A hollow-point bullet is an expanding bullet. It is used for controlled penetration. In target shooting, they are used for greater accuracy due to the larger meplat, and although a pointed bullet has a higher ballistic co-efficiency, it's more sensitive to bullet harmonic characteristics and wind deflection, thus making hollow point bullets more accurate and predictably so. Plastic-tipped bullets are a type of bullet meant to confer the aerodynamic advantage of the spitzer bullet and the stopping power of hollow point bullets; when a hollow-point hunting bullet strikes a soft target, the pressure created in the pit forces the material around the inside edge to expand outwards, increasing the axial diameter of the projectile as it passes through. This process is referred to as mushrooming, because the resulting shape, a widened, rounded nose on top of a cylindrical base resembles a mushroom; the greater frontal surface area of the expanded bullet limits its depth of penetration into the target, causes more extensive tissue damage along the wound path.
Many hollow-point bullets those intended for use at high velocity in centerfire rifles, are jacketed, i.e. a portion of the lead-cored bullet is wrapped in a thin layer of harder metal, such as copper, brass, or mild steel. This jacket provides additional strength to the bullet, increases penetration, can help prevent it from leaving deposits of lead inside the bore. In controlled expansion bullets, the jacket and other internal design characteristics help to prevent the bullet from breaking apart. For bullets designed for target shooting, some such as the Sierra "Matchking" incorporate a cavity in the nose, called the meplat; this allows the manufacturer to maintain a greater consistency in tip shape and thus aerodynamic properties among bullets of the same design, at the expense of a decreased ballistic coefficient and higher drag. The result is a decreased overall accuracy between bullet trajectory and barrel direction, as well as an increased susceptibility to wind drift, but closer grouping of subsequent shots due to bullet consistency increasing the shooter's perceived accuracy.
The manufacturing process of hollow-point bullets produces a flat, uniformly-shaped base on the bullet which increases accuracy by providing a more consistent piston surface for the expanding gases of the cartridge. Match or target hollow-point bullets are designed for precision target use and no consideration is given to their expansion or other terminal ballistic performance; the United States military uses open-tip ammunition in some sniper rifles due to its exceptional accuracy. This ammunition is arguably not prohibited by military convention in that the wounds that it produces are similar to full metal jacket ammunition in practice.. A hollow-point boat-tail bullet is a match-grade bullet design that uses the concept of a teardrop-shaped tail to give it a lower drag coefficient and make it produce less turbulence in its wake. Only the base of the bullet has a boat tail-like shape – the meplat is still pointed; some hollow-point boat-tail bullets with longer, more aerodynamic profiles are known as very-low-drag bullets.
Terminal ballistics testing of hollow point bullets is performed in ballistic gelatin, or some other medium intended to simulate tissue and cause a hollow point bullet to expand. Test results are given in terms of expanded diameter, penetration depth, weight retention. Expanded diameter is an indication of the size of the wound cavity, penetration depth shows if vital organs could be reached by the bullet, weight retention indicates how much of the bullet mass fragmented and separated from the main body of the bullet. How these factors are interpreted depends on the intended use of the bullet, there are no universally agreed-upon ideal metrics. Solid lead bullets, when cast from a soft alloy, will deform and provide some expansion if they hit the target at a high velocity. This, combined with the limited velocity and penetration attainable with muzzleloading firearms, meant there was little need for extra expansion; the first hollow-point bullets were marketed in the late 19th century as express bullets, were hollowed out to reduce the bullet's mass and provide higher velocities.
In addition to providing increased velocities, the hollow turned out to provide significant expansion when the bullets were cast in a soft lead alloy. Intended for rifles, the popular.32-20.38-40, and.44-40 calibers could be fired in revolvers. With the advent of smokeless powder, velocities increased, bullets got smaller and lighter; these new bullets needed to be jacketed to handle the conditions of firing. The new full metal jacket bullets tended to penetrate straight through a target causing less internal damage than a bullet that expands and stops in its target; this led to the development of the soft point bullet and jacketed hollow-point bullets at the British arsenal in Dum Dum, near Calcutta around 1890. Designs included the.455" Mk III "Manstopper" cartridges. Although such bullet designs were outlawed for use in warfare, they gained ground among hunters due to the ability to control the expansion of the new high velocity cartridges. In modern ammunition, the use of hollow points is limited to handgun ammunition, which tends to operate at much lower velocities than rifle ammunition (on the order of 1,000 feet per second
In firearms terminology, an action is the mechanism of a breech-loading weapon that handles the ammunition or the method by which that mechanism works. Actions are technically not present on muzzleloaders, as all are single-shot weapons with a closed off breech. Instead, the ignition mechanism is referred to Actions can be categorized in several ways, including single action versus double action, break action versus bolt action, others; the term action can include short and magnum if it is in reference to the length of the rifle's receiver and the length of the bolt. The short action rifle can accommodate a cartridge length of 2.8 in or smaller. The long action rifle can accommodate a cartridge of 3.34 in, the magnum action rifle can accommodate cartridges of 3.6 in, or longer in length. The dropping block are actions wherein the breechblock lowers or "drops" into the receiver to open the breech actuated by an underlever. There are two principal types of dropping block: the falling block. In a tilting block or pivoting block action, the breechblock is hinged on a pin mounted at the rear.
