The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Guam is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean. It is the easternmost point and territory of the United States, along with the Northern Mariana Islands; the capital city of Guam is Hagåtña and the most populous city is Dededo. The inhabitants of Guam are called Guamanians, they are American citizens by birth. Indigenous Guamanians are the Chamorros, who are related to other Austronesian natives of Eastern Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan. Guam has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983. In 2016, 162,742 people resided on Guam. Guam has a population density of 775 per square mile. In Oceania, it is the largest and southernmost of the Mariana Islands and the largest island in Micronesia. Among its municipalities, Mongmong-Toto-Maite has the highest population density at 3,691 per square mile, whereas Inarajan and Umatac have the lowest density at 119 per square mile; the highest point is Mount Lamlam at 1,332 feet above sea level.
Since the 1960s, the economy has been supported by two industries: tourism and the United States Armed Forces. The indigenous Chamorros settled the island 4,000 years ago. Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, while in the service of Spain, was the first European to visit the island, on March 6, 1521. Guam was colonized by Spain in 1668 with settlers, including Diego Luis de San Vitores, a Catholic Jesuit missionary. Between the 16th century and the 18th century, Guam was an important stopover for the Spanish Manila Galleons. During the Spanish–American War, the United States captured Guam on June 21, 1898. Under the Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded Guam to the United States on December 10, 1898. Guam is among the 17 non-self-governing territories listed by the United Nations. Before World War II, there were five American jurisdictions in the Pacific Ocean: Guam and Wake Island in Micronesia, American Samoa and Hawaii in Polynesia, the Philippines. On December 7, 1941, hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Guam was captured by the Japanese, who occupied the island for two and a half years.
During the occupation, Guamanians were subjected to beheadings, forced labor and torture. American forces recaptured the island on July 21, 1944. An unofficial but used territorial motto is "Where America's Day Begins", which refers to the island's close proximity to the international date line; the original inhabitants of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands were the Chamorro people, who are believed to be descendants of Austronesian people originating from Southeast Asia as early as 2000 BC. The ancient Chamorro society had four classes: chamorri, matua and mana'chang; the matua were located in the coastal villages, which meant they had the best access to fishing grounds, whereas the mana'chang were located in the interior of the island. Matua and mana'chang communicated with each other, matua used achaot as intermediaries. There were "makåhna" or "kakahna", shamans with magical powers and "Suruhånu" or "Suruhåna" healers who use different kinds of plants and natural materials to make medicine.
Belief in spirits of ancient Chamorros called "Taotao mo'na" still persists as a remnant of pre-European culture. It is believed that "Suruhånu" or "Suruhåna" are the only ones who can safely harvest plants and other natural materials from their homes or "hålomtåno" without incurring the wrath of the "Taotao mo'na", their society was organized along matrilineal clans. Latte stones are stone pillars; the latte-stone was used as a foundation. Latte stones consist of a base shaped from limestone called the haligi and with a capstone, or tåsa, made either from a large brain coral or limestone, placed on top. A possible source for these stones, the Rota Latte Stone Quarry, was discovered in 1925 on Rota; the first European to travel to Guam was Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan, sailing for the King of Spain, when he sighted the island on March 6, 1521, during his fleet's circumnavigation of the globe. When Magellan arrived on Guam, he was greeted by hundreds of small outrigger canoes that appeared to be flying over the water, due to their considerable speed.
These outrigger canoes were called Proas, resulted in Magellan naming Guam Islas de las Velas Latinas. Antonio Pigafetta said that the name was "Island of Sails", but he writes that the inhabitants "entered the ships and stole whatever they could lay their hands on", including "the small boat, fastened to the poop of the flagship." "Those people are poor, but ingenious and thievish, on account of which we called those three islands Islas de los Ladrones." Despite Magellan's visit, Guam was not claimed by Spain until January 26, 1565, by General Miguel López de Legazpi. From 1565 to 1815, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, the only Spanish outposts in the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, were an important resting stop for the Manila galleons, a fleet that covered the Pacific trade route between Acapulco and Manila. To protect these Pacific fleets, Spain built several defensive structures that still stand today, such as Fort Nuestra Señora de la Soledad in Umatac. Guam is the biggest single segment of Micronesia, the largest islands between the island of Kyushu, New Guinea, the Philippines, the Hawaiian Islands.
