Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom
Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom are administered by the UK governments Office of Communications. For this purpose Ofcom established a telephone numbering plan, known as the National Telephone Numbering Plan, since 28 April 2001, almost all geographic numbers and most non-geographic numbers have 9 or 10 national numbers after the 0 trunk code. All mobile telephone numbers have 10 national numbers after the 0 trunk code, regions with shorter area codes, typically large cities, permit the allocation of more telephone numbers as the local number portion has more digits. Local customer numbers are four to eight figures long, the total number of digits is ten, but in a very few areas the total may be nine digits. The area code is referred to as an STD or a dialling code in the UK. The code allocated to the largest population is for London, the code allocated to the largest area is for all of Northern Ireland. The UK Numbering Plan applies to three British Crown dependencies—Jersey and the Isle of Man—even though they are not part of the UK itself.
Possible number formats for UK telephone numbers are as follows, Number ranges starting 01 can have NSN length as 10 or 9 digits, the 0800 range can have NSN length as 10,9 or 7 digits. The 0845 range can have NSN length as 10 or 7 digits, the 0500 range has NSN length as 9 digits only. There are no numbers in the UK with an NSN length of 8 digits. Geographic telephone numbers in the UK always have nine or ten digits, four-digit area codes have either six-digit subscriber numbers or a mix of five- and six-digit subscriber numbers. Xxxxxx This is the used by most areas. It has an area code and a six digit subscriber number. These area codes were changed by adding a 1 directly after the zero as a part of PhONEday in 1995. Just short of 581 areas use this format, and the area range from 01200 to 01998. A small number of areas have a few subscriber numbers that have only five digits. That is, almost all area codes now have only six digit local numbers, six of the four-digit area codes are known as mixed areas as they share those four digits with the twelve five-digit area codes.
The numbers therefore have only nine digits after the initial zero trunk code and these area codes were changed by adding a 1 directly after the initial zero as a part of PhONEday in 1995
The Royal Institute of British Architects Stirling Prize is a British prize for excellence in architecture. It is named after the architect James Stirling and awarded annually by the Royal Institute of British Architects, the RIBA Stirling Prize is presented to the architects of the building that has made the greatest contribution to the evolution of architecture in the past year. The architects must be RIBA members, but the building can be anywhere in the European Union, Stirling Prize laureates receive a stipend of GB£20,000. The award was founded in 1996, and is considered to be the most prestigious award in the United Kingdom. It is publicised as the equivalent of the Booker Prize. The highest profile architectural award in British culture, the ceremony is televised by Channel 4. Six short-listed buildings are chosen from a long-list of buildings that have received a RIBA Award and these awards are given to buildings showing high architectural standards and substantial contribution to the local environment.
In addition to the RIBA Stirling Prize, five awards are given to buildings on the long-list. In 2015 they consist of, the RIBA National Award, the RIBA Regional Award, the Manser Medal, the Stephen Lawrence Prize, for years prior to 1996, the award was known as the Building of the Year Award. As the Building of the Year Award
The River Wandle is a river in south-east England. The names of the river and of Wandsworth are thought to have derived from the Old English Wendlesworth meaning Wendles Settlement, the river runs through southwest London and is about 9 miles long. It passes through the London Boroughs of Croydon, Merton, much of the River is accessible using the Wandle Trail. Rain falls on the North Downs, filters through the chalk, at the top of the catchment the river is mostly culverted. A second main source, at about 115 feet AOD is formed at Carshalton Ponds, other sources include the Norbury Brook/River Graveney tributary which rises near the Lower Addiscombe Road in Croydon and flows through the London Boroughs of Croydon and Merton. Two seasonal streams, the Coulsdon Bourne and the Caterham Bourne and they join together at Purley, run in a culvert north along the Brighton Road and join the River Wandle at the site of the, now defunct and Sugarloaf pub in South Croydon. In the late pleistocene, the river probably sprang from the north of the Vale of Holmesdale across the North Downs through the Merstham Gap, a wind gap.
