HM Prison Dartmoor is a Category C men's prison, located in Princetown, high on Dartmoor in the English county of Devon. Its high granite walls dominate this area of the moor; the prison is owned by the Duchy of Cornwall, is operated by Her Majesty's Prison Service. In 1805, the United Kingdom was at war with Napoleonic France, a conflict during which thousands of prisoners were taken and confined in prison "hulks" or derelict ships; this was considered unsafe due to the proximity of the Royal Naval dockyard at Devonport, as living conditions were appalling in the extreme, a prisoner of war depot was planned in the remote isolation of Dartmoor. Construction started in 1806. In 1809 the first French prisoners arrived, were joined by American POWs taken in the War of 1812. At one time the prison population numbered 6,000. By July 1815 at least 270 Americans and 1,200 French prisoners had died. Both French and American wars were concluded in 1815, repatriations began; the prison lay empty until 1850, when it was rebuilt and commissioned as a convict gaol.
After being buried on the moor, due to the establishment of the prison farm in about 1852, all the prisoners' remains were exhumed and re-interred in two cemeteries behind the prison. Designed by Daniel Asher Alexander and constructed between 1806 and 1809 by local labour, to hold prisoners of the Napoleonic Wars, it was used to hold American prisoners from the War of 1812. Although the war ended with the Treaty of Ghent in December 1814, many American prisoners of war still remained in Dartmoor. From the spring of 1813 until March 1815 about 6,500 American sailors were imprisoned at Dartmoor; these were either naval impressed American seamen discharged from British vessels. Whilst the British were in overall charge of the prison, the prisoners created their own governance and culture, they had courts which meted out a market, a theatre and a gambling room. About 1,000 of the prisoners were black. After the prisoners heard of the Treaty of Ghent, signed on 24 December 1814, they expected immediate release, but the British government refused to let them go on parole or take any steps until the treaty was ratified by the United States Senate, 17 February 1815.
It took several weeks for the American agent to secure ships for their transportation home, the men grew impatient. On 4 April, a food contractor attempted to work off some damaged hardtack on them in place of soft bread and was forced to yield by their insurrection; the commandant, Captain T. G. Shortland, suspected them of a design to break out of the gaol; this was the reverse of the truth in general, as they would lose their chance of going on the ships, but a few had made threats of the sort, the commandant was uneasy. About 6:00 pm of 6 April, Shortland discovered a hole from one of the five prisons to the barrack yard near the gun racks; some prisoners were outside the fence, noisily pelting each other with turf, many more were near the breach, though the signal for return to prisons had sounded. Shortland was convinced of a plot, rang the alarm bell to collect the officers and have the guards ready; this precaution brought back a crowd just going to quarters. Just a prisoner broke a gate chain with an iron bar and a number of the prisoners pressed through to the prison market square.
After attempts at persuasion, Shortland ordered a charge. Those near the gate, hooted at and taunted the soldiery, who fired a volley over their heads; the crowd yelled louder and threw stones, the soldiers without orders, fired a direct volley which killed and wounded a large number. They continued firing at the prisoners, many of whom were now struggling to get back inside the blocks; the captain, a lieutenant and the hospital surgeon succeeded in stopping the shooting and caring for the wounded – about 60, 30 besides seven killed outright. The affair was examined by a joint commission, Charles King for the United States and F. S. Larpent for Great Britain, which exonerated Shortland, justified the initial shooting and blamed the subsequent deaths on unknown culprits; the British government provided for the families of the killed, pensioned the disabled and promoted Shortland. A memorial has been erected to the 271 POWs. Dartmoor was reopened in 1851 as a civilian prison, but closed again in 1917, when it was converted into a Home Office Work Centre for certain conscientious objectors granted release from prison.
It has contained some of Britain's most serious offenders. On 24 January 1932, there was a major disturbance at the prison; the cause of the riots is attributed to prisoners' perceptions of poor quality of the food, not but on specific days prior to the disturbance when it was suspected it had been tampered with. There had been other instances of disobedience prior to this, according to the official du Parcq report into the incident, such as a model prisoner attacking a popular guard with a razor blade and rough treatment by prisoners of a prisoner being removed to solitary. At the parade that day, 50 prisoners refused orders, the rest were marched back to their cells but refused to enter. At this point, the prison governor and his staff fled to an unused part of the prison and secured themselves there; the prisoners released those held in solitary. There was extensive damage to property and a prisoner was shot by one of t
Krzyżowice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Pawłowice, within Pszczyna County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It lies 5 kilometres north-west of Pawłowice, 20 km west of Pszczyna, 38 km south-west of the regional capital Katowice; the village has a population of 1,028. The village was first mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from around 1305 as item in Grisowitz debent esse septuaginta minus uno mansi; the creation of the village was a part of a larger settlement campaign taking place in the late 13th century on the territory of what will be known as Upper Silesia. Politically the village belonged to the Duchy of Racibórz, since 1327 a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia. During the political upheaval caused by Matthias Corvinus the land around Pszczyna was overtaken by Casimir II, Duke of Cieszyn, who sold it in 1517 to the Hungarian magnates of the Thurzó family, forming the Pless state country. In the accompanying sales document issued on 21 February 1517 the village was mentioned as Krziziowicze.