When the lever is operated, the block tilts forward, exposing the chamber. The best-known pivoting block designs are the Peabody, the Peabody–Martini, Ballard actions; the original Peabody rifles, manufactured by the Providence Tool Company, used a manually cocked side-hammer. Swiss gunsmith Friedrich Martini developed a pivoting block action by modifying the Peabody, that incorporated a hammerless striker, cocked by the operating lever with the same single, efficient motion that pivoted the block; the 1871 Martini–Henry which replaced the "trapdoor" Snider–Enfield was the standard British Army rifle of the Victorian era, the Martini was a popular action for civilian rifles. Charles H. Ballard's self-cocking tilting-block action was produced by the Marlin Firearms Company from 1875, earned a superlative reputation among long-range "Creedmoor" target shooters. Surviving Marlin Ballards are today prized by collectors those mounted in the elaborate Swiss-style Schützen stocks of the day. A falling block action is a single-shot firearm action in which a solid metal breechblock slides vertically in grooves cut into the breech of the weapon and actuated by a lever.
Examples of firearms using the falling block action are the Sharps rifle and Ruger No. 1. In a rolling block action the breechblock takes the form of a part-cylinder, with a pivot pin through its axis; the operator rotates or "rolls" the block to close the breech. Rolling blocks are most associated with firearms made by Remington in the 19th century; the hinged block was the earliest metallic-cartridge breechloaders designed for general military issue began as conversions of muzzle-loading rifle-muskets. The upper rear portion of the barrel was filed or milled away and replaced by a hinged breechblock which opened upward to permit loading. An internal angled firing pin allowed the re-use of the rifle's existing side-hammer; the Allin action made by Springfield Arsenal in the US hinged forward. Whereas the British replaced the Snider with a dropping-block Peabody-style Martini action, the US Army felt the trapdoor action to be adequate and followed its muzzleloader conversions with the new-production Springfield Model 1873, the principal longarm of the Indian Wars and was still in service with some units in the Spanish–American War.
A break action is a type of firearm where the barrel are hinged and can be "broken open" to expose the breech. Multi-barrel break action firearms are subdivided into over-and-under or side-by-side configurations for two barrel configurations or "combination gun" when mixed rifle and shotgun barrels are used. Although bolt-action guns are associated with fixed or detachable box magazines, in fact the first general-issue military breechloader was a single-shot bolt action: the paper-cartridge Prussian needle gun of 1841. France countered in 1866 with its superior Chassepot rifle a paper-cartridge bolt action; the first metallic-cartridge bolt actions in general military service were the Berdan Type II introduced by Russia in 1870, the Mauser Model 1871, a modified Chassepot, the Gras rifle of 1874. Today most top-level smallbore match rifles are single-shot bolt actions. Single-shot bolt actions in.22 caliber were widely manufactured as inexpensive "boys' guns" in the earlier 20th century. The eccentric screw action first seen on the M1867 Werndl–Holub and on the Magnum Research Lone Eagle pistol, the breech closure is a rotating drum with the same axis, but offset from the bore.