In more recent times, rainwater falling on the Down percolates through the chalk and reappears as springs in central Croydon and Carshalton. The occasional stream, known as the Bourne, which runs through the Caterham valley is a source of the River Wandle, a series of ditches and culverts channels the water from Purley to Croydon. For many centuries the River Wandle rose from a spring near the Swan and it ran northwards along Southbridge Road and upon reaching Old Town it was 20 ft across and began to divide into smaller channels. The grounds of the Old Palace and Scarbrook Hill had several springs, ponds and canals where fish swam, the river flowed through Pitlake and on through two marshy fields — Froggs Mead and Stubbs Mead — drained to form Wandle Park in 1890. Local springs were used to form a lake in the park, but frequent drying up problems led to the lake being filled in. In 2012, the Wandle was restored to the surface in Wandle Park, a tributary starts in Thornton Heath as the Norbury Brook.
This flows north west to become the River Graveney and joins the Wandle near Summerstown, shortly before reaching the Thames the navigable Bell Lane Creek splits from the river, rejoining close to the confluence. Carshalton Village is home to Honeywood Museum, which includes displays, the river has been well-used since Roman times and was heavily industrialised in the 17th and 18th centuries, and was declared one of the most polluted rivers in England. The main industries were tobacco and textiles, the river was used to power 68 water wheels, of which only a few survive, such as at Merton Abbey Mills. The Liberty print works and Merton Board Mills once dominated the riverscape in what is now the London Borough of Merton. The concentration of industry in this area resulted in the stretch of the river running between Windsor Avenue and Colliers Wood High Street being diverted during the 18th century
London, or Greater London, is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London. It is organised into 33 local government districts, the 32 London boroughs, the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000, the region covers 1,572 km2 and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232, the Greater London Built-up Area—used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region.
The term Greater London has been and still is used to different areas in governance, history. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London, outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965. The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916, one of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan, a Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue. The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties, protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor and Eton in the authority.
The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCCs scheme, two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission, Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985 and its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994, a referendum held in 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999, in 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary.
The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson. The 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan, Greater London continues to include the most closely associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers. Thus it includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a way to the citys parks
Thornton Heath is a district of South London and part of the London Borough of Croydon. It is situated 7.2 miles south of Charing Cross, between the manor house and pond there was an isolated farmhouse. Eventually it would become the site for the station and the main expansion hub. In the 50-year period 1861–1911, Thornton Heath saw a transformation from isolated rural outpost to integrated metropolitan suburb. In its infancy, a new railway station sited in the eastern farmlands enabled that immediate area to evolve around a central point. In the late 19th century, the part of Thornton Heath. In the process, it became the final piece in a chain linking two major centres and Croydon, completing the greatest metropolitan expansion in the world at that time. The nearest places are Mitcham, South Norwood, Pollards Hill, Upper Norwood, there is a London Bus garage at the junction known as Thornton Heath Pond where the A23 Brighton Road splits from the A236 Croydon road. The nearest railway stations are Thornton Heath, Norwood Junction, croydons Tram system nearby has links to Wimbledon.
Architecturally, Thornton Heath is predominantly Victorian in both its residential and commercial sectors, there are a number of imposing, even grand, buildings surviving from this period. Two examples are St Pauls Church and St Albans Church, St Albans is an Anglican church and is listed Grade II. Built in 1889, it was the first church designed by the late Victorian architect Sir Ninian Comper and it is situated on a busy junction, as can be seen in the photograph. It is described as being of a perpendicular style with stone dressing. At the junction of the High Street and Parchmore Road, on a site previously called Walkers Green, stands the Clocktower, the Victorian baths did not survive, and were replaced by a modern sports and leisure centre in 2004. It cost £8m with £2. 8m from the British National Lottery Good Causes Fund through Sport England, Thornton Heath has a high degree of ethnic diversity. In the 2011 census, the Thornton Heath ward was 25% White British, 21% Black Caribbean, bensham Manor ward, which covers areas of Thornton Heath, was 19% White British, 18% Black Caribbean, 13% Black African and 11% Indian.