Spanish colonization commenced on June 15, 1
Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on the pressure of the system of interest; the same amount of water vapor results in higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air. A related parameter is that of dewpoint; the relative humidity of an air–water mixture is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature: ϕ = p H 2 O p H 2 O ∗. Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage. At 100 % relative humidity, the air is at its dewpoint. Climate control refers to the control of temperature and relative humidity in buildings and other enclosed spaces for the purpose of providing for human comfort and safety, of meeting environmental requirements of machines, sensitive materials and technical processes. Along with air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air speed, metabolic rate, clothing level, relative humidity plays a role in human thermal comfort.
According to ASHRAE Standard 55-2017: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, indoor thermal comfort can be achieved through the PMV method with relative humidities ranging from 0% to 100%, depending on the levels of the other factors contributing to thermal comfort. However, the recommended range of indoor relative humidity in air conditioned buildings is 30-60%. In general, higher temperatures will require lower relative humidities to achieve thermal comfort compared to lower temperatures, with all other factors held constant. For example, with clothing level = 1, Metabolic rate = 1.1, air speed 0.1 m/s, a change in air temperature and mean radiant temperature from 20 degrees C to 24 degrees C would lower the maximum acceptable relative humidity from 100% to 65% to maintain thermal comfort conditions. The CBE Thermal Comfort Tool can be used to demonstrate the effect of relative humidity for specific thermal comfort conditions and it can be used to demonstrate compliance with ASHRAE Standard 55-2017.
When using the adaptive model to predict thermal comfort indoors, relative humidity is not taken into account. Although relative humidity is an important factor for thermal comfort, humans are more sensitive to variations in temperature than they are to changes in relative humidity. Relative humidity has a small effect on thermal comfort outdoors when air temperatures are low, a more pronounced effect at moderate air temperatures, a much stronger influence at higher air temperatures. In cold climates, the outdoor temperature causes lower capacity for water vapor to flow about, thus although it may be snowing and the relative humidity outdoors is high, once that air comes into a building and heats up, its new relative humidity is low, making the air dry, which can cause discomfort. Dry cracked. Low humidity causes tissue lining nasal passages to dry and become more susceptible to penetration of Rhinovirus cold viruses. Low humidity is a common cause of nosebleeds; the use of a humidifier in homes bedrooms, can help with these symptoms.
Indoor relative humidities should be kept above 30% to reduce the likelihood of the occupant's nasal passages drying out. Humans can be comfortable within a wide range of humidities depending on the temperature—from 30% to 70%—but ideally between 50% and 60%. Low humidity can create discomfort, respiratory problems, aggravate allergies in some individuals. In the winter, it is advisable to maintain relative humidity above. Low relative humidities may cause eye irritation. For climate control in buildings using HVAC systems, the key is to maintain the relative humidity at a comfortable range—low enough to be comfortable but high enough to avoid problems associated with dry air; when the temperature is high and the relative humidity is low, evaporation of water is rapid. Wooden furniture can shrink; when the temperature is low and the relative humidity is high, evaporation of water is slow. When relative humidity approaches 100 percent, condensation can occur on surfaces, leading to problems with mold, corrosion and other moisture-related deterioration.
