The Hadean is a geologic eon of the Earth pre-dating the Archean. It began with the formation of the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, 4 billion years ago. As of 2016, the ICS describes its status as "informal". Geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972 to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland coined an synonymous term, the "Priscoan period", from priscus, the Latin word for "ancient". Other, older texts refer to the eon as the Pre-Archean. "Hadean" describes the hellish conditions prevailing on Earth: the planet had just formed and was still hot owing to its recent accretion, the abundance of short-lived radioactive elements, frequent collisions with other Solar System bodies. Since few geological traces of this eon remain on Earth, there is no official subdivision. However, the Lunar geologic timescale embraces several major divisions relating to the Hadean, so these are sometimes used in an informal sense to refer to the same periods of time on Earth.
The Lunar divisions are: Pre-Nectarian, from the formation of the Moon's crust up to about 3,920 million years ago. Nectarian ranging from 3,920 million years ago up to about 3,850 million years ago, in a time when the Late Heavy Bombardment, according to that theory, was declining. In 2010, an alternative scale was proposed that includes the addition of the Chaotian and Prenephelean Eons preceding the Hadean, divides the Hadean into three eras with two periods each; the Paleohadean era consists of the Jacobian periods. The Mesohadean is divided into the Procrustean periods; the Neohadean is divided into the Promethean periods. As of February 2017, this has not been adopted by the IUGS. In the last decades of the 20th century geologists identified a few Hadean rocks from western Greenland, northwestern Canada, Western Australia. In 2015, traces of carbon minerals interpreted as "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1-billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia. The oldest dated zircon crystals, enclosed in a metamorphosed sandstone conglomerate in the Jack Hills of the Narryer Gneiss Terrane of Western Australia, date to 4.404 ± 0.008 Ga.
This zircon is a slight outlier, with the oldest consistently-dated zircon falling closer to 4.35 Ga—around 200 million years after the hypothesized time of the Earth's formation. In many other areas, xenocryst Hadean zircons enclosed in older rocks indicate that younger rocks have formed on older terranes and have incorporated some of the older material. One example occurs in the Guiana shield from the Iwokrama Formation of southern Guyana where zircon cores have been dated at 4.22 Ga. A sizable quantity of water would have been in the material. Water molecules would have escaped Earth's gravity more when it was less massive during its formation. Hydrogen and helium are expected to continually escape due to atmospheric escape. Part of the ancient planet is theorized to have been disrupted by the impact that created the Moon, which should have caused melting of one or two large regions of the Earth. Earth's present composition suggests that there was not complete remelting as it is difficult to melt and mix huge rock masses.
However, a fair fraction of material should have been vaporized by this impact, creating a rock vapor atmosphere around the young planet. The rock vapor would have condensed within two thousand years, leaving behind hot volatiles which resulted in a heavy CO2 atmosphere with hydrogen and water vapor. Liquid water oceans existed despite the surface temperature of 230 °C because at an atmospheric pressure of above 27 atmospheres, caused by the heavy CO2 atmosphere, water is still liquid; as cooling continued and dissolving in ocean water removed most CO2 from the atmosphere but levels oscillated wildly as new surface and mantle cycles appeared. Studies of zircons have found that liquid water must have existed as long ago as 4.4 billion years ago soon after the formation of the Earth. This requires the presence of an atmosphere; the cool early Earth theory covers a range from about 4.4 to about 4.1 billion years. A September 2008 study of zircons found that Australian Hadean rock holds minerals pointing to the existence of plate tectonics as early as 4 billion years ago.
If this is true, the time when Earth finished its transition from having a hot, molten surface and atmosphere full of carbon dioxide, to being much like it is today, can be dated to about 4.0 billion years ago. The actions of plate tectonics and the oceans trapped vast amounts of carbon dioxide, thereby reducing the greenhouse effect and leading to a much cooler surface temperature and the formation of solid rock, even life. Chaotian – Proposed era of, or eon preceding, the Hadean eon Formation and evolution of the Solar System – Formation of the Solar System by gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud and subsequent geological history Hadean zircon – The oldest-surviving crustal material from the Earth's earliest geological time period History of Earth – The development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day – the first sections describe the formation of the Earth Oldest dated rocks – Includes rocks over 4 billion years old from the Hadean Eon Precambrian – The earliest part of Earth's history 4600-541 million years ago Timeline of natural history Hopkins, Michelle.
