Logwood redirects here. It may refer to members of the genus Xylosma, part of the willow family, Salicaceae. Haematoxylum campechianum is a species of flowering tree in the legume family, native to southern Mexico and northern Central America; the tree was of great economic importance from the 17th century to the 19th century, when it was logged and exported to Europe for use in dyeing fabrics. The modern nation of Belize developed from 17th- and 18th-century logging camps established by the English; the tree's scientific name means "bloodwood". Logwood was used for a long time as a natural source of dye. Logwood chips are still used as an important source of haematoxylin, used in histology for staining; the bark and leaves are used in various medical applications. In its time, logwood was considered a versatile dye, was used on textiles and for paper; the extract was once used as a pH indicator. Brownish when neutral, it purple when alkaline. In a small demonstrative experiment, if two drops, one of concentrated ammonia and one of logwood extract, are placed close enough, the NH3 vapours will change the color of the extract to a purple shade.
Logwood played an important role in the lives of 17th-century buccaneers and into the Golden Age of Piracy. Spain claimed all of Central and South America as its sovereign territory through the 17th and 18th centuries. Spain periodically sent privateers to capture the logwood cutters – for example, Juan Corso's 1680 cruise – sometimes in retaliation for buccaneer raids on Spanish cities. Logwood cutters, now out of work joined onto pirate and buccaneer crews to raid the Spanish in return, as Edmund Cooke did after losing two logwood-hauling ships to the Spanish; when Spanish forces ejected a great many logwood cutters in 1715, they flocked to Nassau and swelled the already-considerable numbers of pirates gathering there. By the mid-1720s logwood cutters had themselves become targets of pirates such Francis Spriggs, Edward Low, George Lowther. Logwood cutting was profitable – "According to a government report, in the four years 1713 to 1716, some 4,965 tons of logwood were exported to England at not less than £60,000 per annum" – but only brought in a fraction of the profits from tobacco and other legal exports, "was always a minor industry carried on by a few hundred ex-seamen and pirates in a remote corner of the globe".
Haematoxylin Natural dye Wayne's Word: "Logwood and Brazilwood, Trees That Spawned 2 Nations" Media related to Haematoxylum campechianum at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Haematoxylum campechianum at Wikispecies
Paul Eisler was an Austrian inventor born in Vienna. Among his innovations were the printed circuit board. In 2012, Printed Circuit Design & Fab magazine named its Hall of Fame after Eisler, he graduated in engineering from Vienna University of Technology in 1930. Being Jewish, antisemitic German-Nationalist organizations prevented him from getting an engineering job in Vienna, so he obtained employment with the English recording technology firm operating under its His Master's Voice brand in Belgrade, his task there was to eliminate radio interference on the music broadcast system on trains running from Belgrade to Niś. The project was a technical success but a financial failure because the Serbian railroad could only pay HMV by barter in grain, not pounds sterling, due a foreign exchange crisis; as a result, he had to return to Vienna. He was still prevented from working as an engineer, but he found work as a journalist and printer, first at Randfunk and landing at a social-democratic publisher, Vorwärts.
The experience in printing proved crucial later. However, after the 1934 putsch by Austrian fascists and due to social-democratic nature of Vorwärts it was shut down. Working independently, he patented some ideas from his doctorate at the university and leveraged them to obtain a visa to visit England to offer the patents to companies there in 1936, his first cousin, Philipp Fehl, contacted Eisler upon arrival as a refugee in England and Eisler helped to make sure that Fehl's father left Vienna alive after his release from the Dachau concentration camp. Living in a Hampstead boarding house, without work or a work permit, he began to fabricate a radio using a printed circuit board while trying to sell some of his ideas. Around this time, the Odeon hired him to work on their cinema technology. One of the common problems there was coping with theatre goers who spilled foods such as ice cream on the seats. Eisler devised a yellow fabric to cover affected furniture for the benefit of the next theater goer as well as flag it for removal and cleaning at the next opportunity.
Though he was able to help several members of his family escape Austria, he was subject to internment by the British as an enemy alien after the onset of World War II. After being released in 1941 and a short spell in the Pioneer Corps, he was able to engage Henderson and Spalding, a lithography company in Camberwell run by Harold Vezey-Strong, to invest in his printed circuit idea via a specially created subsidiary of Henderson and Spalding called Technograph, but forfeited rights to his invention when he neglected to read the contract before signing it, it was a pretty standard employment contract in that he agreed to submit any patent right during his employment for a nominal fee but it gave him 16.5 percent ownership of Technograph. It drew no interest until the United States incorporated the technology into work on the proximity fuze, vital to counter the German V-1 flying bomb. However, he did manage to obtain his first three printed circuit patent for a wide range of applications, they were split out from a single application submitted in 1943 and published after long legal procedures on 21 June 1950.
