Hackney Downs railway station
It is 2 miles 78 chains down-line from London Liverpool Street. On the London Overground network the station is situated between London Fields and either Clapton or Rectory Road, Main line trains, operated by Abellio Greater Anglia, call at Hackney Downs between Liverpool Street and Tottenham Hale. Its three-letter station code is HAC and it is in Travelcard zone 2, the station was originally named Hackney Downs Junction until 1896. Today, it has a direct link to Hackney Central station. The station was opened on 27 May 1872 when the Great Eastern Railway opened the first part of its new line to Enfield Town to Stoke Newington. Just under a later, another line opened linking Hackney Downs to Coppermill Junction just south of Tottenham Hale on what was the main line to Cambridge. This new route offered a reduction in time for Cambridge and Shern Street station in Walthamstow on the Chingford line services. The route to Edmonton fully opened on 1 August 1872 and the Chingford line was opened in November 1873, when the station opened it had two platforms and two centre roads.
The station layout was changed in 1894 when the line between Bethnal Green and Hackney Downs was increased from two tracks to four tracks, the layout was changed to a four platformed station and had two signal boxes. After the Railways Act 1921 the countrys railways were grouped into four companies, at Hackney Downs the London & North Eastern Railway took over operations of the GER services. The semaphore signalling was replaced by single searchlight signals which were able to display three-aspects through different a changeable lens arrangement and it was in 1935 that electrification of the lines through Hackney was suggested, although many years were to pass before these plans came to fruition. The 1935 re-signalling saw the closure of Hackney Downs South signal box with the North signal box becoming plain Hackney Downs, on nationalisation in 1948 responsibility for operating the station fell to British Railways. The lines through Hackney were electrified in the late 1950s with electric services commencing operation on 21 November 1960, the original 1872 signal box was replaced by a new signal box located on platforms 2 and 3 in May of the same year.
The ticket hall was rebuilt in the early 1980s along with changes to the roofs on the platforms, the island platforms wooden roof was replaced with steel sheeting on the existing frames whilst the side platforms were left unaltered other than the removal of their dog-tooth fascia boards. This occupied the site of the former Graham Road GER goods depot which was accessed from the North London line, passenger services ceased circa 1992 although empty stock trains have used it since. The line is used in 2017. The signal box, installed in 1960 when the line was electrified, closed in May 2001 when signalling on the line was centralised at Liverpool Street, ticket barriers were installed in 2011. A pedestrian link between Hackney Downs and Hackney Central stations was opened in 2015, until Hackney Centrals closure in 1944, a passenger connection had linked the two stations
Ordnance Survey National Grid
The Ordnance Survey National Grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude. It is often called British National Grid, the Ordnance Survey devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys. Grid references are commonly quoted in other publications and data sources. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system is used to provide references for worldwide locations. European-wide agencies use UTM when mapping locations, or may use the Military Grid Reference System system, the grid is based on the OSGB36 datum, and was introduced after the retriangulation of 1936–1962. It replaced the previously used Cassini Grid which, up to the end of World War Two, had issued only to the military. The Airy ellipsoid is a regional best fit for Britain, more modern mapping tends to use the GRS80 ellipsoid used by the GPS, the British maps adopt a Transverse Mercator projection with an origin at 49° N, 2° W.
Over the Airy ellipsoid a straight grid, the National Grid, is placed with a new false origin. This false origin is located south-west of the Isles of Scilly, the distortion created between the OS grid and the projection is countered by a scale factor in the longitude to create two lines of longitude with zero distortion rather than one. Grid north and true north are aligned on the 400 km easting of the grid which is 2° W. 2° 0′ 5″ W. OSGB36 was used by Admiralty nautical charts until 2000 after which WGS84 has been used, a geodetic transformation between OSGB36 and other terrestrial reference systems can become quite tedious if attempted manually. The most common transformation is called the Helmert datum transformation, which results in a typical 7 m error from true, the definitive transformation from ETRS89 that is published by the OSGB is called the National Grid Transformation OSTN02. This models the detailed distortions in the 1936–1962 retriangulation, and achieves backwards compatibility in grid coordinates to sub-metre accuracy, the difference between the coordinates on different datums varies from place to place.
