Lotus F1 Team was a British Formula One racing team. The team competed under the Lotus name from 2012 until 2015, following the renaming of the former Renault team based at Enstone in Oxfordshire; the Lotus F1 Team was majority owned by Genii Capital. Lotus F1 was named after its branding partner Group Lotus; the team achieved a race victory and fourth position in the Formula One Constructors' World Championship in their first season under the Lotus title. The team was sold back to Renault on 18 December 2015, The Lotus F1 Team name was dropped on 3 February 2016, announced that they would compete as Renault Sport Formula One Team; the team's Formula One history started in 1981 as the Toleman Motorsport team, based in Witney, England. In 1986, the team was renamed to Benetton Formula, following its purchase in 1985 by the Benetton family. In 1992/3, the team moved a few miles to a new base in Enstone. Michael Schumacher won the Drivers' Championship with the team in both 1994 and 1995. In 1995, the team won the Constructors' Championship, with Johnny Herbert driving alongside Schumacher.
Renault purchased the Benetton team in 2000, in 2002, they renamed it the Renault F1 Team. In both 2005 and 2006, Fernando Alonso won the Drivers' Championship with the team, the team won the Constructors' Championship. Starting with the Lotus E20, the team has recognised these achievements by placing three gold stars in the livery of their car, located just forward of the cockpit. At the end of 2009, Renault sold a majority stake in the team to Genii Capital. Since 2011, Lotus Cars became involved with the team and the team was renamed, first to "Lotus Renault GP" for 2011 season, to "Lotus F1 Team" for 2012 season. Team Lotus, a sister company of Lotus Cars, competed in Formula One between 1958 and 1994, winning seven constructors' titles and six drivers' titles between 1963 and 1978; the Lotus name returned to Formula One in 2010 through Tony Fernandes's Lotus Racing team, which used the name on licence from Group Lotus. Group Lotus terminated the licence for the 2011 season, but Fernandes acquired the owned Team Lotus name and used it.
For 2012, Team Lotus changed their name to Caterham F1 Team, clearing the way for the Lotus Renault GP team to be renamed as "Lotus F1 Team". On 29 November 2011, the team announced that Kimi Räikkönen would race for them in 2012 as he returned from a two-year stint away from Formula One which he spent competing in the World Rally Championship. On 9 December 2011 the team announced that GP2 Series champion and 2009 Renault F1 driver Romain Grosjean would race alongside Räikkönen. At the start of the season, the team was involved in a protest over the use of a "radical" rear wing concept on Mercedes AMG's Mercedes F1 W03 dubbed the'F-Duct rear wing' or'Double DRS'; the dispute was not settled until the third race in China when the stewards unanimously rejected their formal protest and Lotus subsequently confirmed they would not appeal against the decision. Lotus started the season with Grosjean qualifying third in Australia but first lap incidents in Australia and Malaysia ruined his chances of his first Formula One points.
In China Räikkönen was running in second until his tyres'fell off the cliff' pushing him out of the points for the only time of the season. In Bahrain, Lotus achieved their first podium of the season with Räikkönen close to the winner Vettel and Grosjean behind in third. In Monaco Grosjean was involved in another first lap incident but in Canada he worked a one-stop strategy to take second position, his best Formula One finish. A race in Valencia Grosjean was running in second until a mechanical problem put him out of the race after a safety car period leaving Räikkönen to take another podium for second. In Germany and Belgium Räikkönen took 3 podiums in a row. In Hungary he and Grosjean had an inter-team battle after a round of pit stops. In the end Räikkönen finished ahead in second with Grosjean scoring his third podium with third. At the 2012 Belgian Grand Prix, Grosjean was involved in a multiple car pileup at the start of the race, resulting in Grosjean, Lewis Hamilton, Fernando Alonso and Sergio Pérez all being eliminated from the race and Kamui Kobayashi missing out on a possible podium after starting from the front row for the first time of his career.
The incident was started when Grosjean collided with Hamilton on the approach to the La Source corner. After the race, Grosjean was issued with a one race ban covering the next Round at Monza, he was replaced for the race weekend by Lotus reserve driver Jérôme d'Ambrosio. After a near win in Bahrain, Räikkönen took the team's first victory at the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix, it was his first race win after returning to Formula One. After finishing in the points in 19 of the 20 races, achieving 7 podiums Räikkönen finished 3rd in the Drivers' Championship with Lotus 4th in the Constructors' Championship. On 29 October 2012, Lotus F1 team confirmed that Räikkönen would be racing with the team in 2013; the news came after several weeks of speculation that Räikkönen had several other options for 2013 including other forms of motorsport. Romain Grosjean partnered him in the 2013 season; the 2013 Lotus, the E21, was launched on 28 January at the team's headquarters in Enstone, Oxfordshire, UK. The livery was a little bit different from the previous year's.