After the war ended, the United States opened access to his printed circuit innovation and since 1948, it has been used in all airborne instrument electronics. Few companies acknowledged or licensed Technograph's patents and the company had financial difficulties, he resigned from Technograph in 1957. Among his projects as a freelancer, were films to heat "floor and wall coverings" and food, for example, fish fingers; the wallpaper idea was viable, but interest waned after the advent of cheaper energy resources with the discovery of natural gas in the North Sea. Eisler invented many other practical applications of heating technology, such as the pizza warmer and rear window defroster, but was not so successful in their commercialization. In 1963, Technograph lost a lawsuit against Bendix over most of the claims in the US versions of patents, he was awarded the Pour le Mérite by the French government. The Institute of Electrical Engineers awarded him the Nuffield Silver medal. Medawar, Jean. Hitler's Gift: The True Story of the Scientists Expelled by the Nazi Regime.
New York: Arcade Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61145-709-4. History of Technograph
Brian Cross, better known as B+, is an Irish photographer and filmmaker based in Los Angeles, California. He is a co-founder of a film and music production company, he predominantly photographed the Los Angeles' hip hop scene in the 1990s as well as helped create album art for a number of artists including Q-Tip, Eazy-E, Damian Marley, DJ Shadow, J Dilla. Brian Cross was raised in Limerick, Ireland, he became infatuated with hip hop upon hearing Schoolly Public Enemy in the late 1980s. In 1989, he earned a degree in painting from the National College of Design in Dublin, he moved to California in 1990 to attend the California Institute of the Arts. He became entranced by Los Angeles' underground hip hop scene. In 1993, he published It's Not About a Salary: Rap and Resistance in Los Angeles, a book of essays and photography, it featured conversations with and photographs of The Watts Prophets, Toddy Tee, Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, Ice Cube, Cypress Hill, Freestyle Fellowship. In 2014, he was listed on Complex's "15 Rap Photographers Every Rap Fan Should Know" list.
In 2017, he published Ghostnotes: Music of the Unplayed, which featured the faces of artists such as J Dilla, Brian Wilson, Leon Ware, George Clinton, The Notorious B. I. G. In 2018 several early hip hop images by Cross were published in the collective photography volume entitled, Contact High: A Visual History of Hip-Hop and written by Vikki Tobak. In April 2019, only four months after its release, the book was transformed into a full-size museum exhibit at The Annenberg Space for Photography in Los Angeles. In the months before and during the exhibition Cross served on several group discussion and lecture panels regarding the show, his images in the book and exhibit feature artists Goodie Mobb and Ol' Dirty Bastard. In the book, as referenced in a review published by The New Yorker in November 2018, Cross recollected how timid Ol' Dirty Bastard was when asked by Cross to place his hands over the bare breasts of a model for the photograph, an obvious parody of Janet Jackson's controversial Sept. 16, 1993 Rolling Stone cover.
It's Not About a Salary: Rap and Resistance in Los Angeles Ghostnotes: Music of the Unplayed B Plus discography at Discogs Brian Cross on IMDb
Fusion of powers is a feature of some parliamentary forms of government those following the Westminster system, where the executive and legislative branches of government are intermingled. It is contrasted with the European separation of powers found in presidential and semi-presidential forms of government where the legislative and executive powers are in origin separated by popular vote. Fusion of powers exists in many, if not a majority of, parliamentary democracies, does so by design. However, in all modern democratic polities the judicial branch of government is independent of the legislative and executive branches; the system first arose as a result of political evolution in the United Kingdom over many centuries, as the powers of the monarch became constrained by Parliament. The term fusion of powers itself is believed to have been coined by the British constitutional expert Walter Bagehot; as Australia has a Westminster-derived parliamentary system, the executive branch is composed of members of the legislative branch.
Senator Eugene Forsey of Canada remarked that "in Canada, the Government and the House of Commons cannot be at odds for more than a few weeks at a time. If they differ on any matter of importance promptly, there is either a new government or a new House of Commons." The Danish government relies on the confidence of Folketinget, to stay in power. If there is a successful motion of no confidence against the government, it collapses and either a new government is formed or new elections are called; the executive branch thus relies on the legislative branch. The current French Fifth Republic provides an example of the fusion of powers from a country which does not follow the Westminster system. Rather France follows a model known alternatively as a semi-presidential system or'mixed presidential-parliamentary' system, which exists somewhere between parliamentary democracies and presidential democracies. Israel has a Westminster-derived parliamentary system, in which the Government is made up of members of the Knesset, Israel's parliament.
It is possible in Israel to appoint ministers who are not members of Knesset, but, not done in practice. By law, the Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister must be members of Knesset; the United Kingdom is considered the country with the strongest fusion of powers. Until 2005, the Lord Chancellor was a full fusion of all branches, being speaker in the House of Lords, a government minister heading the Lord Chancellor's Department and head of the judiciary; the parliamentary system in Sweden has since its new constitution in 1974 instituted a fusion of powers whereby the principle of "popular sovereignty" serves as the guiding light of principle of government and forms the first line of the constitution. One advantage of a fusion of powers, according to promoters, is that it is easier for the government to take action. There exists no way for there to be a deadlock in the manner that can sometimes occur where the legislature and executive are separated, but see the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis for a counter-example.