When locked, a firing pin aligns with the primer and the breech is otherwise solid. When rotated open, a slot in the drum is exposed for feeding of a new round. Though first used on the Werndl-Holub, this action is known as a cannon breech due to its association with the French 75mm Model of 1897 cannon; the French M1897 was, based on William Hubbell's U. S. Patent 149,478; the Ferguson rifle: British Major Patrick Ferguson designed his rifle, considered to be the first military breechloader, in the 1770s. A plug-shaped breechblock was screw-threaded so that rotating the handle underneath would lower a
Nitriding is a heat treating process that diffuses nitrogen into the surface of a metal to create a case-hardened surface. These processes are most used on low-carbon, low-alloy steels, they are used on medium and high-carbon steels, titanium and molybdenum. In 2015, nitriding was used to generate unique duplex microstructure, known to be associated with enhanced mechanical properties Typical applications include gears, camshafts, cam followers, valve parts, extruder screws, die-casting tools, forging dies, extrusion dies, firearm components and plastic-mold tools; the processes are named after the medium used to donate. The three main methods used are: gas nitriding, salt bath nitriding, plasma nitriding. In gas nitriding the donor is a nitrogen rich gas ammonia, why it is sometimes known as ammonia nitriding; when ammonia comes into contact with the heated work piece it dissociates into nitrogen and hydrogen. The nitrogen diffuses onto the surface of the material creating a nitride layer; this process has existed for nearly a century, though only in the last few decades has there been a concentrated effort to investigate the thermodynamics and kinetics involved.
Recent developments have led to a process that can be controlled. The thickness and phase constitution of the resulting nitriding layers can be selected and the process optimized for the particular properties required; the advantages of gas nitriding over the other variants are: Precise control of chemical potential of nitrogen in the nitriding atmosphere by controlling gas flow rate of nitrogen and oxygen. All round nitriding effect Large batch sizes possible - the limiting factor being furnace size and gas flow With modern computer control of the atmosphere the nitriding results can be controlled Relatively low equipment cost - compared with plasmaThe disadvantages of gas nitriding are: Reaction kinetics influenced by surface condition - an oily surface or one contaminated with cutting fluids will deliver poor results Surface activation is sometimes required to treat steels with a high chromium content - compare sputtering during plasma nitriding Ammonia as nitriding medium - though not toxic it can be harmful when inhaled in large quantities.
Care must be taken when heating in the presence of oxygen to reduce the risk of explosion In salt bath nitriding the nitrogen donating medium is a nitrogen-containing salt such as cyanide salt. The salts used donate carbon to the workpiece surface making salt bath a nitrocarburizing process; the temperature used is typical of all nitrocarburizing processes: 550 to 570 °C. The advantages of salt nitriding is that it achieves higher diffusion in the same period of time compared to any other method; the advantages of salt nitriding are: Quick processing time - in the order of 4 hours or so to achieve Simple operation - heat the salt and workpieces to temperature and submerge until the duration has transpired. The disadvantages are: The salts used are toxic - Disposal of salts are controlled by stringent environmental laws in western countries and has increased the costs involved in using salt baths; this is one of the most significant reasons. Only one process possible with a particular salt type - since the nitrogen potential is set by the salt, only one type of process is possible Plasma nitriding known as ion nitriding, plasma ion nitriding or glow-discharge nitriding, is an industrial surface hardening treatment for metallic materials.
In plasma nitriding, the reactivity of the nitriding media is not due to the temperature but to the gas ionized state. In this technique intense electric fields are used to generate ionized molecules of the gas around the surface to be nitrided; such active gas with ionized molecules is called plasma, naming the technique. The gas used for plasma nitriding is pure nitrogen, since no spontaneous decomposition is needed. There are hot plasmas typified by plasma jets used for metal cutting, cladding or spraying. There are cold plasmas generated inside vacuum chambers, at low pressure regimes. Steels are beneficially treated with plasma nitriding; this process permits the close control of the nitrided microstructure, allowing nitriding with or without compound layer formation. Not only is the performance of metal parts enhanced, but working lifespans increase, so do the strain limit and the fatigue strength of the metals being treated. For instance, mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel like resistance to wear can be augmented and the surface hardness of tool steels can be doubled.
A plasma nitrided part is ready for use. It calls for any other post-nitriding operations, thus the process is user-friendly, saves energy since it works fastest, causes little or no distortion. This process was invented by Dr. Bernhardt Berghaus of Germany who settled in Zurich to escape Nazi persecution. After his death in late 1960s the process popularized globally. Plasma nitriding is coupled with physical vapor deposition process and labeled Duplex Treatment, with enhanced benefits. Many users prefer to have a plasma oxidation step combined at the last phase of processing to produce a smooth jetblack layer of oxides, resistant to wear and corrosion. Since nitrogen ions are made available by ionization, differently from gas or salt bath, plasma nitriding efficiency does not depend on the temperature. Plasma nitr
Syrian Civil War
The Syrian Civil War is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with domestic and foreign allies, various domestic and foreign forces opposing both the Syrian government and each other in varying combinations. The unrest in Syria, part of a wider wave of the 2011 Arab Spring protests, grew out of discontent with the Syrian government and escalated to an armed conflict after protests calling for Assad's removal were violently suppressed; the war, which began on 15 March with major unrest in Damascus and Aleppo, is being fought by several factions: The Syrian government's Armed Forces and its international allies, a loose alliance of majorly Sunni opposition rebel groups, Salafi jihadist groups, the mixed Kurdish-Arab Syrian Democratic Forces, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, with a number of countries in the region and beyond being either directly involved or providing support to one or another faction.