In the 2013 Australian Grand Prix, Lotus achieved a first-place finish for Räikkönen despite qualifying in 7th place, thus giving Lotus F1 the leading dr
1986 Formula One World Championship
The 1986 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 40th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1986 Formula One World Championship for Drivers and the 1986 Formula One World Championship for Manufacturers, both of which commenced on 23 March and ended on 26 October after sixteen races; the Drivers' Championship was won by Alain Prost, the Manufacturers' Championship was won by Williams. Prost was the first driver to win back-to-back Drivers' Championships since Jack Brabham in 1959 and 1960; the 1986 championship culminated in a battle between Williams drivers Nigel Mansell and Nelson Piquet and McLaren driver Alain Prost at the final race, the Australian Grand Prix. Mansell's tyre exploded and Piquet was brought in for a precautionary pit stop for tyres as a result, leaving Prost to win the race and his second consecutive Drivers' Championship. Mansell and Prost, along with Lotus' Ayrton Senna, dominated throughout the season and formed what was dubbed as the "Gang of Four".
For the first time, turbocharged engines were compulsory due to a ban on aspirated engines. This ban would be rescinded in 1987, in preparation for turbos themselves being banned from 1989; the Formula One cars of 1986 are the most powerful Grand Prix cars to have raced. There were still no limits on engine power, some engines, including the powerful but rather unreliable BMW M12/13 1.5 litre single turbocharged straight-4 engine used by the Benetton and Arrows teams, could throw out 1,350+ hp at 5.5 bar boost during qualifying. The power of the turbocharged engines was so great that it could not be measured until years when the technology was advanced enough. Purpose-built drivetrains had to be fitted to the chassis of each car for specific sessions – there were qualifying engines that had unrestricted boost pressure, qualifying gearboxes, designed to withstand the engine's extra power; these drivetrain units were taken out and replaced with the boost-restricted engines and prepared gearboxes for races.
When these turbocharged engines were fitted to the cars, the whole package weighed about 540 kg. For qualifying, the power to weight ratios were about 2,500 hp/ton+ for the Benetton-BMW and 1,850 hp/ton for the Benetton's race trim. A consistent problem for these new turbo engines, somewhat smoothed over over the years was the turbo lag. In the engines, which were mechanically turbocharged, the power would only come on all at once 2–3 seconds after the driver put his foot down; the nature of these engines made them difficult to drive. This was similar to; the boost of the engines would be restricted to the point where they would only be producing around 900–1,000 hp during the race. The major automotive manufacturers participating in F1 at the time, with their superior money and resources ran at the front of the turbocharged engine development race; the Honda twin-turbocharged V6 supplied to the Williams team were second to BMW in overall power and had less power than the German engines. The new Ford-Cosworth turbocharged V6 was made in a rush and was therefore underpowered and underdeveloped.
The underfunded and unreliable Alfa Romeo, Motori Moderni and Hart engines were less powerful than any of the others and kept their users down the order frequently. The power in engines from 1980 to 1986 doubled. In 1980, the most powerful engine was the Renault twin-turbo V6 engine, which produced between 550–600 horsepower. At many races at high speed circuits such as Imola, Spa-Francorchamps, the Österreichring and Monza, fuel consumption was always a concern, as the FIA lessened the amount of allowable fuel from 220 litres in 1984 and 1985 to 195 litres for 1986; as a result, fuel consumption became a problem for most teams since the engines were more powerful than before. There were many races where a number of drivers ran out of fuel, including Alain Prost at Hockenheim, who nearly finished third but ran out of fuel less than 500 meters from the finishing line, he tried to push his stricken car across the finish line never making it and finishing sixth. The Honda engines had the edge on fuel consumption and reliability, but the TAG/Porsche, Renault
Kevin Jan Magnussen is a Danish racing driver driving for the Haas F1 Team. The son of four-time Le Mans GT class winner, GM factory driver and former Formula One driver Jan Magnussen, Kevin Magnussen came up through McLaren Formula One team's Young Driver Programme and drove for McLaren in the 2014 Formula One World Championship and has driven for Haas since 2017. Born in Roskilde, Magnussen began his career in karting. In 2008 he made the step up to Formula Ford in Denmark, he raced in six races of the ADAC Formel Masters series. In 2009 Magnussen moved up to Formula Renault, finishing runner-up to António Félix da Costa in the Northern European Cup and finishing seventh in the Eurocup, driving for Motopark Academy. In 2010 Magnussen competed in the German Formula Three Championship with Motopark Academy and Carlin Motorsport, he finished third in the championship. In 2011 Magnussen moved on to Cooper Tires British Formula 3 with Carlin. Magnussen had his first experience of the McLaren MP4-27 Formula One car on track at the Abu Dhabi Young Driver test on 6 November 2012.