Condensation can pose a safety risk as it can promote the growth of mold and wood rot as well as freezing emergency exits shut. Certain production and technical processes and treatments in factories, laboratories and other facilities require specific relative humidity levels to be maintained using humidifiers and associated control systems; the basic principles for buildings, above apply to vehicles. In addition, there may be safety considerations. For instance, high humidity inside a vehicle can lead to problems of condensation, such
Agat is a village in the United States territory of Guam. It is located south of Apra Harbor on the island's western shore; the village's population has decreased since the island's 2000 census. The village is 10 miles southwest of Hagåtña, with most of the residents ethnic Chamorros, the indigenous people of Guam; some of Agat's most notable sites are Mount Alifan, the Agat Marina, the Spanish Bridge, War In The Pacific National Historical Park. In 1565, the Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi claimed Guam for Spain. Agat was founded between 1680 and 1684, by the Spanish Governor Don Jose Quiroga, as a military garrison for the purpose of controlling the Chamorro people and converting them to Christianity. Many of its first citizens were brought from the internal village of Fina, destroyed while the Spanish pacified the island, it was one of six such settlements on Guam in the 18th century. During the 1830s, the Spanish Governor, Captain Villalobos, began constructing facilities in Agat planning to make it the island's new capital.
Lack of funds prevented him from completing the project. In 1898, Guam was transferred from Spain to the United States following the Spanish–American War. Under U. S. Naval administration, Agat was incorporated as a township with an American style municipal government. During World War II, Japan occupied Guam from 1941 to 1944. During the Battle of Guam in 1944, Agat was one of the two landing sites for U. S. Marines; these sites are now part of the War in the Pacific National Historical Park. The old village was destroyed during the invasion. After capturing Guam, the U. S. military constructed a new residential community in Agat for Guam residents made homeless by the war south of the original village. Guam Public School System serves the island. Marcial Sablan Elementary School and Oceanview Middle School are located in Agat. Southern High School in Santa Rita serves the village. Oceanview Middle School was Oceanview High School. Our Lady of Mount Carmel Catholic School is located in Agat and accommodates students in pre-kindergarten through eighth grade.
Guam Public Library System operates the Agat Library at 165 Follard Street. Antonio P. Carbullido Tomas C. Charfauros Francisco R. Chaco Francisco C. Sablan Antonio P. Carbullido Juan L. G. Leon Guerrero Jose B. Guevara Thomas F. P. Muña Jose S. San Nicolas Antonio R. Terlaje Antonio C. Babauta Joaquin G. Topasna Johnny M. Reyes Carol S. Tayama Kevin J. T. Susuico Jose Pereda Jesus Carbullido Pedro C. Charfauros Vicente M. Salas Jose S. San Nicolas Vicente Q. Guerrero Antonio C. Babauta Jose R. Reyes John A. Quidachay Joaquin G. Topasna Jessie S. Pendon Jesus B. Chaco Agustin G. Quintanilla Kevin J. T. Susuico Christopher J. Fejeran Villages of Guam Rogers, Robert F. Destiny's Landfall: A History of Guam: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-1678-1 Sanchez, Pedro C. Guahan, Guam: The History of our Island: Sanchez Publishing House
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Tropical rainforest climate
A tropical rainforest climate is a tropical climate found within 10 to 15 degrees latitude of the equator, has at least 60 mm of rainfall every month of the year. Regions with this climate are designated Af by the Köppen climate classification. A tropical rainforest climate is hot and wet. Tropical rain forests have a type of tropical climate in which there is no dry season&mash. In rain forest climates the dry season is short, rainfall is heavy throughout the year. One day in a tropical rain forest climate can be similar to the next, while the change in temperature between day and night may be larger than the average change in temperature during the year. A tropical rain forest climate is found at latitudes within 15 degrees North and South of the equator, which are dominated by the Inter tropical Convergence Zone; the climate is most found in South America, Central Africa, Southeast Asia and Oceania. These rain forests are monotonously wet throughout the year. Locations in Oceania, areas along the coast of South and Central America, from Ecuador to Belize, parts of Central Africa, much of Indonesia have this type of climate.