Iran and Hezbollah support the Syrian Arab Republic and the Syrian Armed Forces militarily, with Russia conducting airstrikes and other military operations since September 2015. The U. S.-led international coalition, established in 2014 with the declared purpose of countering ISIL, has conducted airstrikes against ISIL as well as some against government and pro-government targets. They have deployed special forces and artillery units to engage ISIL on the ground. Since 2015, the U. S. has supported the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria and its armed wing, the SDF, materially and logistically. Turkey, on the other hand, has become involved against the Syrian government since 2016, not only participating in airstrikes against ISIL alongside the U. S.-led coalition, but actively supporting the Syrian opposition and occupying large swaths of northwestern Syria while engaging in significant ground combat with ISIL, the SDF, the Syrian government. Between 2011 and 2017, fighting from the Syrian Civil War spilled over into Lebanon as opponents and supporters of the Syrian government traveled to Lebanon to fight and attack each other on Lebanese soil, with ISIL and Al-Nusra engaging the Lebanese Army.
Furthermore, while neutral, Israel has conducted airstrikes against Hezbollah and Iranian forces, whose presence in southwestern Syria it views as a threat. International organizations have accused all sides involved, including the Ba'athist Syrian government, ISIL, opposition rebel groups and the U. S.-led coalition of severe human rights massacres. The conflict has caused a major refugee crisis. Over the course of the war, a number of peace initiatives have been launched, including the March 2017 Geneva peace talks on Syria led by the United Nations, but fighting continues; the secular Ba'ath Syrian Regional Branch government came to power through a successful coup d'état in 1963. For several years Syria went through additional coups and changes in leadership, until in March 1971, Hafez al-Assad, an Alawite, declared himself President; the secular Syrian Regional Branch remained the dominant political authority in what had been a one-party state until the first multi-party election to the People's Council of Syria was held in 2012.
On 31 January 1973, Hafez al-Assad implemented a new constitution. Unlike previous constitutions, this one did not require that the president of Syria be a Muslim, leading to fierce demonstrations in Hama and Aleppo organized by the Muslim Brotherhood and the ulama; the government survived a series of armed revolts by Islamists members of the Muslim Brotherhood, from 1976 until 1982. Upon Hafez al-Assad's death in 2000, his son Bashar al-Assad was elected as President of Syria. Bashar and his wife Asma, a Sunni Muslim born and educated in Britain inspired hopes for democratic reforms. President Al-Assad maintained in 2017 that no'moderate opposition' to his rule exists, that all opposition forces are jihadists intent on destroying his secular leadership; the total population in July 2018 was estimated at 19,454,263 people. Socioeconomic inequality increased after free market policies were initiated by Hafez al-Assad in his years, it accelerated after Bashar al-Assad came to power. With an emphasis on the service sector, these policies benefited a minority of the nation's population people who had connections with the government, members of the Sunni merchant class of Damascus and Aleppo.
In 2010, Syria's nominal GDP per capita was only $2,834, comparable to Sub-Saharan African countries such as Nigeria and far lower than its neighbors such as Lebanon, with an annual growth rate of 3.39%, below most other developing countries. The country faced high youth unemployment rates. At the start of the war, discontent against the government was strongest in Syria's poor areas, predominantly among conservative Sunnis; these included cities with high poverty rates
In American English, a pocket pistol is any small, pocket-sized semi-automatic pistol, suitable for concealed carry in either a coat, jacket or trouser pocket. Pocket pistols were popular in the United States until the 1950s and 60s, when most states passed laws limiting or prohibiting the carry of concealed weapons. However, the passage of "shall issue" firearms license laws in the mid-1990s, resulted in a resurgence in the popularity of pocket pistol in the United States, creating new markets for small, reliable, concealed carry firearms. In general use, the term pocket pistol is purely descriptive, but "mouse gun" is a pejorative. Pocket pistols, due to their small size are lumped in with Saturday night specials which are inexpensive small caliber handguns; the pocket pistol originated in the mid-17th century as a small, concealable flintlock known as the Queen Anne pistol, the coat pistol, or the pocket pistol. This was used throughout the 18th century, evolving from a weapon reserved for the wealthy to a common sidearm in broader use as more and more manufacturers made them by the start of the 19th century.