He set a quickest time of 1:42.651. He had done work in the team's driving simulator. Magnussen's time was the best of the three-day test impressing McLaren's sporting director Sam Michael; the distance he covered in the course of the test was sufficient to earn his FIA Super Licence. On 14 November 2013 it was confirmed that Magnussen would drive for McLaren for the 2014 season, replacing Sergio Pérez. In line with a new rule introduced in Formula One for the 2014 season – where drivers picked a car number that they would use during their career – Magnussen raced with number 20 as this was the number he had on his DAMS car in 2013 when he won the championship. At the Jerez and Bahrain pre-season tests he topped the timesheets, at the first race in Australia, he qualified in fourth position. In the race itself, Magnussen avoided crashing at the start – after his car encountered oversteer through wheelspin – and after passing Lewis Hamilton's ailing Mercedes in the early stages, Magnussen maintained position to take a third-place finish.
As a result, Magnussen became only the second Danish driver – after his father Jan, sixth at the 1998 Canadian Grand Prix – to take a points-scoring finish, the first debutant, since Hamilton at the 2007 Australian Grand Prix, to take a podium in his first Grand Prix. After the race, Magnussen described the result as "like a victory", he was promoted to second place in the results, after Ricciardo was disqualified due to fuel irregularities, making him the first rookie to finish second since Jacques Villeneuve at the 1996 Australian Grand Prix. Magnussen recorded eleven further points-scoring finishes throughout 2014, the majority being ninth- or tenth-place finishes. On 11 December 2014, it was announced Fernando Alonso would be returning to McLaren to partner Button, leaving Magnussen to be a test and reserve driver for McLaren; the driver had talks with Honda-powered team Andretti Autosport to compete in the IndyCar Series, but McLaren blocked the deal. On 3 March 2015, McLaren announced that Magnussen would replace Fernando Alonso in the Australian Grand Prix, after doctors advised Alonso to not race due to a concussion obtained during a testing incident on 22 February.
However, Magnussen failed to start the race after suffering an engine failure on the formation lap. On 5 October 2015, he received an e-mail from the personal assistant of McLaren chairman, Ron Dennis, releasing him from McLaren; this was made public by McLaren on 16 October. After being released by McLaren, Magnussen was confirmed to have been in discussion to drive for the Haas F1 Team, before Romain Grosjean and Esteban Gutiérrez were named as the team's drivers. Magnussen had been in talks about a seat at Manor Racing in Formula One as well. Magnussen tested a Mercedes DTM car, Porsche's LMP1 car, hinting that he may have had options outside Formula One, including IndyCar, where he was believed to have entered talks with Bryan Herta Autosport about a drive. On 28 January 2016, unconfirmed reports emerged that Magnussen was set to replace Pastor Maldonado at Renault, partnering rookie Jolyon Palmer for the upcoming season, following a breach of contract between Maldonado and the team. On 3 February, Renault confirmed.
He scored points twice with a seventh-place finish at Russia and a tenth place at Singapore, finishing the season in 16th. On 10 November 2016, it was announced that Magnussen signed a contract with Haas for 2017. After signing with Haas he became the only driver to contest in the Grand Prix with all four engine manufacturers in the turbo hybrid era, he scored at five races, with a seventh-place finish at Azerbaijan as best result, finished 14th in the Drivers' Championship. Magnussen retained his drive for the 2018 season, he would score his first, as of March 2019 last, fastest lap at the Singapore Grand Prix. On 28 September 2018 it was confirmed that Magnussen would continue to drive for Haas for the 2019 season. Magnussen lived in Woking, near the McLaren Technology Centre whilst racing for McLaren. After leaving McLaren he moved back to Roskilde in Denmark, he now lives in Dubai. Between participating in Formula Ford in 2008 and unexpectedly securing sponsorship for Formula Renault in 2009, Magnussen was forced to abandon his racing career and work as a factory welder due to lack of funding.
