Hadrian's Wall called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian. It ran from the banks of the River Tyne near the North Sea to the Solway Firth on the Irish Sea, was the northern limit of the Roman Empire north of which were the lands of the northern Ancient Britons, including the Picts, it had a stone wall. There were milecastles with two turrets in between. There was a fort about every five Roman miles. From north to south, the wall comprised a ditch, military way and vallum, another ditch with adjoining mounds, it is thought the milecastles were staffed with static garrisons, whereas the forts had fighting garrisons of infantry and cavalry. In addition to the wall's defensive military role, its gates may have been customs posts. A significant portion of the wall still stands and can be followed on foot along the adjoining Hadrian's Wall Path; the largest Roman archaeological feature in Britain, it runs a total of 73 miles in northern England.
Regarded as a British cultural icon, Hadrian's Wall is one of Britain's major ancient tourist attractions. It was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. In comparison, the Antonine Wall, thought by some to be based on Hadrian's wall, was not declared a World Heritage site until 2008, it is a common misconception that Hadrian's Wall marks the boundary between Scotland. In fact Hadrian's Wall lies within England and has never formed the Anglo-Scottish border. While it is less than 0.6 mi south of the border with Scotland in the west at Bowness-on-Solway, in the east at Wallsend it is as much as 68 miles away. Hadrian's Wall was 117.5 km long. East of the River Irthing, the wall was made from squared stone and measured 3 metres wide and 5 to 6 metres high, while west of the river the wall was made from turf and measured 6 metres wide and 3.5 metres high. These dimensions do not include the wall's ditches and forts; the central section measured eight Roman feet wide on a 3 m base. Some parts of this section of the wall survive to a height of 3 m.
South of the wall, a large ditch was dug, with adjoining parallel mounds, one on either side. This is known today as the Vallum though the word vallum in Latin is the origin of the English word wall, does not refer to a ditch. In many places – for example Limestone Corner – the Vallum is better preserved than the wall, robbed of much of its stone. Hadrian's Wall extended west from Segedunum at Wallsend on the River Tyne, via Carlisle and Kirkandrews-on-Eden, to the shore of the Solway Firth, ending a short but unknown distance west of the village of Bowness-on-Solway; the A69 and B6318 roads follow the course of the wall from Newcastle upon Tyne to Carlisle along the northern coast of Cumbria. Although the curtain wall ends near Bowness-on-Solway, this does not mark the end of the line of defensive structures; the system of milecastles and turrets is known to have continued along the Cumbria coast as far as Risehow, south of Maryport. For classification purposes, the milecastles west of Bowness-on-Solway are referred to as Milefortlets.
Hadrian's Wall was planned before Hadrian's visit to Britain in 122. According to restored sandstone fragments found in Jarrow which date from 118 or 119, it was Hadrian's wish to keep "intact the empire", imposed on him via "divine instruction". Although Hadrian's biographer wrote " was the first to build a wall 80 miles long to separate the Romans from the barbarians", reasons for the construction of the wall vary, no recording of an exact explanation survives. Theories have been presented by historians of an expression of Roman power and Hadrian's policy of defence before expansion. On his accession to the throne in 117, there was unrest and rebellion in Roman Britain and from the peoples of various conquered lands across the Empire, including Egypt, Judea and Mauretania; these troubles may have influenced Hadrian's plan to construct the wall as well as his construction of frontier boundaries in other areas of the Empire, but to what extent is unknown. Scholars disagree over how much of a threat the inhabitants of northern Britain presented and whether there was any economic advantage in defending and garrisoning a fixed line of defences like the Wall, rather than conquering and annexing what has become Northumberland and the Scottish Lowlands and defending the territory with a loose arrangement of forts.