The longitude and latitude positions on OSGB36 are the same as for WGS84 at a point in the Atlantic Ocean well to the west of Great Britain. In Cornwall, the WGS84 longitude lines are about 70 metres east of their OSGB36 equivalents, the smallest datum shift is on the west coast of Scotland and the greatest in Kent. But Great Britain has not shrunk by 100+ metres, a point near Lands End now computes to be 27.6 metres closer to a point near Duncansby Head than it did under OSGB36. For the first letter, the grid is divided into squares of size 500 km by 500 km, there are four of these which contain significant land area within Great Britain, S, T, N and H. The O square contains an area of North Yorkshire, almost all of which lies below mean high tide
The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, The Century of Philosophy. In France, the doctrines of les Lumières were individual liberty and religious tolerance in opposition to an absolute monarchy. French historians traditionally place the Enlightenment between 1715, the year that Louis XIV died, and 1789, the beginning of the French Revolution, some recent historians begin the period in the 1620s, with the start of the scientific revolution. Les philosophes of the widely circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffee houses. The ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the Church, a variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, trace their intellectual heritage back to the Enlightenment. The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the scientific revolution, earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Francis Bacon, René Descartes, John Locke, and Baruch Spinoza.
The major figures of the Enlightenment included Cesare Beccaria, Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Hume, Adam Smith, Benjamin Franklin visited Europe repeatedly and contributed actively to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia. Thomas Jefferson closely followed European ideas and incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence, others like James Madison incorporated them into the Constitution in 1787. The most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopédie, the ideas of the Enlightenment played a major role in inspiring the French Revolution, which began in 1789. After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by an intellectual movement known as Romanticism. René Descartes rationalist philosophy laid the foundation for enlightenment thinking and his attempt to construct the sciences on a secure metaphysical foundation was not as successful as his method of doubt applied in philosophic areas leading to a dualistic doctrine of mind and matter.
His skepticism was refined by John Lockes 1690 Essay Concerning Human Understanding and his dualism was challenged by Spinozas uncompromising assertion of the unity of matter in his Tractatus and Ethics. Both lines of thought were opposed by a conservative Counter-Enlightenment. In the mid-18th century, Paris became the center of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines, the political philosopher Montesquieu introduced the idea of a separation of powers in a government, a concept which was enthusiastically adopted by the authors of the United States Constitution. Francis Hutcheson, a philosopher, described the utilitarian and consequentialist principle that virtue is that which provides, in his words. Much of what is incorporated in the method and some modern attitudes towards the relationship between science and religion were developed by his protégés David Hume and Adam Smith. Hume became a figure in the skeptical philosophical and empiricist traditions of philosophy.
Immanuel Kant tried to reconcile rationalism and religious belief, individual freedom and political authority, as well as map out a view of the sphere through private
Hackney Central (UK Parliament constituency)
Hackney Central was a borough constituency in what was the Metropolitan Borough of Hackney, in London. It returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the constituency was created under the Redistribution of Seats Act,1885 from 1885, and abolished for the 1950 general election. It was recreated for the 1955 general election, and abolished again for the 1983 general election, 1885-1918, The wards of Dalston and De Beauvoir Town, and part of Hackney ward. 1918-1950, The Metropolitan Borough of Hackney wards of Downs and Kingsland, 1955-1974, The Metropolitan Borough of Hackney wards of Albion, Kenninghall, Kingsmead, Pembury and Town Hall. 1974-1983, The London Borough of Hackney wards of Chatham, Kingsmead, Rectory, endorsed by the Coalition Government General Election 1939/40 Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940. W. S
Hackney Wick is an area of east London in the London Borough of Hackney and Tower Hamlets, adjacent to the boundary with Old Ford in Tower Hamlets. It is an inner-city development situated 5 miles northeast of Charing Cross, west of its area, and with greater tube access, lies Hackney Central, the historic centre of Hackney Borough. Hackney Wick is in the far east of the borough and it is at the tip of Hackney Marshes and includes part of 2012 Olympic Park west of the River Lea. Here it abuts the London Borough of Waltham Forest and the London Borough of Newham, west of the old River Lea The Lee Navigation, here called Hackney Cut meets the Hertford Union Canal. In Roman times the River Lea was a wide, fast flowing river, in 894, a force of Danes sailed up the river to Hertford, Alfred the Great saw an opportunity to defeat the Danes and ordered the lower reaches of the Lea drained, at Leamouth. This left the Danes boats stranded, but increased the flow of the river, prior to modern times, Hackney Wick was an area prone to periodic flooding.