2015 Mexican Grand Prix
The 2015 Mexican Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez in Mexico City on 1 November 2015. The race, contested over seventy-one laps, was the seventeenth race of the 2015 Formula One season, it marked the seventeenth time that the Mexican Grand Prix had been run as a round of the Formula One World Championship since its inception in 1950, the first time that the race had been run since 1992. Nico Rosberg qualified in pole position, having been fastest in two of the three free practice sessions, he won the race for Mercedes, followed by his teammate Lewis Hamilton, who had secured the Drivers' Championship at the previous event in the United States. Valtteri Bottas completed the podium in third. Both Ferrari drivers—Sebastian Vettel and Kimi Räikkönen—retired after crashes, with both losing one position in the Championship to Rosberg and Bottas respectively, it was the first time since the 2006 Australian Grand Prix. The Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez circuit underwent substantial reconfiguration in the build-up to the event.
The first corner complex was tightened on entry, while the middle part of the track was re-profiled, retaining much of the original design whilst reducing the reliance on aerodynamic grip. The most significant changes were made in the final part, with the Peraltada corner cut in half and the circuit redirected through the Foro Sol stadium complex in the circuit infield beginning with turn 12, following a similar layout to the one used by Champ Car between 2002 and 2007; the track layout featured two drag reduction system zones, one on the main straight and another between turns three and four. One week prior to the race, Hurricane Patricia—the largest tropical storm cell in the Northern Hemisphere on record—crossed the Mexican coastline near Cuixmala in Jalisco state. Patricia had disrupted the United States Grand Prix. Tyre supplier Pirelli brought four compounds to the race; as for all races, the blue-banded wet and green-banded intermediate tyres were provided for possible rain. As for dry-weather tyres, Pirelli supplied the teams with the soft and medium compounds, the two middle options of their four tyres for the 2015 season.
Per the regulations for the 2015 season, three practice sessions were scheduled, two 1.5-hour sessions on Friday and another one-hour session before qualifying on Saturday. The first session on Friday started on a damp track, described by Sebastian Vettel as "ridiculously slippery", with the first half-hour of running done on intermediate tyres. Valtteri Bottas set the fastest time on those tyres, before all teams switched on the medium compound. On the dry tyres, still many drivers were fooled by the conditions, going off at turns 8 and 10 in particular. Nico Rosberg's Mercedes suffered from overheating rear brakes, forcing him back to the pit lane while he held the fastest time. Carlos Sainz Jr. recorded the most timed laps with 37, finished eighth fastest, ahead of local favourite Sergio Pérez and Felipe Massa. Jolyon Palmer again replaced Romain Grosjean at the wheel of the Lotus, as he would do for the rest of the season, finished fifteenth fastest, 0.2 seconds slower than teammate Pastor Maldonado.
The fastest time of the session was set by Max Verstappen in the Toro Rosso, at 1:25.990 though he went off in the second sector of the track. He was followed by the two Ferrari cars of Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel. While Rosberg was demoted to sixth, newly crowned World Champion Lewis Hamilton was only eleventh fastest. In the second session on Friday afternoon, Nico Rosberg was fastest, setting a time of 1:21.531. With the track tarmac still being new, the surface was slippery and it was another session that saw a lot of drivers get caught out; the biggest accident of the practice came after just five minutes, when Max Verstappen crashed at the exit of the stadium, bringing out red flags. After the running resumed, Valtteri Bottas lost the rear of his Williams FW37, caused by a fault in his DRS flap, crashed at turn one, he was not the only one having problems in the first corner, as Sergio Pérez, Carlos Sainz Jr. and Pastor Maldonado went off there. Lewis Hamilton meanwhile had an off-track moment at turn four.
