred to become a permanent public duties unit in Scotland. All battalions in the Royal Regiment of Scotland, to preserve regional ties and former regimental identities, took the name of their former individual regiments; the order of battle is as follows: Regular battalions 1st Battalion - Convert to Specialized Infantry Battalion, under new "Specialized Infantry Group" - Aldershot 2nd Battalion - Stay Light Infantry Battalion, under 51st
HMS Vanguard (S28)
The eleventh HMS Vanguard of the Royal Navy is the lead boat of her class of Trident ballistic missile-armed submarines. The submarine is based at Faslane, HMNB Clyde, Scotland. Vanguard was built at Barrow-in-Furness by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd, was launched on 4 March 1992, commissioned on 14 August 1993; the submarine's first commanding officer was Captain David Russell and the senior engineer officer, during build, was Commander James Grant OBE. In February 2002, Vanguard began a two-year refit at HMNB Devonport; the refit was completed in June 2004 and in October 2005, Vanguard completed her return to service trials with the firing of an unarmed Trident missile. During this refit, Vanguard was boarded by a pair of anti-nuclear protesters who spent half an hour on board before being challenged, they were charged with damaging a fence. On 4 February 2009, Vanguard collided with the French submarine Triomphant in the Atlantic, she returned to Faslane in Scotland under her own power, arriving on 14 February 2009.
In January 2012 radiation was detected in the PWR2 test reactor's coolant water, caused by a microscopic breach in fuel cladding. This discovery led to Vanguard being scheduled to be refuelled in its next "deep maintenance period", due to last 3.5 years from 2015, contingency measures being applied to other Vanguard and Astute-class submarines, at a cost of £270 million. This was not revealed to the public until 2014. Letters of last resort List of submarines of the Royal Navy List of submarine classes of the Royal Navy Nuclear weapons and the United Kingdom Royal Navy Submarine Service Submarine-launched ballistic missile Trident nuclear programme Royal Navy HMS Vanguard
Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service, may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning. The term is most applied to the placing of a warship in active duty with its country's military forces; the ceremonies involved are rooted in centuries old naval tradition. Ship naming and launching endow a ship hull with her identity, but many milestones remain before she is completed and considered ready to be designated a commissioned ship; the engineering plant and electronic systems and multitudinous other equipment required to transform the new hull into an operating and habitable warship are installed and tested. The prospective commanding officer, ship's officers, the petty officers, seamen who will form the crew report for training and intensive familiarization with their new ship. Prior to commissioning, the new ship undergoes sea trials to identify any deficiencies needing correction; the preparation and readiness time between christening-launching and commissioning may be as much as three years for a nuclear powered aircraft carrier to as brief as twenty days for a World War II landing ship.
USS Monitor, of American Civil War fame, was commissioned less than three weeks after launch. Regardless of the type of ship in question, a vessel's journey towards commissioning in its nation's navy begins with a process known as sea trials. Sea trials take place some years after a vessel was laid down, mark the interim step between the completion of a ship's construction and its official acceptance for service with its nation's navy. Sea trials begin when the ship in question is floated out of its dry dock, at which time the initial crew for a ship will assume command of the vessel in question; the ship is sailed in littoral waters for the purpose of testing the design and other ship specific systems to ensure that they work properly and can handle the equipment that they will be using in the coming years. Tests done during this phase can include launching missiles from missile magazines, firing the ship's gun, conducting basic flight tests with rotary and fixed-wing aircraft that will be assigned to the ship in the future, various tests of the electronic and propulsion equipment.
During this phase of testing problems arise relating to the state of the equipment on the ship in question, which can result in the ship returning to the builder's shipyard to address the concerns in question. In addition to problems with a ship's arms and equipment, the sea trial phase a ship undergoes prior to commissioning can identify issues with the ship's design that may need to be addressed before it can be accepted into service with its nation's navy. During her sea trials in 1999 French Naval officials determined that the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle was too short to safely operate the E2C Hawkeye, resulting in her return to the builder's shipyard for enlargement. After a ship has cleared its sea trial period, it will be accepted into service with its nation's navy. At this point, the ship in question will undergo a process of degaussing and/or deperming, which will vastly reduce the ship in question's magnetic signature. Once a ship's sea trials are completed plans for the actual commissioning ceremony will take shape.