The construction of the canals and relief channels on the Lea alleviated that, in historic times, the marshes were used extensively for grazing cattle, and there was limited occupation around the great house at Hackney Wick. This area as well as the marshes were historically part of Lower Homerton, when Charles Booth surveyed Hackney Wick in his London-wide survey of poverty during the 1890s he would have noticed that there were, amid the noxious fumes and noise, areas of lessened deprivation. Streets south of the such as Wansbeck and Rothbury Roads were a mixture of comfort. Kelday Road, right on the canal seemed positively middle class, to the north of the railway, streets either side of Wick Road, e. g. Chapman Road, Felstead Street and Percy Terrace were described as very poor, with chronic want. In the last quarter of the century, water mills on the Hackney Brook were adapted for the manufacturer of silk. The worlds first true synthetic plastic, invented by Alexander Parkes, was manufactured here from 1866 to 1868, in contrast shellac, a natural polymer was manufactured at the Lea Works by A. F.
Suter and Co. at the Victory Works for many years. The factory at nos 83/4 Eastway commenced operation in 1927, subsequently they relocated to Dace Road in Bow. For many years Hackney Wick was the location of the oil distiller Carless, Capel & Leonard, the distinguished chemist and academic Sir Frederick Warner worked at Carlesss Hackney Wick factory from 1948–1956. William J Leonard was followed by his son Julian Mayard Leonard into the firm, Brooke Simpson Spiller is the successor company to the founding father of the British Dyestuff Industry. At Hackney Wick, Green discovered the important dyestuff intermediate Primuline and he was a contemporary of the organic chemist Richard John Friswell who was from 1874 a research chemist, and from 1886 until 1899 director and chemical manager. Perhaps even more distinguished was the Jewish chemist, Professor Raphael Meldola FRS and he worked at Hackney Wick from 1877 until 1885. A large collection of Hackney made dyestuffs is on view at the Powerhouse Museum in Sydney Australia, the firm of W. C.
Barnes of the Phoenix Works was engaged in the aniline dye industry at Hackney Wick
History of London
London has a history going back over 2,000 years. In the main time, it has grown to one of the most significant financial and cultural capitals on Earth and it has experienced plague, devastating fire, civil war, aerial bombardment, terrorist attacks, and widespread rioting. The City of London is its core and today is its primary financial district. Trinovantes were the Iron Age tribe who inhabited the area prior to the Romans. Geoffrey provides prehistoric London with an array of legendary kings, such as Lud who, he claims, renamed the town Caer Ludein, from which London was derived. However, despite intensive excavations, archaeologists have found no evidence of a major settlement in the area. There have been scattered prehistoric finds, evidence of farming and traces of habitation and it is now considered unlikely that a pre-Roman city existed, but as some of the Roman city remains unexcavated, it is still just possible that some major settlement may yet be discovered. London was most likely an area with scattered settlement.
Some recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area, in 1999, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found, again on the foreshore south of Vauxhall Bridge. This bridge either crossed the Thames, or went to a now lost island in the river, dendrology dated the timbers to 1500BC. In 2001 a further dig found that the timbers were driven vertically into the ground on the bank of the Thames west of Vauxhall Bridge. In 2010 the foundations of a timber structure, dated to 4000BC, were found on the Thames foreshore. The function of the structure is not known. All these structures are on the bank at a natural crossing point where the River Effra flows into the Thames. Numerous finds have made of spear heads and weaponry from the Bronze and Iron Ages near the banks of the Thames in the London area. This suggests that the Thames was an important tribal boundary, Londinium was established as a civilian town by the Romans about seven years after the invasion of AD43.
London, like Rome, was founded on the point of the river where it was enough to bridge. Early Roman London occupied a small area, roughly equivalent to the size of Hyde Park
London, or Greater London, is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London. It is organised into 33 local government districts, the 32 London boroughs, the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000, the region covers 1,572 km2 and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232, the Greater London Built-up Area—used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region.