Romain Grosjean had to end his first practice of the weekend early, when a clutch failure saw him park his car 28 minutes into the session. Jenson Button ran 25 laps and finished ninth fastest albeit spending half of the session in the pit lane, while the team equipped his car with a new power unit. Behind Rosberg, the two Red Bull drivers were second and third, ahead of Lewis Hamilton and Sebastian Vettel. Nico Rosberg was again fastest in the final practice session on Saturday morning with a time of 1:21.083, edging out teammate Hamilton by 0.014 seconds. After rainfall during the night, the track was slippery at the beginning of practice, it was not until thirty minutes into the session that the grip improved and many teams opted to run the faster soft compound tyres. Rosberg set the fastest times early on and while Hamilton was able to close the gap he ended the session slower than Rosberg. Behind the two Mercedes cars, Daniel Ricciardo was 0.118 seconds behind, followed by Vettel, another tenth of a second adrift.
Reporting vibrations from his engine, Jenson Button again spent much time in the garage, ending the practice with the slowest time, more than eight seconds behind Rosberg. The long main straight of the Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez delivered the fastest speeds seen during the 2015 season. Due to their lack of pure power, McLaren expected to struggle during the remainder of the weekend. Qualifying consisted of three part
McLaren Racing Limited is a British motor racing team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Surrey, England. McLaren is best known as a Formula One constructor but competes in the Indianapolis 500 and has won the Canadian-American Challenge Cup; the team is the second oldest active Formula One team after Ferrari, where they compete as McLaren F1 Team. They are the second most successful team in Formula One history after Ferrari, having won 182 races, 12 Drivers' Championships and eight Constructors' Championships; the team is a wholly owned subsidiary of the McLaren Group. Founded in 1963 by New Zealander Bruce McLaren, the team won its first Grand Prix at the 1968 Belgian Grand Prix, but their greatest initial success was in Can-Am, which they dominated from 1967 to 1971. Further American triumph followed, with Indianapolis 500 wins in McLaren cars for Mark Donohue in 1972 and Johnny Rutherford in 1974 and 1976. After Bruce McLaren died in a testing accident in 1970, Teddy Mayer took over and led the team to their first Formula One Constructors' Championship in 1974, with Emerson Fittipaldi and James Hunt winning the Drivers' Championship in 1974 and 1976 respectively.
The year 1974 marked the start of a long-standing sponsorship by Phillip Morris' Marlboro cigarette brand. In 1981, McLaren merged with Ron Dennis' Project Four Racing; this began the team's most successful era: with Porsche and Honda engines, Niki Lauda, Alain Prost, Ayrton Senna took between them seven Drivers' Championships and the team took six Constructors' Championships. The combination of Prost and Senna was dominant—together they won all but one race in 1988—but their rivalry soured and Prost left for Ferrari. Fellow English team Williams offered the most consistent challenge during this period, the two winning every constructors' title between 1984 and 1994. However, by the mid-1990s, Honda had withdrawn from Formula One, Senna had moved to Williams, the team went three seasons without a win. With Mercedes-Benz engines, West sponsorship, former Williams designer Adrian Newey, further championships came in 1998 and 1999 with driver Mika Häkkinen, during the 2000s the team were consistent front-runners, driver Lewis Hamilton taking their latest title in 2008.
Ron Dennis retired as McLaren team principal in 2009, handing over to long time McLaren employee Martin Whitmarsh. However, at the end of 2013, after the team's worst season since 2004, Whitmarsh was ousted. McLaren announced in 2013 that they would be using Honda engines from 2015 onwards, replacing Mercedes-Benz; the team raced as McLaren-Honda for the first time since 1992 at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix. In September 2017, McLaren announced they had agreed on an engine supply with Renault from 2018 to 2020. Bruce McLaren Motor Racing was founded in 1963 by New Zealander Bruce McLaren. Bruce was a works driver for the British Formula One team Cooper with whom he had won three Grands Prix and come second in the 1960 World Championship. Wanting to compete in the Australasian Tasman Series, Bruce approached his employers, but when team owner Charles Cooper insisted on using 1.5-litre Formula One-specification engines instead of the 2.5-litre motors permitted by the Tasman rules, Bruce decided to set up his own team to run him and his prospective Formula One teammate Timmy Mayer with custom-built Cooper cars.
Bruce won the 1964 series, but Mayer was killed in practice for the final race at the Longford Circuit in Tasmania. When Bruce McLaren approached Teddy Mayer to help him with the purchase of the Zerex sports car from Roger Penske, Teddy Mayer and Bruce McLaren began discussing a business partnership resulting in Teddy Mayer buying in to Bruce McLaren Motor Racing Limited becoming its largest shareholder; the team was based in Feltham in 1963–1964, from 1965 until 1981 in Colnbrook, England. The team held the British licence. Despite this, Bruce never used the traditional British racing green on his cars. Instead, he used colour schemes. During this period, Bruce drove for his team in sports car races in the United Kingdom and North America and entered the 1965 Tasman Series with Phil Hill, but did not win it, he continued to drive in Grands Prix for Cooper, but judging that team's form to be waning, decided to race his own cars in 1966. Bruce made the team's Grand Prix debut at the 1966 Monaco race.
