Archduchy of Austria
The Archduchy of Austria was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy. With its capital at Vienna, the archduchy was centered at the Empire's southeastern periphery; the Archduchy developed out of the Bavarian Margraviate of Austria, elevated to the Duchy of Austria according to the 1156 Privilegium Minus by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. The House of Habsburg came to the Austrian throne in Vienna in 1282 and in 1453 Emperor Frederick III Austrian ruler adopted the archducal title. From the 15th century onwards, all Holy Roman Emperors but one were Austrian archdukes and with the acquisition of the Bohemian and Hungarian crown lands in 1526, the Habsburg "hereditary lands" became the centre of a major European power; the Archduchy's history as an Imperial State ended with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in 1806. It was replaced with the Upper Austria crown lands of the Austrian Empire. Located in the Danube basin, Austria bordered on the Kingdom of Hungary beyond the March and Leitha rivers in the east.
In the south it was confined by the Duchy of Styria, with the border at the historic Semmering Pass, while in the north the Bohemian Forest and the Thaya river marked the border with Bohemia and Moravia. In the west, the Upper Austrian part bordered on the Bavarian stem duchy; the adjacent Innviertel region belonged to the Bavarian dukes, until it was occupied by Austrian forces during the War of the Bavarian Succession in 1778 and incorporated into the archducal lands according to the Peace of Teschen. In the course of the German mediatisation in 1803, the Austrian archdukes acquired the rule over the Electorate of Salzburg and the Berchtesgaden Provostry. After Austria was detached from Bavaria and established as an Imperial estate in 1156, the Babenberg dukes acquired the neighbouring Duchy of Styria in 1192. After the extinction of the line in 1246 and the occupation by King Ottokar II of Bohemia, it was seized by the Habsburg king Rudolf I of Germany, who defeated Ottokar in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld and enfeoffed his son Albert I.
In 1358/59 the Habsburg duke Rudolf IV, in response of the Golden Bull of 1356 claimed the archducal title by forging the Privilegium Maius. Rudolf aimed to achieve a status comparable to the Empire's seven prince-electors, holders of the traditional Imperial'arch'-offices. By the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, his heirs divided the Habsburg lands, whereafter the Austrian duchy remained under the rule of the Albertinian line. On Epiphany 1453 Emperor Frederick III, regent of Austria for his minor Albertinian cousin Ladislaus the Posthumous acknowledged the archducal title, it was conferred to all Habsburg emperors and rulers, as well as to the non-ruling princes of the dynasty, however, it still did not carry the right to vote in the Imperial election. Frederick further promoted the rise of the Habsburg dynasty into European dimensions with the arrangement of the marriage between his son Maximilian I and Mary the Rich, heiress of Burgundy in 1477. After Maximilian's son Philip the Handsome in 1496 had married Joanna the Mad, Queen of Castile and the Kingdom of Aragon, his son Charles V could come into an inheritance "on which the sun never sets".
Charles' younger brother Ferdinand I claimed his rights and became Archduke of Austria according to an estate distribution at the 1521 Diet of Worms, whereby he became regent over the Austrian archduchy and the adjacent Inner Austrian lands of Styria, Carinthia and Gorizia. By marrying Princess Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, Ferdinand inherited both kingdoms in 1526. King of the Romans from 1531, he became the progenitor of the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, which as Archdukes of Austria and Kings of Bohemia ruled as Holy Roman Emperors until the Empire's dissolution in 1806. In 1804, Emperor Francis II of Habsburg, ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy promoted his territories within the Holy Roman Empire together with his Kingdom of Hungary to the Austrian Empire in reaction to Napoleon I's proclamation of the French Empire; the Archduchy of Austria continued to exist as a constituent crown land within the empire, although it was divided into Upper and Lower Austria for some purposes.