The term Greater London has been and still is used to different areas in governance, history. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London, outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965. The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916, one of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan, a Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue. The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties, protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor and Eton in the authority.
The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCCs scheme, two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission, Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985 and its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994, a referendum held in 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999, in 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary.
The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson. The 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan, Greater London continues to include the most closely associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers. Thus it includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a way to the citys parks
Regents Canal is a canal across an area just north of central London, England. It provides a link from the Paddington Arm of the Grand Union Canal, just north-west of Paddington Basin in the west, to the Limehouse Basin, the canal is 13.8 kilometres long. As with many Nash projects, the design was passed to one of his assistants, in this case James Morgan. Work began on 14 October 1812, the Camden to Limehouse section, including the 886-metre long Islington tunnel and the Regents Canal Dock, opened four years on 1 August 1820. Various intermediate basins were constructed, many other basins such as Wenlock Basin, Kingsland Basin, St. Pancras Stone and Coal Basin, and one in front of the Great Northern Railways Granary were built, and some of these survive. The City Road Basin, the nearest to the City of London, soon eclipsed the Paddington Basin in the amount of goods carried, principally coal and these were goods that were being shipped locally, in contrast to the canals original purpose of transshipping imports to the Midlands.
The opening of the London and Birmingham Railway in 1838 actually increased the tonnage of coal carried by the canal. However, by the twentieth century, with the Midland trade lost to the railways, and more deliveries made by road. There were a number of projects to convert the route of the canal into a railway. The railway company failed, but in 1846 the directors of the canal went about trying to obtain an Act of Parliament to allow them to build a railway along its banks. The scheme was abandoned in the face of opposition, especially from the government who objected to the idea of a railway passing through Regents Park. In 1859, two schemes to convert the canal into a railway were proposed. One, from a company called the Central London Railway and Dock Company, was accepted by the directors, in 1860 the Regents Canal Company proposed a railway track alongside the canal from Kings Cross to Limehouse, but funds could not be raised. Further schemes over the twenty years came to nothing. In 1883, after years of negotiation, the canal was sold to a company called the Regents Canal. A new purpose was found for the route in 1979.
These 400 kV cables now form part of the National Grid, pumped canal water is circulated as a coolant for the high-voltage cables. The canal is used today for pleasure cruising, a regular waterbus service operates between Maida Vale and Camden, running hourly during the summer months
London Fire Brigade
The London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for London. It was formed by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Act of 1865 under the leadership of superintendent Eyre Massey Shaw. Dany Cotton is the Commissioner for Fire and Emergency Planning, which includes the position of Chief Fire Officer, statutory responsibility for the running of the brigade lies with the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2013/14 the LFB handled 171,067999 emergency calls, of the calls it actually mobilised to,20,934 were fires, including 10,992 that were of a serious nature, making it one of the busiest fire brigades in the world. In the same 12-month period, it received 3,172 hoax calls, the highest number of any UK fire service, in 2015/16 the LFB received 171,488 emergency calls. These consisted of,20,773 fires,30,066 special service callouts and it conducts emergency planning and performs fire safety inspections and education. He introduced a uniform that, for the first time, included personal protection from the hazards of firefighting.
With 80 firefighters and 13 fire stations, the unit was still a private enterprise, funded by the insurance companies, in 1904 it was renamed as the London Fire Brigade. The LFB moved into a new headquarters built by Higgs and Hill on the Albert Embankment in Lambeth in 1937, during the Second World War the countrys brigades were amalgamated into a single National Fire Service. The separate London Fire Brigade for the County of London was re-established in 1948, in 1986 the Greater London Council was disbanded and a new statutory authority, the London Fire and Civil Defence Authority, was formed to take responsibility for the LFB. The LFCDA was replaced in 2000 by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, at the same time, the Greater London Authority was established to administer the LFEPA and coordinate emergency planning for London. Consisting of the Mayor of London and other elected members, the GLA takes responsibility for the Metropolitan Police Authority, Transport for London, in 2007 the LFB vacated its Lambeth headquarters and moved to a site in Union Street, Southwark.