His race ended after nine laps due to a terminal oil leak. The 1966 car was the M2B designed by Robin Herd, but the programme was hampered by a poor choice of engines: a 3.0-litre version of Ford's Indianapolis 500 engine and a Serenissima V8 were used, the latter scoring the team's first point in Britain, but both were underpowered and unreliable. For 1967 Bruce decided to use a British Racing Motors V12 engine, but due to delays with the engine, was forced to use a modified Formula Two car called the M4B powered by a 2.1-litre BRM V8 building a similar but larger car called the M5A for the V12. Neither car brought the best result being a fourth at Monaco. For 1968, after driving McLaren's sole entry for the previous two years, Bruce was joined by 1967 champion and fellow New Zealander Denny Hulme, racing for McLaren in Can-Am; that year's new M7A car, Herd's final design for the team, was powered by Cosworth's new and soon to be ubiquitous DFV engine and with
Scuderia Ferrari S.p. A. is the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer Ferrari and the racing team that competes in Formula One racing. The team is nicknamed "The Prancing Horse", with reference to their logo, it is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, having competed in every world championship since the 1950 Formula One season. The team was founded by Enzo Ferrari to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. Among its important achievements outside Formula One are winning the World Sportscar Championship, 24 Hours of Le Mans, 24 Hours of Spa, 24 Hours of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring, Bathurst 12 Hour, races for Grand tourer cars and racing on road courses of the Targa Florio, the Mille Miglia and the Carrera Panamericana; as a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors' Championships, the last of, won in 2008. Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers' Championships for the team.
Since Räikkönen's title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers' title with Felipe Massa and the 2010 and 2012 drivers' titles with Fernando Alonso. Michael Schumacher is the team's most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five drivers' titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team, his titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, the team won consecutive constructors' title from 1999 until the end of 2004. Sebastian Vettel and Charles Leclerc are the two main race drivers; the team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the team's home race; the Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the racing team of Alfa Romeo and racing Alfa Romeo cars. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to re-enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, which absorbed what had been Scuderia Ferrari. Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was dismissed by Alfa in 1939.
The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport for a period of four years. In 1939, Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815; the 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars. World War II put a temporary end to racing, Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, which would design and build its own cars; the team was based in Modena from its pre-war founding until 1943, when Enzo Ferrari moved the team to a new factory in Maranello in 1943, both Scuderia Ferrari and Ferrari's roadcar factory remain at Maranello to this day. The team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, used for testing road and race cars; the team is named after Enzo Ferrari. Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams.
The prancing horse was the symbol on Italian World War I ace Francesco Baracca's fighter plane, became the logo of Ferrari after the fallen ace's parents, close acquaintances of Enzo Ferrari, suggested that Ferrari use the symbol as the logo of the Scuderia, telling him it would'bring him good luck'. In May 1947, Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder, 1.5 L Tipo 125, the first racing car to bear the Ferrari name. A Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grands Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, Scuderia Ferrari entered in this first season, it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. In fact the Ferrari team missed the first race of the championship, the 1950 British Grand Prix, due to a dispute about the'start money' paid to entrants, the team debuted in the 1950 Monaco Grand Prix with the 125 F1, sporting a supercharged version of the 125 V12, three experienced and successful drivers, Alberto Ascari, Raymond Sommer and Gigi Villoresi.