Hungary preserved. The title of archduke continued to be used by members of the imperial family and the archduchy was only formally dissolved in 1918 with collapse of Austria-Hungary and the creation of the separate federal states of Lower and Upper Austria in the new Republic of German Austria. History of Austria List of rulers of Austria
Brunegg castle is a castle in the municipality of Brunegg in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. The castle was built on a hill at the edge of the Jura mountains in the 13th Century; this castle was built, together with Wildegg castle in nearby Wildegg, as part of the Habsburg border defenses. The castle was occupied by Habsburg knights, including Schenken von Brunegg and Gessler von Meienberg. In 1415 the castle was besieged by Bernese troops. However, Bern conquered the Aargau, awarded the fief to the Segenser or Segesser family. Between 1538-1798, the castle was subordinate to the Governor of Lenzburg. In 1815 it became the property of the Hünerwadel family of Lenzburg; the current owners of the castle, the von Salis family, inherited the castle through marriage from the Hünerwadels. For hundreds of years, the castle was poorly maintained, in the 17th Century it was damaged twice through storm and tempest. In 1805-06, the keep and out buildings were repaired and the roof was rebuilt; the village of Brunegg owes its existence to the castle.
It belonged to the personal land of the Habsburgs. In the 14th Century, they granted the rights to low justice into the hands of the castle owners. Bern placed in the court of Othmarsingen in the Lenzburg district. In the 19th Century it was part of the Brugg district though since 1840 it has been in the Lenzburg district. List of castles and fortresses in Switzerland
Horben Castle is a castle in the municipality of Beinwil in the canton of Aargau. It is located at an elevation of 818 meters in the Horben-Hochebene near the border with the Canton of Lucerne. In the 12th Century Muri Abbey owned a farm on the Horben hill. In 1700 Abbot Placidus Zurlauben build a rest home for the sacristan on the hill; the lower Prince-Abbot Gerold Haimb had the Chapel of St. Wendelin and Ubaldus built in 1730 near the home. Between 1752-76, during Abbot Bonaventure Bucher's term of office, the house and chapel were rebuilt into their present form. In 1762 the interior was furnished with wall paintings and rococo statues by Caspar Wolf. After the dissolution of the monasteries in the Aargau in 1841, Horgen Castle was acquired by the Canton. In 1842 it was sold to a private purchaser, it belonged, together with the nearby monastery, to the National Councilman Peter Suter from Sins. From 1885-1913 it was owned by District Officer Kaspar Weber of Muri, since 1913 by the family Borsing.
In 1979-80 the castle underwent a total restoration. List of castles and fortresses in Switzerland Horben in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Böttstein Castle is a castle in the municipality of Böttstein in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. The castle was built in the 12th century for the Barons of Böttstein; the family first appears in a historical records in 1087, though they died out in the early 13th century. The family was subject to the Earl of Frickgau, which included the Homberg-Tierstein family and after 1231, the Habsburgs. After the extinction of the Böttstein line, the castle became the property of the Barons of Tiefenstein in the 13th century. In 1361 the Lords of Wessenberg were granted the castle and surrounding villages as a fief by Duke Rudolf of Austria. After the Old Swiss Confederacy conquered the Aargau in 1415, the local rulers and their jurisdiction remained the same, only the overlords changed; the villages and castle passed through a number of owners until 1563 when they were sold to the Lords of Hallwil. After passing through several other owners on 5 June 1606 the von Roll brothers, Johann Peter, Johann Walter and Karl Emanuel, bought Böttstein for 1,800 florins.
They were joined in 1615 by Johann Ludwig. In the same year, the von Roll brothers demolished parts of the old castle and began building a new castle and chapel. In 1654 the von Roll estates were divided and Johann Peter inherited the castle, it passed down to his son Karl Ernst, who only had a daughter, named Anna Maria Magdalena von Roll. In 1674 she married Johann Martin Schmid von Bellikon, they owned the surrounding villages until the 1798 French Invasion and the creation of the Helvetic Republic abolished much of the power of the nobility. Böttstein became part of the Helvetic Canton of Baden until the collapse of the Republic and the 1803 Act of Mediation in which the modern Canton of Aargau was created. Despite losing their power over the village, the family retained the castle until 1893; the following year the castle became a monastery of a spiritual organization that called itself Internationales Töchterinstitut. The Institute disbanded and the castle passed through a number of owners until 1965.