The original 19th century vest-sized pocket pistol was the Philadelphia Deringer. The advent of the metallic cartridge gave us the classic double barrel.41 Rimfire Remington Model 95 which achieved such widespread popularity, that it has overshadowed all other designs, becoming synonymous with the word "Derringer". The Remington double-barrel derringer design is still being manufactured by American Derringer and Bond Arms, both of which make derringers in a variety of calibers from.22 long rifle to.45 Long Colt &.410 gauge. Introduced in the late 19th century snubnosed revolvers such as the "Banker Special", "Sheriff's Model", "Shopkeeper Special" versions of the Colt Single Action Army revolvers were made by Colt's Manufacturing Company; the Smith & Wesson Safety Hammerless models were produced from 1887 to just before World War II. They were chambered in either.32.38 S&W with a 5-shot cylinder. They were most produced with a 2-inch, 3-inch, or 3.5-inch barrels. These top-break revolvers were designed for fast reloading and concealed carry as the hammer was internal and would not snag on drawing the revolver from a pocket.
They had a grip safety. They were known as "The New Departure" to reflect the company's new approach to designing revolvers; the design of these revolvers sacrifices range for maneuverability and concealment. Similar "hammerless" designs proved popular with other manufacturers such as Iver Johnson and Harrington & Richardson. In 1952, Smith & Wesson introduced the more modern hand ejector model the Smith & Wesson Centennial Model 40; the Colt Model 1903 Pocket Hammerless is a 9-shot.32 ACP caliber, self-loading, semi-automatic pistol designed by John Browning and built by Colt Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company of Hartford, Connecticut. The Colt Model 1908 Pocket Hammerless is an 8-shot.380 ACP caliber variant introduced five years later. Despite the title "hammerless", the Model 1903 does have a hammer, it is hidden from view under the rear of the slide. This allows the pistol to be carried in, withdrawn from a pocket and smoothly without snagging; the first used and semi-automatic.25 ACP pocket pistols were the FN Model 1905, Colt Model 1908 Vest Pocket and the Baby Browning.
The FN 1905 was designed and marketed along with.25 ACP cartridge in 1905. The M1905 is a small 7-shot, striker-fired, single action, blow-back operated semi-automatic pistol, it features a grip safety and the manual thumb operated safety that locks the slide in the closed position when engaged. The FN Model 1910 known as the Browning model 1910, was a departure for Browning. Before, his designs were produced by both FN in Colt Firearms in the United States. Since Colt did not want to produce it, Browning chose to patent and produce this design in Europe only. Introduced in 1910, this pistol used a novel operating spring location surrounding the barrel; this location became the standard in such future weapons as the Walther Russian Makarov. The Model 1910 incorporated the standard Browning striker-firing mechanism and a grip safety along with a magazine safety and an external safety lever in a compact package, it was offered in both.32 ACP and.380 ACP calibers, it remained in production until 1983.
It is possible to switch calibres by changing only the barrel. The Colt Detective Special is a carbon steel framed snubnosed, 6-shot revolver; as the name "Detective Special" suggests, this model revolver was used as a concealed weapon by plainclothes police detectives. It was made with either a 3-inch barrel. Introduced in 1927, the Detective Special was the first snubnosed revolvers produced with a modern swing-out frame, it was designed from the outset to be chambered for higher-powered cartridges such as the.38 Special, considered to be a powerful caliber for a concealable pocket revolver of the day. The Walther PP series pistols were introduced in 1929 and are among the world's first successful double action, blowback-operated semi-automatic pistols, developed by the German arms manufacturer Carl Walther GmbH Sportwaffen, they feature exposed hammers, a traditional double-action trigger mechanism, a fixed barrel that acts as the guide rod for the recoil spring. It was offered in.380 ACP calibers.