The company switched to the large-displacement aspirated formula for the 275, 340, 375 F1 cars. The Alfa Romeo team dominated the 1950 Formula One season, winning all eleven events it entered, but Ferrari broke their streak in 1951 when rotund driver José Froilán González took first place at the 1951 British Grand Prix. After the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars. Ferrari entered the 2.0 L 4-cyl Ferrari Tipo 500, which went on to win every race in which it competed in the 1952 Formula One season with drivers Ascari, Giuseppe Farina, Piero Taruffi. In the 1953 Formula One season, Ascari won only five races but another world title; the 1954 Formula One season brought new rules for 2.5 L engines. Ferrari had only two wins, González at the 1954 British Grand Prix and Mike Hawthorn a
Oxfordshire is a county in South East England. The ceremonial county borders Warwickshire to the north-west, Northamptonshire to the north-east, Buckinghamshire to the east, Berkshire to the south, Wiltshire to the south-west and Gloucestershire to the west; the county has major education and tourist industries and is noted for the concentration of performance motorsport companies and facilities. Oxford University Press is the largest firm among a concentration of publishing firms; as well as the city of Oxford, other centres of population are Banbury, Bicester and Chipping Norton to the north of Oxford. The areas south of the Thames, the Vale of White Horse and parts of South Oxfordshire, are in the historic county of Berkshire, as is the highest point, the 261 metres White Horse Hill. Oxfordshire's county flower is the snake's-head fritillary. Oxfordshire was recorded as a county in the early years of the 10th century and lies between the River Thames to the south, the Cotswolds to the west, the Chilterns to the east and the Midlands to the north, with spurs running south to Henley-on-Thames and north to Banbury.
Although it had some significance as an area of valuable agricultural land in the centre of the country, it was ignored by the Romans, did not grow in importance until the formation of a settlement at Oxford in the 8th century. Alfred the Great was born across the Thames in Vale of White Horse; the University of Oxford was founded in 1096, though its collegiate structure did not develop until on. The university in the county town of Oxford grew in importance during the Middle Ages and early modern period; the area was part of the Cotswolds wool trade from the 13th century, generating much wealth in the western portions of the county in the Oxfordshire Cotswolds. Morris Motors was founded in Oxford in 1912, bringing heavy industry to an otherwise agricultural county; the importance of agriculture as an employer has declined in the 20th century though. Nonetheless, Oxfordshire remains a agricultural county by land use, with a lower population than neighbouring Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, which are both smaller.
Throughout most of its history the county was divided into fourteen hundreds, namely Bampton, Binfield, Bullingdon, Dorchester, Langtree, Pyrton, Ploughley and Wootton. The Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, the main army unit in the area, was based at Cowley Barracks on Bullingdon Green, Cowley; the Vale of White Horse district and parts of the South Oxfordshire administrative district south of the River Thames were part of Berkshire, but in 1974 Abingdon, Faringdon and Wantage were added to the administrative county of Oxfordshire under the Local Government Act 1972. Conversely, the Caversham area of Reading, now administratively in Berkshire, was part of Oxfordshire as was the parish of Stokenchurch, now administratively in Buckinghamshire. Oxfordshire includes parts of three Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty. In the north-west lie the Cotswolds, to the south and south-east are the open chalk hills of the North Wessex Downs and wooded hills of the Chilterns; the north of the county contains the ironstone of the Cherwell uplands.
Long-distance walks within the county include the Ridgeway National Trail, Macmillan Way, Oxfordshire Way and the D’Arcy Dalton Way. Northernmost point: 52°10′6.58″N 1°19′54.92″W, near Claydon Hay Farm, Claydon Southernmost point: 51°27′34.74″N 0°56′48.3″W, near Thames and Kennet Marina, Playhatch Westernmost point: 51°46′59.73″N 1°43′9.68″W, near Downs Farm, Westwell Easternmost point: 51°30′14.22″N 0°52′13.99″W, River Thames, near Lower Shiplake The central part of Oxfordshire contains the River Thames with its flat floodplains. The Thames Path National Trail parallels the river as it crosses Oxfordshire, continuing towards London. There are many smaller rivers that feed into the Thames such as the Thame, Windrush and Cherwell; some of these rivers have trails running along their valleys. The Oxford Canal follows the Cherwell from Banbury to Kidlington. Oxfordshire contains a green belt area that envelops the city of Oxford, extends for some miles to afford a protection to surrounding towns and villages from inappropriate development and urban growth.
Its border in the east extends to the Buckinghamshire county boundary, while part of its southern border is shared with the North Wessex Downs AONB. It was first drawn up in the 1950s, all the county's districts contain some portion of the belt; this is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Oxfordshire at current basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling. The Oxfordshire County Council, since 2013 under no overall control, is responsible for the most strategic local government functions, including schools, county roads, social services; the county is divided into five local government districts: Oxford, Vale of White Horse, West Oxfordshire and South Oxfordshire, which deal with such matters as town and country planning, waste collection, housing. In the 2016 European Union referendum, Oxfordshire was the only English cou