SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hadith

Ḥadīth in Islam refers to what Muslims believe to be a record of the words and the silent approval of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Hadith have been called "the backbone" of Islamic civilization, within that religion the authority of hadith as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Quran. Scriptural authority for hadith comes from the Quran which enjoins Muslims to emulate Muhammad and obey his judgments. While the number of verses pertaining to law in the Quran is few, hadith give direction on everything from details of religious obligations, to the correct forms of salutations and the importance of benevolence to slaves, thus the "great bulk" of the rules of Sharia are derived from hadith, rather than the Quran.Ḥadīth is the Arabic word for things like speech, account, narrative. Unlike the Quran, not all Muslim believe. Hadith were not written down by Muhammad's followers after his death but many generations when they were collected and compiled into a great corpus of Islamic literature.

Different collections of hadīth would come to differentiate the different branches of the Islamic faith. There are many modern Muslims who believe that most Hadiths are fabrications created in the 8th & 9th century AD, which are falsely attributed the Prophet Muhammad; because some hadith include questionable and contradictory statements, the authentication of hadith became a major field of study in Islam. In its classic form a hadith has two parts — the chain of narrators who have transmitted the report, the main text of the report. Individual hadith are classified by Muslim clerics and jurists into categories such as sahih, hasan or da'if. However, different groups and different scholars may classify a hadith differently. Among scholars of Sunni Islam the term hadith may include not only the words, practices, etc. of Muhammad, but those of his companions. In Shia Islam, hadīth are the embodiment of the sunnah, the words and actions of the prophet and his family the Ahl al-Bayt. In Arabic, the noun ḥadīth means "report", "account", or "narrative".

Its Arabic plural is aḥādīth. Hadith refers to the speech of a person. In Islamic terminology, according to Juan Campo, the term hadith refers to reports of statements or actions of Muhammad, or of his tacit approval or criticism of something said or done in his presence. Classical hadith specialist Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani says that the intended meaning of hadith in religious tradition is something attributed to Muhammad but, not found in the Quran. Scholar Patricia Crone includes reports by others than Muhammad in her definition of hadith: "short reports recording what an early figure, such as a companion of the prophet or Muhammad himself, said or did on a particular occasion, prefixed by a chain of transmitters", but she adds that "nowadays, hadith always means hadith from Muhammad himself."However, according to the Shia Islam Ahlul Bayt Digital Library Project, "... when there is no clear Qur’anic statement, nor is there a Hadith upon which Muslim schools have agreed.... Shi’a... refer to Ahlul-Bayt for deriving the Sunnah of Prophet" — implying that while hadith is limited to the "Traditions" of Muhammad, the Shia Sunna draws on the sayings, etc. of the Ahlul-Bayt i.e. the Imams of Shia Islam.

The word sunnah is used in reference to a normative custom of Muhammad or the early Muslim community. Joseph Schacht describes hadith as providing "the documentation" of the sunnah. Another source distinguishes between the two saying: Whereas the'Hadith' is an oral communication, derived from the Prophet or his teachings, the'Sunna' signifies the prevailing customs of a particular community or people.... A'Sunna' is a practice, passed on by a community from generation to generation en masse, whereas the hadith are reports collected by compilers centuries removed from the source.... A practice, contained within the Hadith may well be regarded as Sunna, but it is not necessary that a Sunna would have a supporting hadith sanctioning it; some sources limit hadith to verbal reports, with the deeds of Muhammad and reports about his companions being part of the sunnah, but not hadith. Islamic literary classifications similar to hadith are maghazi and sira, they differed from hadith in being organized "relatively chronologically" rather than by subject.

Sīrat, biographies of Muhammad, written since the middle of the eight century. Similar writings called Maghazi preceded the Sirat-literature, focusing on military actions of Muhammad, but included non-military aspects of his life. So there is overlap in meaning of the terms, though maghazi suggests military aspects rather than general biographical ones. Other "traditions" of Islam related to hadith including: khabar maybe used as a synonym for hadith, but some scholars use it to

Castle Rock Estate

Castle Rock Estate is an Australian winery based at Porongurup, in the Great Southern wine region of Western Australia and owned and operated by the Diletti family. According to prominent Australian wine writer James Halliday, it has an exceptionally beautifully sited and immaculately maintained vineyard and cellar door sales area with sweeping vistas from the Porongurups. Castle Rock Estate's winemaker is son of founders Angelo and Wendy Diletti. Rob was one of 12 scholars at the 2005 Len Evans Tutorial, 2006 Wine Selectors Young Winemaker of the Year, a finalist for the 2012 Gourmet Traveller WINE Winemaker of the Year and, in 2015, Rob Diletti was named Wine Companion Winemaker of the Year. In 2019 Rob Diletti has been named a finalist in the Gourmet Traveller Wine Magazine Winemaker of the Year. In 2018 Castle Rock was award the Most Successful Exhibitor processing under 250 Tonnes at the 2018 Wine Show of Western Australia; the winery was awarded: Trophy for the Best Great Southern White Wine, Castle Rock 2018 Porongurup Riesling, 2018 Wine Show of Western Australia Trophy for the Best Riesling of the Show, Castle Rock 2018 Porongurup Riesling, 2018 Wine Show of Western Australia Trophy for the Best Pinot Noir of the Show, Castle Rock 2018 Porongurup Pinot Noir, 2018 Wine Show of Western Australia Australian wine List of wineries in Western Australia Western Australian wine Castle Rock Estate – official site

Setu coins

Setu coins or Setu bull coins are found in large quantities in the northern part of Sri Lanka and in Southern India. Codrington in his book Ceylon Coins and Currency published in 1924 and Mitchiner in his book Oriental Coins published in 1978 have pointed out that the traditional design of Sri Lanka standing King Type Copper Massa of the Jaffna Kingdoms belongs to the Aryacakravarti dynasty from 1284 AD to 1410 AD. Setu coins were attributed to the Setupati Princes of Ramanathapuram in South India. There are two series one in the issued from the 13th to the 15th centuries and the other after the brief loss of sovereignty to the rival Kotte kingdom from 1450 to 1467 and reconstitution of the Kingdom. During the rule of Sapumal Kumaraya coins were issued in Jaffna, distinct. Three types of this series are illustrated below; the obverse of these coins have a human figure flanked by lamps and the reverse has the Nandi symbol, the legend Sethu in Tamil with a crescent moon above. There are number of categories of these coins.

In type I is aligned with the Chola copper coins of the 13th century although larger in size. The Tamil Setu replaces the Nagari Rajaraja in the cola coins. In type I the blank is broader but a recumbent bull appears obverse in a vertical position. In the coin type II the seated figure is replaced with a Bull. Coddrington, H. W.. Ceylon Coins and Currency. New Delhi: Vijitha Yapa. p. 290. ISBN 81-206-1202-7. Setu type I