The Walther PP and smaller PPK models were both popular with European police and civilians for being reliable
The.45 ACP, or.45 Auto is a handgun cartridge designed by John Browning in 1905, for use in his prototype Colt semi-automatic pistol. After successful military trials, it was adopted as the standard chambering for Colt's M1911 pistol, being named.45 ACP. During the late 1890s and early 20th century, the U. S. Cavalry began trials to replace their sidearm arsenal of issued.45 Colt Single Action Army in favor of the more modern and versatile double-action revolver in.45 Colt. After the example of the Cavalry, the Army in turn had fielded versions of double-action revolvers in.38 Long Colt. It was evaluated that the.38-caliber round was less effective in overall stopping-power than the.45 Colt against determined opponents in cases such as the Moro juramentado warriors, who were encountered in the Moro Rebellion. The then-current issue rifle, the.30-40 Krag, had failed to stop Moro warriors effectively. This experience, the Thompson–LaGarde Tests of 1904, led the Army and the Cavalry to decide a minimum of.45 caliber was required in a new handgun.
Thompson and Major Louis Anatole La Garde of the Medical Corps arranged tests on cadavers and animal remains in the Chicago stockyards, resulting in the finding that.45 was the most effective pistol cartridge. They noted, training was critical to make sure a soldier could score a hit in a vulnerable part of the body. Colt had been working with Browning on a.41 caliber cartridge in 1904, in 1905, when the Cavalry asked for a.45 caliber equivalent, Colt modified the pistol design to fire an enlarged version of the prototype.41 round. The result from Colt was the new.45 ACP cartridge. The original round that passed the testing fired a 200 grain bullet at 900 ft/s, but after a number of rounds of revisions between Winchester Repeating Arms, Frankford Arsenal, Union Metallic Cartridge, it ended up using a 230 grain bullet fired at a nominal velocity of 850 ft/s; the resulting.45-caliber cartridge, named the.45 ACP, was similar in performance to the.45 Schofield cartridge, only less powerful than the.45 Colt cartridges the Cavalry was using.
By 1906, bids from six makers were submitted, among them Browning's design, submitted by Colt. Only DWM, Colt made the first cut. DWM, which submitted two Parabellum P08s chambered in.45 ACP, withdrew from testing after the first round of tests, for unspecified reasons. In the second round of evaluations in 1910, the Colt design passed the extensive testing with no failures, while the Savage design suffered 37 stoppages or parts failures; the Colt pistol was adopted as the Model 1911. The cartridge/pistol combination was quite successful but not satisfactory for U. S. military purposes. Over time, a series of improved designs were offered, culminating in the adoption in 1911 of the "Cal..45 Automatic Pistol Ball Cartridge, Model of 1911", a 1.273 in long round with a bullet weight of 230 grains. The first production, at Frankford Arsenal, was marked "F A 8 11", for the August 1911 date. Other US military cartridges include: tracer M26, blank M1921, M12 and M15 shot shells, M9 dummy; the cartridge was designed by John Browning for Colt, but the most influential person in selecting the cartridge was Army Ordnance member Gen. John T. Thompson.
After the poor performance of the Army's.38 Long Colt pistols evidenced during the Philippine–American War, Thompson insisted on a more capable pistol cartridge. The.45 ACP has 1.62 ml cartridge case capacity..45 ACP maximum C. I. P. Cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters; the common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 406 mm, 6 grooves, Ø lands = 11.23 mm, Ø grooves = 11.43 mm, land width = 3.73 mm and the primer type is large pistol. The cartridge headspaces on the mouth of the case at the L3 datum reference. According to Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives rulings, the.45 ACP cartridge case can handle up to 131.000 MPa Pmax piezo pressure. In CIP-regulated countries every pistol cartridge combination has to be proofed at 130% of this maximum CIP pressure to certify for sale to consumers; this means that.45 ACP chambered arms in C. I. P. Regulated countries are proof tested at 170.30 MPa PE piezo pressure. The SAAMI pressure limit for the.45 ACP is set at 21,000 psi piezo pressure, while the SAAMI pressure limit for the.45 ACP +P is set at 23,000 psi, piezo pressure.
The.45 ACP is an effective combat pistol cartridge that combines accuracy and stopping power for use against human targets. It has low muzzle blast and flash, it produces a stout, but manageable recoil in handguns, made worse in compact models; the standard issue military.45 ACP round has a 230-grain bullet that travels at 830 feet per second when fired from the government issue M1911A1 pistol and 950 feet per second from the M1A1 Thompson submachine gun. The cartridge comes in various specialty rounds of varying weights and performance levels, it operates at a low maximum chamber pressure rating of 21,000 psi, which due to a low bolt thrust helps extend service life of weapons in which it is used. Some makers of pistols chambered in.45 ACP do not certify
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an