When tropical rain forest climates are more dominated by the ITCH than the trade winds, so located near the equator, they are called equatorial climates. Otherwise, when they are more dominated by the trade winds than the ITCH, they are called tropical trade-wind climates. In the last case there are a number of instances where this climate is found some distance away from the equator. For instance, Santos and Palm Beach, Florida are not only far removed from the equator, but are located just outside the tropics. Both cities feature a tropical trade-wind rain forest climate, with noticeably cooler and warmer periods of the year. Tropics Köppen climate classification
Territories of the United States
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions overseen by the federal government. They differ from U. S. Native American tribes, which have limited sovereignty; the territories are classified by incorporation and whether they have an "organized" government through an organic act passed by Congress. The U. S. has sixteen territories in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Five are permanently-inhabited, unincorporated territories. Of the eleven, only one is classified as an incorporated territory. Two territories are defacto administered by Colombia. Territories were created to administer newly-acquired land, most attained statehood. Others, such as the Philippines, the Marshall Islands and Palau became independent. Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959; the first were the Northwest and Southwest territories, the last were the Alaska and Hawaii Territories. Thirty-one territories became states. In the process, some less-developed or -populous areas of a territory were orphaned from it after a statehood referendum.
When a portion of the Missouri Territory became the state of Missouri, the remainder of the territory became an unorganized territory. Territorial telecommunications and other infrastructure is inferior to that of the U. S. mainland, American Samoa's Internet speed was found to be slower than several Eastern European countries. Poverty rates are higher in the territories than in the states; the U. S. has had territories since its beginning. According to federal law, the term "United States" means "the continental United States, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands". Since 1986, the Northern Mariana Islands have been considered part of the U. S. A 2007 executive order included American Samoa in the U. S. "geographical extent", as reflected in the Federal Register. All territories are except for American Samoa and Jarvis Island; the U. S. has five permanently-inhabited territories, two of which are known as "commonwealths": Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea. About four million people in these territories are U.
S. citizens, citizenship at birth is granted in four of the five territories. American Samoa has about 32,000 non-citizen U. S. nationals. Under U. S. law, "only persons born in American Samoa and Swains Island are non-citizen U. S. nationals" in its territories. American Samoans are under U. S. protection, can travel to the rest of the U. S. without a visa. American Samoans must become naturalized citizens, like foreigners. Unlike the other four inhabited territories, Congress has passed no legislation granting birthright citizenship to American Samoans; each territory is self-governing with three branches of government, including a locally-elected governor and a territorial legislature. It elects a non-voting member to the U. S. House of Representatives, they "possess the same powers as other members of the House, except that they may not vote when the House is meeting as the House of Representatives". They can vote in their appointed House committees on all legislation presented to the House, they are included in their party count for each committee, they are equal to senators on conference committees.
Depending on the Congress, they may vote on the floor in the House Committee of the Whole. In January 2017, the members of Congress from the territories were Gregorio Sablan, Madeleine Bordallo, Amata Coleman Radewagen, Jenniffer González and Stacey Plaskett; the District of Columbia has a non-voting delegate. Like the District of Columbia, U. S. territories do not have voting representation in Congress and have no representation in the Senate. Every four years, U. S. political parties nominate presidential candidates at conventions which include delegates from the territories. U. S. citizens living in the territories cannot vote in the general presidential election, non-citizen nationals in American Samoa cannot vote for president. The territorial capitals are Pago Pago, Hagåtña, San Juan and Charlotte Amalie, their governors are Lolo Matalasi Moliga, Eddie Baza Calvo, Ralph Torres, Ricardo Rosselló and Kenneth Mapp. American Samoa – Territory since 1900; the U. S. controlled the eastern half of the islands.
In 1900, the Treaty of Cession of Tutuila took effect. The Manuʻa islands became part of American Samoa in 1904, Swains Island became part of American Samoa in 1925. Congress ratified American Samoa's treaties in 1929. American Samoa is locally self-governing under a constitution last revised in 1967. People born in American Samoa are U. S. nationals. A