Thornton Heath gained a new centre in May 2004 which has proved popular. The popularity was such that turnstiles had to be fitted to improve security, the centre is owned by Croydon Council, but originally run by Parkwood Leisure, and now run by Fusion Lifestyle in partnership with the council
Postcodes in the United Kingdom
Postal codes used in the United Kingdom are known as postcodes. They are alphanumeric and were adopted nationally between 11 October 1959 and 1974, having been devised by the GPO, a full postcode is known as a postcode unit and designates an area with a number of addresses or a single major delivery point. For example, the postcode of the University of Roehampton in London is SW15 5PU, the postcode of GCHQ is GL51 0EX, where GL signifies the postal town of Gloucester. The postal town refers to an area and does not relate to a specific town. GL51 is one of the postcodes for the town of Cheltenham which is where GCHQ is located, the London post town covers 40% of Greater London. On inception it was divided into ten districts, EC, WC, N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W. The S and NE sectors were abolished and these divisions changed little, usually only changed for operational efficiency. Some older road signs in Hackney still indicate the North East sector/district, following the successful introduction of postal districts in London, the system was extended to other large towns and cities.
Liverpool was divided into Eastern, Northern and Western districts in 1864/65, in 1917 Dublin – still part of the United Kingdom – was divided into numbered postal districts. These continue in use in a form by An Post. In 1923 Glasgow was divided in a way to London. In January 1932 the Postmaster General approved the designation of some urban areas into numbered districts. In November 1934 the Post Office announced the introduction of numbered districts in every town in the United Kingdom large enough to justify it. Pamphlets were issued to each householder and business in ten areas notifying them of the number of the district in which their premises lay, the pamphlets included a map of the districts, and copies were made available at local head post offices. The public were invited to include the district number in the address at the head of letters. A publicity campaign in the following year encouraged the use of the district numbers, the slogan for the campaign was For speed and certainty always use a postal district number on your letters and notepaper. A poster was fixed to every box in the affected areas bearing the number of the district.
Every post office in the district was to display this information
Sutton is the principal town of the London Borough of Sutton in South London, England. It lies on the slopes of the North Downs, and has the administrative headquarters of the borough. It is located 10.4 miles south-south west of Charing Cross, an ancient parish, originally in the county of Surrey, Sutton is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as having two churches and two acres of meadow at that time. Suttons location on the London to Brighton turnpike from 1755 led to the establishment of coaching inns, when it was connected to central London by rail in 1847, the village began to grow into a town, and there was significant Victorian-era expansion. Suttons expansion and increase in population accelerated in the 20th century as part of the growth of London. It became a borough with neighbouring Cheam in 1934, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. Sutton has the largest library in the borough, several works of art, four conservation areas. It is home to a number of international companies and the sixth most important shopping area in London.
Sutton mainline railway station is the largest in the borough, with frequent services to central London, along with Wimbledon Studios, Sutton is a hub for filming in south-west London. Sutton is home to the Royal Marsden Hospital and the Institute of Cancer Research, the town has among the lowest levels of crime in Greater London. Sutton is home to a significant number of the boroughs schools, in 2011 Sutton was the top performing borough for GCSE results in England. The placename Sutton is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as Sudtone and it is formed from Old English sūth and tūn, meaning the south farm. It was probably in relation to Mitcham and Morden that it was considered southerly, the name was applied to Sutton Common and the Sutton New Town development in the 19th century. Archaeological finds in the date back over ten thousand years. An implement from the age was discovered close to the junction of Sutton High Street. The Roman road of Stane Street forms part of the boundary of the parish of Sutton.