Depending on the naval traditions of the nation in question, the commissioning ceremony may be an elaborately planned event with guests, the ship's future crew, other persons of interest in attendance, or the nation in question may forgo a ceremony and instead administratively place the ship in commission. At a minimum, on the day on which the ship in question is to be commissioned the crew will report for duty aboard the ship and the commanding officer will read through the orders given for the ship and its personnel. If the ship's ceremony is a public affair the Captain may make a speech to the audience, along with other VIPs as the ceremony dictates. Religious ceremonies, such as blessing the ship or the singing of traditional hymns or songs, may occur. Once a ship has been commissioned its final step toward becoming an active unit of the navy it now serves is to report to its home port and load or accept any remaining equipment. To decommission a ship is to terminate its career in service in the armed forces of a nation.
Unlike wartime ship losses, in which a vessel lost to enemy action is said to be struck, decommissioning confers that the ship has reached the end of its usable life and is being retired from a given country's navy. Depending on the naval traditions of the country in question, a ceremony commemorating the decommissioning of the ship in question may take place, or the vessel may be removed administratively with little to no fanfare; the term "paid off" is alternatively used in British Commonwealth contexts, originating in the age-of-sail practice of ending an officer's commission and paying crew wages once the ship completed its voyage. Ship decommissioning occurs some years after the ship was commissioned and is intended to serve as a means by which a vessel that has become too old or too obsolete can be retired with honor from the operating country's armed force. Decommissioning of the vessel may occur due to treaty agreements or for safety reasons (such as a ship's nuclear reactor and assoc
Paxman is a major British brand of diesel engines. Ownership has changed on a number of occasions since the company's formation in 1865, now the brand is owned by MAN SE, as part of MAN Diesel & Turbo. At its peak, the Paxman works employed over 2,000 people. Engine production is still based at Paxman's Colchester works. Early Paxman diesel engines carried the name Paxman Ricardo. Paxman was founded by James Noah Paxman and Charles Davey as Davey, Paxman & Davey, Engineers in 1865 Davey, Paxman & Co. which became a limited company in 1898. In 1920 the company became a member of the General Engineers Ltd combine. In 1932 AGE collapsed and Paxman emerged as Davey Paxman & Co Ltd. Davey and Davey conducted business as general engineers and ironworkers; the company manufactured steam engines, agricultural machinery, mill gearing. By the early 1870s the company was supplying machinery to the Kimberley diamond mines in South Africa. In 1940, Ruston & Hornsby Ltd purchased a controlling interest in the company.
During World War II Paxman supplied diesel engines for various naval vessels such as e.g. the British U-class submarine and the British V-class submarine. In 1954, the engine controls business of Paxman was reformed as a subsidiary, Ardleigh Engineering Ltd. In 1962, Paxman acquired the engine controls division of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation and merged the two businesses under the Regulateurs Europa name. In 1966, the Ruston-Paxman Group was acquired by English Electric; the diesel engine businesses were merged into English Electric Diesel Engines Ltd. Paxman became the "Paxman Engine Division" of English Electric. In 1968, English Electric was itself acquired by GEC. In 1972, GEC renamed the engines division GEC Diesels Limited. In 1975, a reorganisation saw the creation of Paxman Diesels Limited as a subsidiary. In 1988, GEC merged its Paxman and Mirrlees Blackstone diesels businesses with the Alsthom division of Compagnie Générale d'Electricité to form GEC-Alsthom. Paxman became GEC ALSTHOM Paxman Diesels Ltd.
In December 1997, GEC Alsthom had its initial public offering as Alstom. The diesel engine businesses became Alstom Engines Ltd. In 2000, Alstom Engines Ltd. was acquired by MAN B&W Diesel to become MAN B&W Diesel Ltd. In 2005, MAN sold the Regulateurs Europa controls business to Heinzmann GmbH. Pre-1934 designs: VZ, used in LMS 7054Post-1934 designs: RP, used in British Rail 10100, British Rail 10800, British Rail 11001, British Rail Class D2/1, British Rail Class 07, WAGR Y class, NSWGR 41 class Hi-Dyne, a variant of the RPHXL using controlled turbocharging to provide a constant output power across the whole speed range. Post-1952 designs YH, used in British Rail Class 15 and British Rail Class 16 ZH, used in British Rail Class 17 YJ Ventura, used in Type 42 destroyer, British Rail Class 14, British Rail Class 29, British Rail Class 74 Y3J Valenta, used in Type 22 frigate, Type 23 frigate, Invincible-class aircraft carrier, Upholder/Victoria-class submarine, InterCity 125 High Speed Train VP185, used in British Rail Class 43, New South Wales XPT Examples of Ruston-Paxman diesel engines: RK3, used in British Rail Class 56, British Rail Class 58 Paxman and Diesel Rail Traction Paxman engines since 1934
The Resolution class was a class of four nuclear ballistic missile submarines built for the Royal Navy as part of the UK Polaris programme. Each submarine was armed with up to 16 UGM-27 Polaris A-3 nuclear missiles; the class comprised Resolution, Repulse and Revenge. They were built by Vickers Armstrong in Barrow-in-Furness and Cammell Laird in Birkenhead between 1964 and 1968. All four boats were based at 40 km west of Glasgow, Scotland; the Resolution class was the launch platform for the United Kingdom's strategic nuclear deterrent from the late 1960s until 1996, when it was replaced by the Vanguard-class submarine carrying the Trident II. During the 1950s and early 1960s, the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent was based on the RAF's V-bombers, but in the early 1960s developments in radar and surface-to-air missiles made it clear that bombers were becoming vulnerable, would be unlikely to penetrate Soviet airspace. Free-fall nuclear weapons would no longer be a credible deterrent. To address this problem, in May 1960 the British Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan arranged a deal with US President Eisenhower to equip the V bombers with the US-designed AGM-48 Skybolt.