In that year it was acquired by Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG, an association of cantonal power companies in north-east Switzerland. The castle was used to provide office space for the technical department during construction of the Beznau Nuclear Power Plant, it was converted into a country restaurant and hotel. After being sold by Axpo Holding, the Castle today remains in Private ownership; the Castle continues to be a country hotel and restaurants List of castles and fortresses in Switzerland Schloss Böttstein bei InfoZentralschweiz online Website Schloss Böttstein Aargau Canton Historic Preservation Department
House of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg called the House of Austria, was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740; the house produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they maintained close relations and intermarried; the House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title.
The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, 13th centuries. By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria. Rudolph became King of Germany in 1273, the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs and their descendants ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy and its colonial empire, Bohemia and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty; the House of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon; the remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, in 1780 with the death of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa of Austria.
It was succeeded by the Vaudémont branch of the House of Lorraine, descendants of Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The new successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, because it was confusingly still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the unofficial appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918; the Lorraine branch continues to exist to this day and its members use the Habsburg name. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, its industrial base was thin, its naval resources were so minimal. It typified by Metternich. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries.
Their principal roles were as follows: Holy Roman Emperors, kings of Germany, kings of the Romans) Rulers of Austria Kings of Bohemia Kings of Hungary and Croatia Kings of Spain Kings of Portugal Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria Grand princes of Transylvania Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above. The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century, forewith farther back as the early medieval Adalrich, Duke of Alsace, father of the Etichonids from which Habsburg derives, his grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg, or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby; the first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.
The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 12th and 13th centuries. The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges countship rights in Zürichgau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Swabia, they were able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg. By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosg
Lenzburg Castle is a castle located above the old part of the town of Lenzburg in the Canton of Aargau, Switzerland. It ranks among the oldest and most important of Switzerland; the castle stands on the circular castle hill, which rises 100 m over the surrounding plain but is only about 250 m in diameter. The oldest parts of the castle date to the 11th century, when the Counts of Lenzburg built it as their seat; the castle, its historical museum and the castle hill with its Neolithic burial grounds are listed as heritage sites of national significance. The prominent hill was a settlement site in prehistoric times. For example, in 1959 a Neolithic gravesite was uncovered in the carpark. There have been small discoveries from the Roman and Alemannic eras. A legend tells that there was once a dragon living in a cave in the hillside, defeated by two knights and Guntram; the grateful people made the two Counts of Lenzburg and gave them permission to build a castle on the hilltop. A charter dated 1036 names one Count of Aargau.
He was overseer of the abbeys of Beromünster and Schänis. The first definite record of the existence of a castle dates to 1077: Ulrich's grandson Ulrich, had taken the emperor's position in the Investiture Controversy and imprisoned two Papal legates for half a year. At that time the Counts of Lenzburg were among the most important feudal lords on the Swiss plateau and maintained close connections to the emperor; the line died out in 1173. Ulrich IV, the last Count of Lenzburg, named Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa as his personal heir in his will; the emperor came to Lenzburg Castle and supervised the division of the estate, giving a majority of the lands to his son, the Count palatine Otto of Burgundy. However, after Otto's death in 1200, the House of Hohenstaufen was forced to withdraw from the Aargau. By way of two neighbouring aristocratic houses, in about 1230 Lenzburg castle came by marriage into the possession of the Counts of Kyburg, they founded a fortified market settlement at the western base of the castle hill, today's town of Lenzburg.
Hartmann, the last Count of Kyburg, died in 1264 without male issue. Rudolph I, Count of Habsburg and King of the Romans, placed the heir, Anna of Kyburg, under his protection and she married Eberhard I of Habsburg-Laufenburg. In 1273 Rudolph took possession of the estate from his impoverished relatives and in 1275 held court there. However, the castle declined into a regional seat of government, as the power of the Habsburgs shifted more and more to Austria. On 20 August 1306, Lenzburg received its charter as a town from Count Frederick the Fair. From 1339 on, Count Frederick II of Tyrol-Austria resided at the castle, he was to have married a daughter of King Edward III of England and had the Knights' Hall built for the purpose, but died in 1344 without seeing his bride, the building remained incomplete. After 1369, the Schultheiss-Ribi family were tenants of the castle. In 1375 the castle underwent a siege by the Gugler; the latent tensions between Sigismund, King of Germany and Frederick IV, Duke of Austria exploded in 1415 at the Council of Constance, when Frederick assisted one of the three reigning popes, Antipope John XXIII, in escaping from the town.