The course of Stane Street through the area is now followed by the modern roads Stonecot Hill and London Road, some sources state the early name as Suthtone or Sudtana instead. Other place names appear in this charter are Bedintone, Cegeham
The Wrythe is an area inside the London Borough of Sutton. The area is referred to as Wrythe Green. The Wrythe is a ward of Sutton Council with a population at the 2011 Census of 10,163, the Wrythe areas history dates back to the Roman era. The Place-names of Surrey says that the name may come from Anglo-Saxon rið = streamlet, the population of the town is 10,384 residents. There are three schools in The Wrythe - Victor Seymour Infants School, Camden Junior School, Muschamp. Aa From the Nisa store, The Wrythe is about eight minutes away from Carshalton railway station, the 151 goes straight the way through it whereas the 157 serves the M&S branch and the 127 serves the college
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Metropolitan Police Service
As of March 2016, the Met employed 48,661 full-time personnel. This included 32,125 sworn police officers,9,521 police staff and this number excludes the 3,271 Special Constables, who work part-time and who have the same powers and uniform as their regular colleagues. This makes the Metropolitan Police the largest police force in the United Kingdom by a significant margin, the post of Commissioner was first held jointly by Sir Charles Rowan and Sir Richard Mayne. The post is occupied by the now-outgoing Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe. The Commissioners deputy, the Deputy Commissioner, is currently Craig Mackey, a number of informal names and abbreviations exists for the Metropolitan Police Service, the most common being the Met. In colloquial London, it is referred to as the Old Bill. The Met is referred to by the metonym Scotland Yard after the location of its headquarters in a road called Great Scotland Yard in Whitehall. The Mets current headquarters is New Scotland Yard, in Victoria, the Metropolitan Police Service, whose officers became affectionately known as bobbies, was founded in 1829 by Robert Peel under the Metropolitan Police Act 1829.
In 1839, the Marine Police Force, which had formed in 1798, was amalgamated into the Metropolitan Police. In 1837, it incorporated with the Bow Street Horse Patrol that had organised in 1805. Since January 2012, the Mayor of London is responsible for the governance of the Metropolitan Police through the Mayors Office for Policing, the mayor is able to appoint someone to act on his behalf, the current office-holder is Deputy Mayor for Policing and Crime, Sophie Linden. The work of MOPAC is scrutinised by the Police and Crime Committee of the London Assembly, the area policed by the Metropolitan Police Service is known as the Metropolitan Police District. In terms of policing, the Met is divided into a number of Borough Operational Command Units. The City of London is a police area and is the responsibility of the separate City of London Police. The British Transport Police are responsible for policing of the network in the United Kingdom. Within London, they are responsible for the policing of the London Underground, The Emirates Air Line.
There is a park police force, the Kew Constabulary, responsible for the Royal Botanic Gardens. Officers have limited powers in Scotland and Northern Ireland, within the MPD, the Met will take over the investigation of any serious crime from the British Transport Police and Ministry of Defence Police, if it is deemed appropriate
Charing Cross denotes the junction of Strand and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square in central London. It gives its name to several landmarks, including Charing Cross railway station, Charing Cross is named after the Eleanor cross that stood on the site, in what was once the hamlet of Charing. The site of the cross has been occupied since 1675 by a statue of King Charles I. A loose Victorian replica of the cross, the Queen Eleanor Memorial Cross, was erected a short distance to the east outside the railway station. Until 1931, Charing Cross referred to the part of Whitehall between Great Scotland Yard and Trafalgar Square, at least one property retains a Charing Cross postal address, Drummonds Bank, on the corner of Whitehall and The Mall, which is designated 49 Charing Cross. Since the early 19th century, Charing Cross has often been regarded as the centre of London. Erect a rich and stately carved cross, Whereon her statue shall with glory shine, George Peele The Famous Chronicle of King Edward the First The name of the area, Charing, is derived from the Old English word cierring, referring to a bend in the River Thames.