In the same year, the Department for Communities and Local Government announced that LFB Commissioner Ken Knight had been appointed as the first Chief Fire, Knight was succeeded as Commissioner at that time by Ron Dobson, who served for almost ten years. Dany Cotton took over in 2017, becoming the brigades first female commissioner, dany Cotton is the current commissioner, having taken up the role on 1 January 2017. She holds the Queens Fire Service Medal, frank Jackson, CBE1938 to 1941, Cdr. Sir Aylmer Firebrace, CBE1933 to 1938, Maj. Cyril Morris 1918 to 1933, Arthur Reginald Dyer 1909 to 1918, sir Sampson Sladen 1903 to 1909, RAdm. James de Courcy Hamilton 1896 to 1903, lionel de Latour Wells 1891 to 1896, James Sexton Simmonds 1861 to 1891, Capt. Both divisions were divided into three districts, each under a Superintendent with his headquarters at a superintendent station, the superintendent stations themselves were commanded by District Officers, with the other stations under Station Officers
National Health Service (England)
The National Health Service is the publicly funded national healthcare system for England and one of the four National Health Services of the United Kingdom. It is the largest and the oldest single-payer healthcare system in the world, Some services, such as emergency treatment and treatment of infectious diseases are free for everyone, including visitors. Free healthcare at the point of use comes from the principles at the founding of the National Health Service by the Labour government in 1948. Some specific NHS services do however require a financial contribution from the patient, for eye tests, dental care, prescriptions. However, these charges are often free to vulnerable or low income groups, the NHS provides the majority of healthcare in England, including primary care, in-patient care, long-term healthcare and dentistry. The National Health Service Act 1946 came into effect on 5 July 1948, private health care has continued parallel to the NHS, paid for largely by private insurance, it is used by about 8% of the population, generally as an add-on to NHS services.
The NHS is largely funded from taxation with a small amount being contributed by National Insurance payments. The UK government department responsible for the NHS is the Department of Health, the Department of Health had a £110 billion budget in 2013-14, most of this being spent on the NHS. Sources do not always clear if they refer to the whole of the NHS or only to England. There is no unified British NHS, the National Health Service in Scotland and Northern Ireland were always separate, the Health and Social Care Act 2012 came into effect in April 2013, giving GP-led groups responsibility for commissioning most local NHS services. Starting in April 2013 Primary Care Trusts are being replaced by General Practitioner -led organisations called Clinical Commissioning Groups, under the new system, a new NHS Commissioning Board, called NHS England, oversees the NHS from the Department of Health. The Act has associated with the perception of increased private provision of NHS services. NHS Trusts are responding to the Nicholson challenge which involved making £20 billion in savings across the service by 2015, Some NHS organisations are using referral management centres to help reduce inappropriate referrals in an attempt to save the NHS money.
Millions of pounds have been spent for these services, 32% of which are provided by private companies, of the 211 clinical commissioning groups surveyed by the British Medical Journal in 2016,184 responded and 72 of those said they had used such schemes. Of those CCGs using these services, 14% could show savings, 12% showed no overall savings, because these services can prevent GPs from referring patients to hospitals, there are some concerns they may delay diagnosis and compromise patient safety. Dr A. J. Cronins controversial novel The Citadel, published in 1937, had fomented extensive debate about the severe inadequacies of health care. The authors innovative ideas were not only essential to the conception of the NHS, a national health service was one of the fundamental assumptions in the Beveridge Report. The Emergency Hospital Service established in 1939 gave a taste of what a National Health Service might look like, Healthcare prior to the war had been an unsatisfactory mix of private and charity schemes
London Ambulance Service
It is one of the busiest ambulance services in the world, and the busiest in the United Kingdom, providing care to more than 8.6 million people, who live and work in London. The service is currently under the leadership of chief executive Dr Fionna Moore MBE, the service employ around 4,500 staff. In exceptional cases, or where the service deems in necessary, specialist teams can be deployed from within the service, such as the Hazardous Area Response Team and these teams are specially trained and equipped to deal with incidents such as working at height or in confined spaces. It is one of 10 ambulance trusts in England providing emergency medical services, there is no charge to patients for use of the service, as every person in England has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency. The LAS responded to over 1.8 million calls for assistance, incidents rose by 20,000 in 2015/16, putting more pressure on the service. All 999 calls from the public are answered at the Emergency Operations Centre in Waterloo, to assist, the services command and control system is linked electronically with the equivalent system for Londons Metropolitan Police.