The Skybolt was a 1,000-mile range ballistic missile that allowed the launching bombers to remain well away from Soviet defences and launch attacks that would be invulnerable. With this range, the V bombers would have to fly only a few hundred miles from their bases before being in range for an attack on Moscow. Under the agreement the UK's contribution to the programme was limited to developing suitable mounting points on the Avro Vulcan bomber, installing the required guidance systems that fed the missiles updated positioning information, development of a British version of the US W47 warhead to arm it, the RE.179. The incoming Kennedy administration expressed serious doubts of both Skybolt and the US deterrent force in general. Robert McNamara was critical of the US bomber fleet, which he saw as obsolete in an age of ICBMs. Skybolt was seen as a means of continuing the existence of a system he no longer considered credible, given the improving capabilities of ICBM inertial guidance systems, a precision strike capability with free-fall bombs would no longer be needed.
McNamara was concerned about the UK having its own nuclear force, worried that the US could be drawn into a war by the UK. He wanted to bring the UK into a dual-key arrangement. McNamara first broached the idea of cancelling Skybolt with the British in November 1962; when this was reported in the House of Commons, a storm of protest broke out. A meeting was arranged to settle the issue, Macmillan stated in no uncertain terms that the UK would be retaining their independent deterrent capability, no matter what the cost. With development of their Polaris-derived warheads well along, a suitable launch platform would be developed, if need be. Faced with a clear failure in policy terms, Kennedy gave up on the idea of strong-arming Britain into accepting a dual-key arrangement. By the end of the series of meetings, the UK had gained the much more impressive Polaris system, would start development of a new submarine to launch it; the SSBNs would take over the nuclear deterrent role from the RAF's V bombers from 1968 onwards.
Two pairs of the boats were ordered in May 1963 from Vickers Shipbuilding Ltd, Barrow in Furness and from Cammell Laird and Co. Ltd, Birkenhead; the option of buying a fifth unit, planned as Ramillies, was cancelled in February 1965. Traditional battleship names were used. Vickers Armstrong in Barrow-in-Furness constructed Resolution and Repulse and Cammell Laird in Birkenhead constructed Renown and Revenge; the construction was unusual in that the bow and stern were constructed separately before being assembled together with the American-designed missile compartment. The design was a modification of the Valiant-class fleet submarine, but extended to incorporate the missile compartment between the fin and the nuclear reactor; the length was 130 metres, breadth 10.1 metres, height 9 metres and the displacement 8,400 long tons submerged and 7,600 long tons surfaced. A Rolls-Royce pressurised water reactor and English Electric Company turbines gave them a speed of 25 knots and they could dive to depths of 275 metres.
Sixteen Polaris A3 missiles were carried, in two rows of eight. For emergencies there was a diesel generator and six 533-millimetre torpedo tubes located at the bow, firing the Tigerfish wire-guided homing torpedoes; the submarines put to sea with a crew of 143. According to former head of the Royal Corps of Naval Constructors R. J. Daniel, the Resolution-class SSBNs possessed five features that were envied by the United States Navy: the machinery loading hatch, automated hovering system, welded hull valves, standardised valves, raft-mounted propulsion machinery; the first to be completed was Resolution, laid down in February 1964 and launched in September 1966. After commissioning in 1967 she underwent a long period of sea trials, culminating in the test firing of a Polaris missile from the USAF Eastern Test Range off Cape Kennedy at 11:15 on 15 February 1968. Resolution commenced her first operational patrol on 15 June 1968, beginning 28 years of Polaris patrols; the class were part of all based at Faslane Naval Base, Scotland.