The disadvantage with a fusion of powers, paradoxically, is the power it gives to the executive, not the legislative, arm of government. In a fusion of powers, the head of government must have the confidence of a majority in the legislature. If the majority is made up of members of one's own party, the head of government can use these supporters to control the legislature's business, thus protecting the executive from being accountable and at the same time passing any laws expedient for the government. A revolt by members of the government's own party is possible, but party discipline, along with a tendency by many electorates to vote against unstable governments, makes such a revolt unattractive and therefore rare. Many states have responded to this by instituting or retaining multicameral legislatures, in which all houses must pass legislation in the same form; the responsible house is the most powerful and the only house with the actual power to terminate the government. Other houses, can veto or at least delay controversial bills until the government's performance can be judged by the electorate.
They provide additional forums for inquiry into the conduct of the executive. In addition, since the government's future is not at stake in other houses, members of the governing party or coalition in these houses can be freer to oppose particular government policies they disagree with. A second approach to curbing executive power is the election of the responsible house by some form of proportional representation, as in the case of Japan; this but not leads to coalitions or minority governments. These governments have the support of the legislature when their survival is at stake but less absolute control over its proceedings. A fusion of powers was rejected by the framers of the American constitution, for fear that it would concentrate a dangerous level of power into one body. However, other countries reject the presidential system for the same reason, arguing it concentrates too much power in the hands of one person if impeachment is difficult. Constitutionalism Constitutional economics Mixed government Rule according to higher law Responsible government Separation of powers
Gmina Wiśniew is a rural gmina in Siedlce County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland. Its seat is the village of Wiśniew, which lies 11 kilometres south of Siedlce and 90 km east of Warsaw; the gmina covers an area of 125.87 square kilometres, as of 2006 its total population is 5,922. Gmina Wiśniew contains the villages and settlements of Borki-Kosiorki, Borki-Paduchy, Borki-Sołdy, Ciosny, Daćbogi, Helenów, Lipniak, Łupiny, Mościbrody, Mościbrody-Kolonia, Myrcha, Nowe Okniny, Okniny-Podzdrój, Radomyśl, Śmiary, Stare Okniny, Stok Wiśniewski, Tworki, Wiśniew, Wiśniew-Kolonia, Wólka Wiśniewska, Wólka Wołyniecka and Zabłocie. Gmina Wiśniew is bordered by the gminas of Łuków, Siedlce, Skórzec and Zbuczyn. Polish official population figures 2006
Yves Bonnefont is a French industrialist and business leader. He was born on 18 December 1970 in Boulogne-Billancourt, he was Chief Executive Officer of DS Automobiles, the new premium brand of Groupe PSA that he founded in 2015 with his team until January 2020. Yves Bonnefont is now leading a study on potential synergies within a portfolio of brands for Groupe PSA. Yves Bonnefont graduated from the engineering school École Centrale Paris in 1993, he began his career at Groupe PSA in 1994 as a project manager at the PSA plant in Rennes before joining the PSA technical centre in Vélizy. In November 1997, he left Groupe PSA to manage the French automotive division of Arthur Andersen for three years, he joined McKinsey & Company, where he became associate director in 2006 and managed international research in the automotive sector from 2007. In 2010, he was appointed a member of the global committee. In 2012, at the height of the crisis in the automotive market, he decided to once again join Groupe PSA, becoming strategy director and notably overseeing decision-making in changes in positioning of the brands Citroën and Peugeot.
In April 2013, he was appointed deputy managing director of Citroën. In 2014, he became the first chief executive officer of DS Automobiles when it was founded, at the instigation of Carlos Tavares, he created Groupe PSA's connected vehicles business unit, for which he was responsible until the mobility brand Free2Move was launched. He admits to being impatient. ‘When I’m told we need six months, I set a three-month period...’ he said in the French periodical Challenges, in a portrait of him as part of a report on the creation of the DS Automobiles brand. His closest colleagues are Arnaud Ribault and Marketing Director, Marion David, Product Manager, Thierry Métroz, Style Director, they work in the same space in Groupe PSA's new head office in Rueil-Malmaison. At a conference at the Salon des Entrepreneurs trade fair in Paris in February 2018, he explained that he meets up with all new recruits at DS Automobiles and spends one day per week on the ground, in plants, points of sale and research centres.
He was the first CEO of a premium brand to have invested in Formula E, with the conquest of the 2018/2019 Drivers and Teams titles of Jean-Eric Vergne and DS TECHEETAH. In 2019, the brand recorded a 17% growth with DS 3 CROSSBACK and DS 7 CROSSBACK and an effective deployment in 38 countries around the world, with 400 points of sale. At the end of the year, DS 3 CROSSBACK E-TENSE and DS 7 CROSSBACK E-TENSE 4x4 plug-in hybrid versions are available. In January 2020, he was replaced at the head of DS Automobiles by Béatrice Foucher, former deputy director of the brand, he pursues work in investment: until April 2018, he was Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Trescal. Since he has continued to invest in start-ups, such as Iziwork, serve on their boards. Yves Bonnefont is the father of five sons