This means that police updates regarding specific jobs will be updated directly on the computer-aided dispatch log, to be viewed by the EOC, the first became operational at The South Eastern Fever Hospital, Deptford, in October 1883. In all, six hospitals operated horse-drawn land ambulances, putting almost the whole of London within three miles of one of them, each ambulance station included accommodation for a married superintendent and around 20 drivers, horse keepers and attendants, laundry staff and domestic cleaners. At Deptford, in order to transfer patients between the hospitals at Joyce Green and Long Reach near Gravesend, a horse-drawn ambulance tramway was constructed in 1897, in 1902, the MAB introduced a steam driven ambulance and in 1904, their first motor ambulance. The last horse-drawn ambulances were used on 14 September 1912, although the MAB was legally supposed to be transporting only infectious patients, it increasingly carried accident victims and emergency medical cases.
Also in 1915, the MAB Ambulance Section were the first public body to women drivers. By July 1916 the London County Council Ambulance Corps was staffed entirely by women, the LCC took control of the River Ambulance Service, but it was disbanded in 1932. During World War II, the London Auxiliary Ambulance Service was operated by over 10,000 auxiliaries, mainly women and they ran services from 139 Auxiliary Stations across London. A plaque at one of the last to close, Station 39 in Weymouth Mews, near Portland Place, in 1948 the National Health Service Act made it a requirement for ambulances to be available for anyone who needed them. On 1 April 1996, the LAS left the control of the South West Thames Regional Health Authority, as an NHS Trust, the LAS has a Trust Board consisting of 12 members. The board includes, a chairman, five of the Service’s executive directors. Special events in London are co-ordinated from the Services event control room, located in east London, during mass casualty incidents, the command structure works on three levels, gold and bronze.
Silver control, tactical command, from a point in the vicinity of the incident, Bronze control
Charing Cross denotes the junction of Strand and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square in central London. It gives its name to several landmarks, including Charing Cross railway station, Charing Cross is named after the Eleanor cross that stood on the site, in what was once the hamlet of Charing. The site of the cross has been occupied since 1675 by a statue of King Charles I. A loose Victorian replica of the cross, the Queen Eleanor Memorial Cross, was erected a short distance to the east outside the railway station. Until 1931, Charing Cross referred to the part of Whitehall between Great Scotland Yard and Trafalgar Square, at least one property retains a Charing Cross postal address, Drummonds Bank, on the corner of Whitehall and The Mall, which is designated 49 Charing Cross. Since the early 19th century, Charing Cross has often been regarded as the centre of London. Erect a rich and stately carved cross, Whereon her statue shall with glory shine, George Peele The Famous Chronicle of King Edward the First The name of the area, Charing, is derived from the Old English word cierring, referring to a bend in the River Thames.
Folk etymology suggests the name derives from chère reine — dear queen in French — and this wooden sculpted cross was the work of the medieval sculptor, Alexander of Abingdon. It was destroyed in 1647 on the orders of Parliament during the Civil War, a 70 ft -high stone sculpture in front of Charing Cross railway station is a copy of the original cross. Erected in 1865, it is situated a few hundred yards to the east of the original cross and it was designed by the architect E. M. Barry and carved by Thomas Earp of Lambeth out of Portland stone, Mansfield stone and Aberdeen granite. It is not a replica, being more ornate than the original. A variation on the name appears to be Charygcrouche, near St Martin in the Fields, since 1675 the site of the cross has been occupied by a statue of King Charles I mounted on a horse. The site is recognised by convention as the centre of London for the purpose of indicating distances by road in favour of other measurement points. Charing Cross is marked on maps as a road junction.
Since 1 January 1931 this section of road has been designated part of the Whitehall thoroughfare, the cross has given its name to a railway station, a tube station, police station, hospital, a hotel, a theatre, and a music hall. Charing Cross Road the main route from the north was named after the railway station, at some time between 1232 and 1236, the Chapel and Hospital of St Mary Rounceval was founded at Charing. It occupied land at the corner of the modern Whitehall and into the centre of Northumberland Avenue and it was an Augustinian house, tied to a mother house at Roncesvalles in the Pyrenees. The house and lands were seized for the king in 1379, protracted legal action returned some rights to the prior, but in 1414, Henry V suppressed the alien houses