The 1st Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment is an active duty airborne infantry battalion in the United States Army, assigned to the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team and stationed in Vicenza, Italy. The battalion has served with the 2nd Infantry Division, the 11th Airborne Division, the 24th Infantry Division, the 82nd Airborne Division, the 173rd Airborne Brigade; the lineage of Company A, 503rd AIR, was reorganized and redesignated on 1 March 1957 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Airborne Battle Group, 503rd Infantry, remained assigned to the 11th Airborne Division. On 1 July 1958 the 1st ABG, 503rd Infantry was relieved from assignment to the 11th Airborne Division and assigned to the 24th Infantry Division when the 11th was reflagged as the 24th; the battle group's stay was short, on 7 January 1959 it was relieved from assignment to the 24th Infantry Division and assigned to the 82nd Airborne Division. The 1st ABG, 503rd Inf remained with the 82nd Airborne Division until 26 March 1963, when it was relieved from assignment to the 82nd and joined 2–503rd in its assignment to the 173rd Airborne Brigade.
Shortly thereafter, on 25 June 1963, it was reorganized and redesignated as the 1st Battalion, 503rd Infantry. Constituted 14 March 1941 in the Army of the United States as Company A, 503rd Parachute Battalion Activated 22 August 1941 at Fort Benning, Georgia Consolidated 24 February 1942 with Company A, 503rd Parachute Infantry, consolidated unit designated as Company A, 503rrd Parachute Infantry Inactivated 24 December 1945 at Camp Anza, California Redesignated 1 February 1951 as Company A, 503rd Airborne Infantry, an element of the 11th Airborne Division, allotted to the Regular Army Activated 2 March 1951 at Fort Campbell, Kentucky Reorganized and redesignated 1 March 1957 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Airborne Battle Group, 503rd Infantry, remained assigned to the 11th Airborne Division Relieved 1 July 1958 from assignment to the 11th Airborne Division and assigned to the 24th Infantry Division Relieved 7 January 1959 from assignment to the 24th Infantry Division and assigned to the 82nd Airborne Division Relieved 26 March 1963 from assignment to the 82d Airborne Division and assigned to the 173rd Airborne Brigade Reorganized and redesignated 25 June 1963 as the 1st Battalion, 503rd Infantry Relieved 14 January 1972 from assignment to the 173rd Airborne Brigade and assigned to the 101st Airborne Division Inactivated 16 November 1984 at Fort Campbell and relieved from assignment to the 101st Airborne Division Assigned 16 December 1986 to the 2nd Infantry Division and activated in Korea Redesignated 1 October 2005 as the 1st Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment Inactivated 15 November 2005 at Fort Carson and relieved from assignment to the 2nd Infantry Division Assigned 15 June 2006 to the 173rd Airborne Brigade and activated in Italy World War II: New Guinea.
Comparison of the battalion's deployment dates with the War on Terrorism campaigns estimates that the battalion will be credited with participation in the six campaigns listed. Presidential Unit Citation, Streamer embroidered CORREGIDOR Presidential Unit Citation, Streamer embroidered BIEN HOA Presidential Unit Citation, Streamer embroidered DAK TO Naval Unit Commendation, Streamer embroidered IRAQ 2004-2005 Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered PAKTIKA PROVINCE 2007–2008 Meritorious Unit Commendation, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1965–1967 Meritorious Unit Commendation, Streamer embroidered AFGHANISTAN 2009–2010 Philippine Presidential Unit Citation, Streamer embroidered 17 OCTOBER 1944 TO 4 JULY 1945 Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1965–1970 Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Honor Medal, First Class, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1969–1971Company B additionally entitled to: Meritorious Unit Commendation, Streamer embroidered AFGHANISTAN MAY 2007-JUL 2008 503rd Infantry Distinctive Unit Insignia 503rd Infantry Coat of Arms Official Unit Web Page Official Unit Facebook Page 503rd Parachute Regimental Combat Team Web Page The Roving Historian Blog: The 503rd Parachut Infantry Regiment Article
The list that follows is the Liberal Democrats frontbench team led by Paddy Ashdown, party leader from 1988 to 1999. Known as a frontbench team, the Lib Dems began to refer to their Frontbench Team as a "Shadow Cabinet" during the leadership of Ashdown's successor, Charles Kennedy, although the use of the term is controversial. Leader of the Liberal Democrats - Paddy Ashdown Deputy Leader with responsibility for the strategic direction of the Party in Parliament - Alan Beith Chief Whip and Shadow Leader of the House - Paul Tyler Deputy Whip - Andrew Stunell Whips - Edward Davey Donald Gorrie Adrian Sanders Party President - Robert Maclennan Agriculture and Rural Affairs - Charles Kennedy Food - Paul Tyler Fisheries - Andrew George Constitution - Robert Maclennan Spokesman for English Regions - Nick Harvey Scotland - Jim Wallace Wales - Richard Livsey Culture and Sport/Civil Service - Robert Maclennan Arts and Broadcasting - Robert Maclennan Tourism - Ronnie Fearn Sport - Nigel Jones Disabled People - Paul Burstow Education and Employment - Don Foster Nursery Education and Schools.