All four of the class underwent conversion during the 1980s so that they could be fitted with the Polaris A3TK missile, fitted with the British-developed Chevaline MRV system. As the newer Vanguard-class submarines entered service, the Resolution class was retired and
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1926 and merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995; the founder, Allan Lockheed, had earlier founded the named but otherwise unrelated Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company, operational from 1912 through 1920. Allan Loughead and his brother Malcolm Loughead had operated an earlier aircraft company, Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company, operational from 1912 to 1920; the company built and operated aircraft for paying passengers on sightseeing tours in California and had developed a prototype for the civil market, but folded in 1920 due to the flood of surplus aircraft deflating the market after World War I. Allan went into the real estate market while Malcolm had meanwhile formed a successful company marketing brake systems for automobiles. In 1926, Allan Lockheed, John Northrop, Kenneth Kay and Fred Keeler secured funding to form the Lockheed Aircraft Company in Hollywood; this new company utilized some of the same technology developed for the Model S-1 to design the Vega Model.
In March 1928, the company relocated to Burbank, by year's end reported sales exceeding one million dollars. From 1926 to 1928 the company produced over 80 aircraft and employed more than 300 workers who by April 1929 were building five aircraft per week. In July 1929, majority shareholder Fred Keeler sold 87% of the Lockheed Aircraft Company to Detroit Aircraft Corporation. In August 1929, Allan Loughead resigned; the Great Depression ruined the aircraft market, Detroit Aircraft went bankrupt. A group of investors headed by brothers Robert and Courtland Gross, Walter Varney, bought the company out of receivership in 1932; the syndicate bought the company for a mere $40,000. Allan Loughead himself had planned to bid for his own company, but had raised only $50,000, which he felt was too small a sum for a serious bid. In 1934, Robert E. Gross was named chairman of the new company, the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, headquartered at what is now the airport in Burbank, California, his brother Courtlandt S. Gross was a co-founder and executive, succeeding Robert as chairman following his death in 1961.
The company was named the Lockheed Corporation in 1977. The first successful construction, built in any number was the Vega first built in 1927, best known for its several first- and record-setting flights by, among others, Amelia Earhart, Wiley Post, George Hubert Wilkins. In the 1930s, Lockheed spent $139,400 to develop the Model 10 Electra, a small twin-engined transport; the company sold 40 in the first year of production. Amelia Earhart and her navigator, Fred Noonan, flew it in their failed attempt to circumnavigate the world in 1937. Subsequent designs, the Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior and the Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra expanded their market; the Lockheed Model 14 formed the basis for the Hudson bomber, supplied to both the British Royal Air Force and the United States military before and during World War II. Its primary role was submarine hunting; the Model 14 Super Electra were sold abroad, more than 100 were license-built in Japan for use by the Imperial Japanese Army. At the beginning of World War II, Lockheed – under the guidance of Clarence Johnson, considered one of the best-known American aircraft designers – answered a specification for an interceptor by submitting the P-38 Lightning fighter aircraft, a twin-engined, twin-boom design.
The P-38 was the only American fighter aircraft in production throughout American involvement in the war, from Pearl Harbor to Victory over Japan Day. It filled ground-attack, air-to-air, strategic bombing roles in all theaters of the war in which the United States operated; the P-38 was responsible for shooting down more Japanese aircraft than any other U. S. Army Air Forces type during the war; the Lockheed Vega factory was located next to Burbank's Union Airport which it had purchased in 1940. During the war, the entire area was camouflaged to fool enemy aerial reconnaissance; the factory was hidden beneath a huge burlap tarpaulin painted to depict a peaceful semi-rural neighborhood, replete with rubber automobiles. Hundreds of fake trees, shrubs and fire hydrants were positioned to give a three-dimensional appearance; the trees and shrubs were created from chicken wire treated with an adhesive and covered with feathers to provide a leafy texture. Lockheed ranked tenth among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts.
All told and its subsidiary Vega produced 19,278 aircraft during World War II, representing six percent of war production, including 2,600 Venturas, 2,750 Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers, 2,900 Hudson bombers, 9,000 Lightnings. During World War II, Lockheed, in cooperation with Trans-World Airlines, had developed the L-049 Constellation, a radical new airliner capable of flying 43 passengers between New York and London at a speed of 300 mph in 13 hours. Once the Constellation went into production, the military received the first production models; the Constellations' performance set new standards which transformed the civilian transportation market. Its signature tri-tail was the result of many initial customers not