The frontiers of Rome were never expected to stop tribes from migrating or armies from invading, while a frontier protected by a palisade or stone wall would help curb cattle-raiders and the incursions of other small groups, the economic viability of constructing and keeping guarded a wall 72 miles long along a sparsely populated border to stop small-scale raiding is dubious. Another possible explanation for the wall is the degree of control it would have provided over immigration and customs. Frontiers did not mark the boundaries of the empire: Roman power and influence extended beyond them. People within and beyond the frontier travelled through it each day when conducting business, organised check-points like those offered by Hadrian's Wall provided good opportunities for taxation. With watch towers only a short distance from gateways, patrolling legionaries could
Chester E. "Chipper" Harris Jr. was an American basketball player, best known for his college career at Robert Morris University in Pennsylvania, where he was the ECAC Metro Conference co-Player of the Year for the 1983–84 season. Harris came to Robert Morris in 1980 after a high school career at Valley High School in his native New Kensington, Pennsylvania, he led the school to the 1979 Pennsylvania state championship. At Robert Morris, Harris teamed with backcourt mate Forest Grant to lead the Colonials from a 3–17 record in their freshman years to back-to back NCAA Tournament appearances the next two seasons. Harris, a defensive standout, unofficially led the nation in steals in his junior and senior seasons. Harris was the Most Valuable Player of the 1984 ECAC Metro Tournament and in his senior season was named first-team all-conference and co-player of the year with Robert Jackson of St. Francis and Carey Scurry of Long Island, he steals. He an inaugural member of the Robert Morris Ring of Honor.
Following the close of his college career, Harris was drafted by the Kansas City Kings in the seventh round of the 1984 NBA draft, but did not play in the National Basketball Association. He played a season for the New Jersey Jammers in the United States Basketball League, spent some time playing overseas. Harris died on May 26, 2018 of complications from Diabetes at the age of 55
Major Richard Burnard Munday was an English flying ace credited with scoring nine aerial victories during World War I. He was notable for scoring Britain's first night victory. Richard Burnard Munday was born in Plymouth, England on 31 January 1896, he was the eldest son of Major General and Mrs. R. C. Munday of Port Royal, Plymouth. Details of Munday's entry into military service are unknown. However, on 16 February 1915 he lost his probationary status as his rank of flight sub-lieutenant in the Royal Naval Air Service was confirmed, on the same day he was awarded Royal Aero Club Aviator's Certificate No. 1085. He had trained in a Maurice Farman biplane at the military flight school at Brooklands. Having completed his pilot's training, he began his aviation duties, he was wounded on 28 December 1915, though details are unknown. Munday served as an instructor at Cranwell during 1916. Munday was promoted to flight lieutenant on 1 April 1916, he was appointed an acting-flight commander on 3 December 1916.
On 26 April 1917, Flight magazine reported that Munday had been accidentally injured in the line of duty. His first aerial success came on 18 August 1917, his second through sixth victories were over observation balloons. By 21 February 1918, his victory tally had reached nine, his valour earned Munday the Distinguished Service Cross, gazetted on 16 March 1918: "For courage and initiative. Offensive patrols under his able and determined leadership have engaged enemy aircraft, he has displayed the utmost courage in carrying out special missions alone, both by day and by night. On the 21st February, 1918, he attacked a new type enemy two-seater machine; the enemy machine dived steeply east, Flt. Cdr. Munday followed and closed in, firing a long burst at close range, after which the enemy went down vertically out of control. On other occasions he has brought down enemy machines out of control, has set fire to and destroyed enemy kite balloons both by day and night. On one occasion he attacked an enemy kite balloon at night, destroyed both the balloon and its shed by fire."
On 20 September 1918, he was awarded the Belgian Croix de guerre. Munday remained in service postwar. On 1 August 1919, in the Royal Air Force revamping, Munday was granted a permanent commission in the rank of major. Munday was reassigned from occupation duty with the British Army of the Rhine in Germany when posted to the RAF Depot, Inland Region, back in England, on 16 January 1922, he was assigned to the Headquarters of the Coastal Area on 1 February. On 11 December 1922 Munday was posted to the Seaplane Training School as a supernumerary officer on 29 April 1923 he was posted to RAF Gosport to join No. 422 Flight. On 27 May 1925, Secretary of State for Air Samuel Hoare recommended the award of the Air Force Cross to Munday; these exercises were carried out under conditions that were novel to both pilots and observers and demanded great skill and endurance. Flight Lieutenant Munday's example has been a great incentive to all pilots and observers, has stimulated Naval flying." On 3 June 1925, Munday was awarded the Air Force Cross as a sixtieth birthday honour from King George V.
On 1 January 1927, he was promoted from flight lieutenant to squadron leader. Richard Burnard Munday married Marie Jose de Reul of Brussels in her native city on 26 April 1930. On 8 May 1930 he was again posted to Coastal Area. On 5 May 1932, Squadron Leader Munday retired from the Royal Air Force due to ill health, he died on 11 July 1932. Citations BibliographyShores, Christopher F.. Above the Trenches: a Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920. London, UK: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-19-9