The Kingdom of Bohemia in 1526 became part of the Habsburg Monarchy. In the War of the Austrian Succession most of Silesia was conquered by the kingdom of Prussia, including the village. After World War I and Upper Silesia plebiscite it became a part of Silesian Voivodeship, Second Polish Republic, it was annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Poland
SVDK is a Russian sniper rifle from the Dragunov sniper rifles family chambered for the 9.3×64mm 7N33 cartridge. The Dragunov SVDK large-caliber sniper rifle is a somewhat controversial weapon, adopted by the Russian army in 2006, it was developed through "burglar" research and development program, along with 7.62 mm SV-98 sniper and 12.7 mm ASVK anti-materiel rifles. The purpose of SVDK is to deal with targets which are too hard for standard 7.62×54mmR sniper rifles like SV-98 or SVD, such as assault troops in heavy body armor or enemy snipers behind cover. There were rumors that the SVDK will serve as a long-range anti-personnel weapon; the effective range of the SVDK is cited as'about 600 meters'. Dragunov sniper rifle List of Russian weaponry OSV-96 SV-98 Image
In computer architecture, a bus is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers. This expression covers all related hardware components and software, including communication protocols. Early computer buses were parallel electrical wires with multiple hardware connections, but the term is now used for any physical arrangement that provides the same logical function as a parallel electrical bus. Modern computer buses can use both parallel and bit serial connections, can be wired in either a multidrop or daisy chain topology, or connected by switched hubs, as in the case of USB. Computer systems consist of three main parts: the central processing unit that processes data, memory that holds the programs and data to be processed, I/O devices as peripherals that communicate with the outside world. An early computer might contain a hand-wired CPU of vacuum tubes, a magnetic drum for main memory, a punch tape and printer for reading and writing data respectively.
A modern system might have a multi-core CPU, DDR4 SDRAM for memory, a solid-state drive for secondary storage, a graphics card and LCD as a display system, a mouse and keyboard for interaction, a Wi-Fi connection for networking. In both examples, computer buses of one form or another move data between all of these devices. In most traditional computer architectures, the CPU and main memory tend to be coupled. A microprocessor conventionally is a single chip which has a number of electrical connections on its pins that can be used to select an "address" in the main memory and another set of pins to read and write the data stored at that location. In most cases, the CPU and memory share signalling operate in synchrony; the bus connecting the CPU and memory is one of the defining characteristics of the system, referred to as the system bus. It is possible to allow peripherals to communicate with memory in the same fashion, attaching adaptors in the form of expansion cards directly to the system bus.
This is accomplished through some sort of standardized electrical connector, several of these forming the expansion bus or local bus. However, as the performance differences between the CPU and peripherals varies some solution is needed to ensure that peripherals do not slow overall system performance. Many CPUs feature a second set of pins similar to those for communicating with memory, but able to operate at different speeds and using different protocols. Others use smart controllers to place the data directly in memory, a concept known as direct memory access. Most modern systems combine both solutions; as the number of potential peripherals grew, using an expansion card for every peripheral became untenable. This has led to the introduction of bus systems designed to support multiple peripherals. Common examples are the SATA ports in modern computers, which allow a number of hard drives to be connected without the need for a card. However, these high-performance systems are too expensive to implement in low-end devices, like a mouse.
This has led to the parallel development of a number of low-performance bus systems for these solutions, the most common example being the standardized Universal Serial Bus. All such examples may be referred to as peripheral buses, although this terminology is not universal. In modern systems the performance difference between the CPU and main memory has grown so great that increasing amounts of high-speed memory is built directly into the CPU, known as a cache. In such systems, CPUs communicate using high-performance buses that operate at speeds much greater than memory, communicate with memory using protocols similar to those used for peripherals in the past; these system buses are used to communicate with most other peripherals, through adaptors, which in turn talk to other peripherals and controllers. Such systems are architecturally more similar to multicomputers, communicating over a bus rather than a network. In these cases, expansion buses are separate and no longer share any architecture with their host CPU.