Sigismund took the opportunity to harm his opponent, ordering his neighbours to seize his lands in the name of the Empire. Bern willingly conquered the western part of the Aargau; the town of Lenzburg surrendered to the advancing army on 20 April, but the castle for the moment remained untouched by the conflict. Konrad of Weinsberg, the king's representative, attempted to secure it for the Empire and had it prepared for a siege, but by August he saw the futility of this plan and in 1418 returned the castle to the control of the Schultheiss family. After lengthy negotiations, Bern was able to secure control of the County of Lenzburg as subtenants in 1433 and in 1442 of the castle; the first Bernese Landvogt took up residence in the castle in 1444, governing the district of Lenzburg from there. The duties of a Landvogt included collecting taxes, implementing administrative measures and police tasks and the power of military decree; the Landvogt was elected from the ranks of the city council of Bern for four-year terms.
The best known Landvogt of Lenzburg was Adrian I of Bubenberg, from 1457 to 1461 Schultheiß of Bern and hero of the Battle of Morat. In 1509–10, extensive work was carried out at the castle, including partial demolition and rebuilding of the unfinished Knights' Hall. In 1518 there was a serious fire. In 1520 the Landvogt received the Landvogtei. During the Second war of Kappel in 1531, the castle served as base of operations for the Protestants. In 1624 Landvogt Joseph Plepp drew the first precise drawings and plans of the castle, which at the time had more the appearance of a fortified farmhouse, his plans formed the basis for plans to expand it into a fortress. As the first step, in 1625 a double curtain wall and double gatehouse were constructed in a new position in the north section and the height of the earthen embankments on the east and south sides was increased. From 1642 to 1646, a wall eleven metres high was raised to form the east bastion. However, lack of money prevented execution of the remaining projects.
The east bastion had a major disadvantage: rainwater seeped through the adjacent walls and rendered the Landvogt's residence uninhabitable due to persistent
Hallwyl Castle is one of the most important moated castles in Switzerland. It is located on two islands in the River Aabach, just north of the northern end of Lake Hallwil in the municipality of Seengen in the canton of Aargau. Since 1925, it has been open to the public, since 1994 it has been owned by the canton of Aargau and is part of the museum of Aargau; the first mention of the castle is in the year 1256. However, the free noble family of Hallwyl were first mentioned in a testament from 1167; some discoveries indicate. Hallwyl Castle was the home castle of the Lords of Hallwyl, who owned the surrounding land and parts of the lake as their personal property, it consisted of a residential tower with a dry moat. In 1265 the keep was expanded. In the early 14th century the dry ditch was converted into a moat; the old castle tower was surrounded by a wall on what became the Rear Island. To the east of the Rear Island, an artificial island was built in the River Aabach; this island, the Front Island, was outfitted with a curtain wall, was occupied by residential and commercial buildings.
During the conquest of Aargau in 1415 by the Swiss Confederation, the castle was burnt by the Bernese troops. The castle was rebuilt and expanded. After the construction of two turrets in 1500 and 1579-1590 there was an extensive general renovation. After long neglect, the castle was rebuilt in neo-Gothic style in 1861 and 1870-74. However, this project was reversed in 1914. In 1925 the family foundation made an effort to preserve the castle. Since 1994, it has been in possession of the Canton of Aargau. Excavations and building research, led by Swedish archaeologist Nils Lithberg, were carried out in 1910-16 on behalf of Wilhelmina von Hallwyl. Further research, which came up with new dates, was done by the Canton of Aargau Archaeology in 1995-2003; the Internet Movie Database lists Schloss Hallwyl as a filming location for Erwin C. Dietrich's comedy, Die Sexabenteuer der drei Musketiere. List of castles and fortresses in Switzerland Museum Aargau Hallwyl in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland