HMS Victory

HMS Victory is a 104-gun first-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, ordered in 1758, laid down in 1759 and launched in 1765. She is best known for her role as Lord Nelson's flagship at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October 1805, she additionally served as Keppel's flagship at Ushant, Howe's flagship at Cape Spartel and Jervis's flagship at Cape St Vincent. After 1824, she was relegated to the role of harbour ship. In 1922, she was moved to a dry dock at Portsmouth and preserved as a museum ship, she has been the flagship of the First Sea Lord since October 2012 and is the world's oldest naval ship still in commission, with 242 years' service as of 2020. In December 1758, Pitt the Elder, in his role as head of the British government, placed an order for the building of 12 ships, including a first-rate ship that would become Victory. During the 18th century, Victory was one of ten first-rate ships to be constructed; the outline plans were based on HMS Royal George, launched at Woolwich Dockyard in 1756, the naval architect chosen to design the ship was Sir Thomas Slade who, at the time, was the Surveyor of the Navy.

She was designed to carry at least 100 guns. The commissioner of Chatham Dockyard was instructed to prepare a dry dock for the construction; the keel was laid on 23 July 1759 in the Old Single Dock, a name, was chosen in October 1760. In 1759, the Seven Years' War was going well for Britain, it was the Annus Mirabilis, or Year of Miracles, the ship's name may have been chosen to commemorate the victories or it may have been chosen because out of the seven names shortlisted, Victory was the only one not in use. There were some doubts whether this was a suitable name since the previous Victory had been lost with all on board in 1744. A team of 150 workmen were assigned to construction of Victory's frame. Around 6,000 trees were used in her construction, of which 90% were oak and the remainder elm and fir, together with a small quantity of lignum vitae; the wood of the hull was held in place by six-foot copper bolts, supported by treenails for the smaller fittings. Once the ship's frame had been built, it was normal to cover it up and leave it for several months to allow the wood to dry out or "season".

The end of the Seven Years' War meant that Victory remained in this condition for nearly three years, which helped her subsequent longevity. Work restarted in autumn 1763 and she was floated on 7 May 1765, having cost £63,176 and 3 shillings, the equivalent of £8.7 million today. On the day of the launch, shipwright Hartly Larkin, designated "foreman afloat" for the event realised that the ship might not fit through the dock gates. Measurements at first light confirmed his fears: the gates were at least 9½ inches too narrow, he told the news to his superior, master shipwright John Allin, who considered abandoning the launch. Larkin asked for the assistance of every available shipwright, they hewed away enough wood from the gates with their adzes for the ship to pass safely through. However, the launch itself revealed significant problems in the ship's design, including a distinct list to starboard and a tendency to sit in the water such that her lower deck gunports were only 4 ft 6 in above the waterline.

The first of these problems was rectified after launch by increasing the ship's ballast to settle her upright on the keel. The second problem, regarding the siting of the lower gunports, could not be rectified. Instead it was noted in Victory's sailing instructions that these gunports would have to remain closed and unusable in rough weather; this had potential to limit Victory's firepower, though in practice none of her subsequent actions would be fought in rough seas. Because there was no immediate use for her, she was placed in ordinary and moored in the River Medway. Internal fitting out continued over the next four years, sea trials were completed in 1769, after which she was returned to her Medway berth, she remained there until France joined the American War of Independence in 1778. Victory was now placed in active service as part of a general mobilisation against the French threat; this included arming her with a full complement of cast iron cannon. Her weaponry was intended to be thirty 42-pounders on her lower deck, twenty-eight 24-pounder long guns on her middle deck, thirty 12-pounders on her upper deck, together with twelve 6-pounders on her quarterdeck and forecastle.

In May 1778, the 42-pounders were replaced by 32-pounders, but the 42-pounders were reinstated in April 1779. Victory was commissioned in March 1778 under Captain John Lindsay, he held that position until May 1778, when Admiral Augustus Keppel made her his flagship, appointed Rear Admiral John Campbell and Captain Jonathan Faulknor. Keppel put to sea from Spithead on 9 July 1778 with a force of around twenty-nine ships of the line and, on 23 July, sighted a French fleet of equal force 100 miles west of Ushant; the French admiral, Louis Guillouet, comte d'Orvilliers, who had orders to avoid battle, was cut off from Brest, but retained the weather gage. Manoeuvring was made difficult by changing winds and driving rain, but a battle became inevitable, with the British more or less in column and the French in some confusion. However, the French managed to pass along the British line with their most advanced ships. At about a quarter to twelve, Victory opened fire on Bretagne of 110 guns, being followed by

James Greig (British politician)

Colonel Sir James William Greig was a British barrister and Liberal Party politician. He sat in the House of Commons from 1910 to 1922. Greig was the son of John Borthwick Greig from Abingon Street and his wife Mary, daughter of William Grant from Madeira, he was educated at University College School and at University College London, where he graduated with a BA and LL. B, he studied in Paris at the Sorbonne and at the Collège de France. Greig was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1882, practised at the Parliamentary Bar and in Chancery Bar, he became a King's Counsel in 1913 and a bencher in 1917. He became standing arbitrator under the Railways Act 1921, he was elected at the January 1910 general election as the Member of Parliament for Western Renfrewshire. He was re-elected in December 1910, in 1917 he became Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Secretary for Scotland, Robert Munro, he was made a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1918. At the 1918 general election he was re-elected in Western Renfrewshire as a Coalition Liberal, i.e. a supporter of David Lloyd George's coalition government.

He was knighted in June 1921, but he was defeated when he stood as a National Liberal at the 1922 general election. He contested Berwick and Haddington at the 1929 general election, but came third with 26% of the votes. Greig served in the Volunteer Force, by 1908 he was a Lieutenant-Colonel and Honorary Colonel of the 7th Middlesex Volunteer Rifle Corps; when the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907 merged the Volunteers with the remaining units of militia and Yeomanry, he became Lieutenant-Colonel and Honorary Colonel commanding the 14th Battalion of the County of London Regiment of the new Territorial Force. He was awarded the Volunteer Decoration. Greig married Jeannie Taylor, daughter of Captain Edward Brown from Salem, Massachusetts, she died in 1931. Greig died on 10 June 1934, at his home in Hyde Park Gate, London, he was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium, his ashes were interred at West Hampstead Cemetery. A memorial service was held at St Columba's Church in Pont Street, his estate was valued at £27,921.

Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by James William Greig

Edmund Gutmann

Baron Edmund Gutmann von Gelse und Belišće was Croatian nobleman and together with his family founder of the settlement which became Belišće, Croatia. Baron Gutmann was born to a Jewish family of Salamon Heinrich and Nanette Gutmann, as oldest of nine children, he had four brothers and four sisters: Isidor, Ladislav, Hedwig, Emma and Ida. His father established the wood-processing company "H. S. Gutmann" in Hungary. After the retirement of his father, Baron Gutmann and his brothers took over the company. Baron Gutmann bought in February 1884, on a ten-year lease, the complex of oak forests from Baron of Valpovo, Gustav Hillenprand Prandau. Soon after the first residential houses of Gutmann settlement - colony were built, fire department, post office, primary school building, the chapel at the cemetery were built, together with electric grid and water supply with sewage; the "H. S. Gutmann" company created the first kilometers of forest industrial railway, which grew into a local railway station with public transportation.

Gutmann palace in Belišće center was built by Baron Gutmann for his son Arthur and daughter in law Stefania. Baron Gutmann was knighted by Franz Joseph I of Austria and awarded with a hereditary peer Baron von Gelse und Belišće. Belišće