What would have been a system bus is now known as a front-side bus. Given these changes, the classical terms "system", "expansion" and "peripheral" no longer have the same connotations. Other common categorization systems are based on the bus's primary role, connecting devices internally or externally, PCI vs. SCSI for instance. However, many common modern bus systems can be used for both. Other examples, like InfiniBand and I²C were designed from the start to be used both internally and externally; the internal bus known as internal data bus, memory bus, system bus or Front-Side-Bus, connects all the internal components of a computer, such as CPU and memory, to the motherboard. Internal data buses are referred to as local buses, because they are intended to connect to local devices; this bus is rather quick and is independent of the rest of the computer operations. The external bus, or expansion bus, is made up of the electronic pathways that connect the different external devices, such as printer etc. to the computer.
An address bus is a bus, used to specify a physical address. When a processor or DMA-enabled device needs to read or write to a memory location, it specifies that memory location on the address bu
The New Zealand Liberal Party founded in 1992 was a splinter group of the National Party. The Liberal Party was founded by two dissident National MPs. Myles and McIntyre were opponents of the economic reforms promoted by Minister of Finance Ruth Richardson, believing that they were harmful to society; as a result of their objections, Myles and McIntyre fell out with their National Party colleagues, decided to break away. After a short time as independents, they established the Liberal Party; the new organisation was plagued by organisational difficulties, neither Myles not MacIntyre — both first-term MPs — had much political experience. Not long after the party was established, Myles and McIntyre opted to join the Liberals to the newly formed Alliance party. Although the Alliance was more left-wing than the Liberals, it was emerging as the most significant political group to oppose Ruth Richardson's policies — the leader of the Alliance, Jim Anderton, had quit his own Labour Party out of opposition to Roger Douglas, an ideological ally of Richardson.
In 1993, however, a more prominent dissident within the National Party, Winston Peters quit. Although it was considered that a pact might be formed between the Alliance and Peters, the two proved incompatible, Peters established the New Zealand First party. At the time when Myles and McIntyre had split from National, they had entertained hopes that Peters would join them, were therefore disappointed at the failure of talks between Peters and the Alliance; the possibility of leaving the Alliance and merging with New Zealand First was discussed, but deep divisions emerged within the party about this possibility. In the end, Gilbert Myles opted to join New Zealand First. MacIntyre remained with the Liberals for some time afterwards, however he did not enter Parliament again and following the 1996 election where he was a list candidate for the Alliance, retired from politics. In 1996, leadership of the Liberals fell to Frank Grover, elected to Parliament as an Alliance list MP in the 1996 election.
Grover himself rejected the Alliance, shortly before the 1999 election, defected to the Christian Heritage Party, giving it its first seat in Parliament though he did not secure re-election, however. The leadership of the Liberal Party passed to former Auckland City Councillor Suzanne Corbett, though the party was dissolved, with its few remaining members becoming members of the Alliance as a whole
Utenti Pubblicità Associati is the Italian Advertisers' Association, based in Milan. Utenti Pubblicità Associati was founded in 1948 to represent the interests of Italian advertisers; the association engages and proactively with industry, political and regulatory bodies, while helping its members enhance the effectiveness of their advertising through a range of services. These include free consultancy, market monitoring data and surveys from a variety of media research companies that are either owned or supported by UPA; the Association is a member of the World Federation of Advertisers, supports the Italian Advertising Self-Regulation Institute and sponsors the University Ca’ Foscari of Venice Master in Business Communications. The UPA's Board and active members include the directors of many of Italy's leading companies and multinationals. Much of the groundwork for the UPA's recent achievements was laid by Giulio Malgara, its President from 1984 to 2007 and President of Quaker Europe and Chairman and Managing Director of the bakery products company Malgara Chiari Forti SpA.
Malgara was influential in giving the UPA a strong research basis, founding the television audience research company Auditel in 1984. Lorenzo Sassoli de Bianchi, the founder of Italy's leading health food company and President of the Bologna Museum of Modern Art, took over from Malgara in June 2007. Respected by Italian industrialists for Valsoia's use of cross-media advertising and his personal skills as a communicator and consensus-builder, Sassoli de Bianchi was appointed President on a modernising agenda. Acting in the participative style for which he is renowned and applying the methodology he developed at Valsoia, Sassoli de Bianchi worked with the organisation's active members to formulate a clear mission statement and objectives, as well as to restructure the governance of the association and to increase participation, accountability and transparency; the projects launched under this programme include a research centre, initiatives to promote regional representation and national growth, an extensive series of services and strategic partnerships to help members orient themselves with respect to the complex and changing social and technological developments in modern advertising.
Lorenzo Sassoli de Bianchi was reappointed President of the UPA for a further 3 years in 2009. As well as playing a lobbying and educating role, the UPA adopts a proactive partnership approach in its dealings with the government and regulatory authorities, advertising agencies and the media, supported by issuing regular trend reports and analyses; these initiatives have consolidated the influential role and authority of the UPA, which organised a large international conference held in Rome in March 2009. Official website