Folk etymology suggests the name derives from chère reine — dear queen in French — and this wooden sculpted cross was the work of the medieval sculptor, Alexander of Abingdon. It was destroyed in 1647 on the orders of Parliament during the Civil War, a 70 ft -high stone sculpture in front of Charing Cross railway station is a copy of the original cross. Erected in 1865, it is situated a few hundred yards to the east of the original cross and it was designed by the architect E. M. Barry and carved by Thomas Earp of Lambeth out of Portland stone, Mansfield stone and Aberdeen granite. It is not a replica, being more ornate than the original. A variation on the name appears to be Charygcrouche, near St Martin in the Fields, since 1675 the site of the cross has been occupied by a statue of King Charles I mounted on a horse. The site is recognised by convention as the centre of London for the purpose of indicating distances by road in favour of other measurement points. Charing Cross is marked on maps as a road junction.
Since 1 January 1931 this section of road has been designated part of the Whitehall thoroughfare, the cross has given its name to a railway station, a tube station, police station, hospital, a hotel, a theatre, and a music hall. Charing Cross Road the main route from the north was named after the railway station, at some time between 1232 and 1236, the Chapel and Hospital of St Mary Rounceval was founded at Charing. It occupied land at the corner of the modern Whitehall and into the centre of Northumberland Avenue and it was an Augustinian house, tied to a mother house at Roncesvalles in the Pyrenees. The house and lands were seized for the king in 1379, protracted legal action returned some rights to the prior, but in 1414, Henry V suppressed the alien houses
London Borough of Sutton
The London Borough of Sutton is a London borough in South West London and forms part of Outer London. It covers an area of 43 km2 and is the 80th largest local authority in England by population and it is one of the southernmost boroughs of London. It is south of the London Borough of Merton, west of the London Borough of Croydon, the local authority is Sutton London Borough Council. Its principal town is the eponymous Sutton, the Borough has some of the schools with the best results in the country. A Trust for London and New Policy Institute report noted that Sutton had the highest rate in London of pupils achieving 5 A* – C GCSEs, in December 2014 Sutton was described by a senior Government official as the most normal place in Britain. In connection with this, the leader of Sutton Council described the borough as quietly brilliant, low levels of recorded crime are a feature of the borough, being among the lowest in London. An Ipsos MORI poll in 2014 found that 97% of residents felt safe in the borough during the day, and 71% felt safe at night, a higher figure than in 2011.
The 2014 Family Hotspots Report, on the best places in England and Wales for families to live, the areas were identified as postcodes SM1, SM2 and SM3. A Rightmove study in 2015 found that Sutton was the fourth happiest borough in which to live out of 33 in London and it achieved the same placing in the 2016 survey. In 2014, a survey by eMoov found Sutton to be the easiest place in the country in which to sell a property, the London Borough of Sutton was one of the four vanguard areas selected in 2010 for the Big Society initiative. The borough includes the areas, The London Borough of Sutton was once made up of rural villages, the village feel persists, and places in the borough such as Carshalton and Belmont continue to be referred to as villages. The historic development of the borough is reflected in the number of areas designated as conservation areas and as areas of special local character. Descriptions of a selection of the cultural institutions and attractions are set out below. There were frequent productions at The Charles Cryer Studio Theatre, which is situated on the High Street in Carshalton Village and it was opened by His Royal Highness Prince Edward in 1991.
As well as drama and musicals, productions included comedy and dance, with material ranging from Shakespeare to Chekov to panto and childrens favourites, the theatres aim was to balance popularity with quality. The theatre served as a venue for local bands. The theatre is named after the man who led the campaign to open the Secombe Theatre, Sutton, in August 2016 Sutton Theatres Trust, which owned the theatre, went into administration and it closed permanently. The Secombe Theatre is in Cheam Road, adjacent to the Holiday Inn Hotel, the theatre was opened by Sir Harry, who lived in Sutton for over 30 years of his life