ITV News Channel TV is the regional news service for the ITV Channel region. The flagship weekday 6 pm programme is presented by James Webster; the news service is produced from the main studios of ITV Channel in Jersey. Reporters and camera crews are based at Channel's Guernsey studios in St Sampson's. Freelance correspondents, camera crews and video journalists are based on Sark. ITV News Channel TV airs on ITV Channel seven days a week. Three short opts air as part of Good Morning Britain at 6:10am, 7:10am and 8:10am. A four minute lunchtime bulletin, following the ITV Lunchtime News; the main half-hour 6pm programme, before the ITV Evening News. A thirteen minute late-night bulletin, following ITV News at Ten. At weekends, a short five minute bulletin following the early evening ITV Weekend News. Channel News at itv.com
Mary Killman is an American synchronized swimmer. After switching to synchronized swimming from race swimming, Killman was a member of the teams that won silver medals in the duet and team competitions at the 2011 Pan American Games in Guadalajara, Mexico and 2015 Pan American Games in Toronto, Canada. Killman was born on April 9, 1991 in Ada and grew up in Texas, she is a member of a federally recognized tribe based in Oklahoma. A competitor in racing events, Killman began to participate in synchronized swimming competitions at the age of 11, at age 15 gave up racing to focus on synchronized swimming. After competing in youth competitions through the 2000s, in 2007 Killman was named to her first National Team at the mere age of 16. In 2009 Killman found success at the United States National Championships, finishing third in the solo competition, second in the duet competition, first in the team competition. Shortly before the 2011 Pan American Games in Guadalajara, she was partnered with Mariya Koroleva to compete as a duet.
At those games and Koroleva won a silver medal in the duet competition, were part of the United States team that won a silver in the team competition as well. The pair qualified for the women's duet at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, due to the failure of the United States to qualify for the team event, they were the only American women to compete in synchronized swimming at those games. Following the 2012 Olympics, Killman joined the Lindenwood University synchronized swimming team, one of six collegiate varsity synchronized programs in the United States and is a four times USA synchro athlete of the year.
India competed at the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan. 53 competitors, 52 men and 1 woman, took part in 42 events in 8 sports. Charanjit Singh, Shankar Lakshman, Rajendran Christie, Prithipal Singh, Dharam Singh, Gurbux Singh, Mohinder Lal, Jagjit Singh, Joginder "Gindi" Singh, Haripal Kaushik, Harbinder Singh, Bandu Patil, Victor John Peter, Udham Singh, Darshan Singh and Syed Mushtaq Ali — Field hockey, Men's Team Competition. Men's 200 metres Kenneth PowellHeat — 21.19s Men's marathon Balkrishan AkotkarQualification Round — 2:29:27 Men's marathon Harbans LalQualification Round — 2:37:05 Men's Triple Jump Labh SinghQualification Round — 14:95 Men's long jump S. Bondada VenkataQualification Round — 6.76 Men's 4 × 100 m Relay Anthony Francis Coutinho, Makhan Singh, Kenneth Powell, Rajasekaran PichayaRound 1 – 40.6 Semifinal – 40.5 Five cyclists represented India in 1964. Team time trialAmar Singh Billing, Chetan Singh Hari, Dalbir Singh Gill, Amar Singh SokhiSprintSuchha Singh Amar Singh Billing1000m time trialDalbir Singh GillIndividual pursuitAmar Singh SokhiTeam pursuitAmar Singh Billing, Chetan Singh Hari, Dalbir Singh Gill, Amar Singh Sokhi India tied Spain 1-1 India tied United Team of Germany 1-1 India def. Netherlands 2-1 India def.
Malaysia 3-1 India def. Belgium 2-0 India def. Canada 3-0 India def. Hong Kong 6-0 Spain tied United Team of Germany 1-1 Spain tied Netherlands 1-1 Spain def. Malaysia 3-0 Spain def. Belgium 3-0 Spain def. Canada 3-0 Spain def. Hong Kong 4-0 United Team of Germany def. Netherlands 1-0 United Team of Germany tied Malaysia 0-0 United Team of Germany tied Belgium 0-0 United Team of Germany def. Canada 5-1 United Team of Germany tied. Malaysia 2-0 Netherlands def. Belgium 4-0 Netherlands def. Canada 5-0 Netherlands def. Hong Kong 7-0 Malaysia tied. Canada 3-1 Malaysia def. Hong Kong 4-1 Belgium def. Canada 5-1 Belgium def. Hong Kong 2-0 Canada def. Hong Kong 2-1 The top two teams in each of the groups played in the 1st-4th semifinals, with the winner of each group playing the second-place team in the other group; the third and fourth team in each group played in the consolation semifinals The winners of the semifinals played for the gold and silver medals, while the losers played for the bronze medal and 4th place.
The winners of the consolation semifinals played for 6th places. Two shooters represented India in 1964. TrapKarni SinghQualification Round — 186 Devi SinghQualification Round — 168 Key: VT - Victory by Fall. Pt - Decision by Points. Pd - Decision by Points but Judges disagree. Men's FreestyleMen's Greco-Roman