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Haganah was the main paramilitary organization of the Jewish Yishuv in Mandatory Palestine between 1920 and 1948, which became the core of the Israel Defense Forces. Formed out of previous existing militias, its original purpose was to defend Jewish settlements from Arab attacks, such as the riots of 1920, 1921, 1929 and 1936–1939, it was under the control of the Jewish Agency, the official governmental body in charge of Palestine's Jewish community during the British Mandate. Until the end of the Second World War, Haganah's activities were moderate in accordance with the policy of havlaga, which caused the splitting of the more radical Irgun and Lehi; the Haganah sought cooperation with the British in the event of an Axis invasion of Palestine through North Africa, prompting the creation of the Palmach in 1941. With the end of World War II and British refusal to cancel the 1939 White Paper's restrictions on Jewish immigration, the Haganah turned to sabotage activities against the British authorities, including bombing bridges, rail lines, ships used to deport illegal Jewish immigrants, as well as assisting in bringing Jews to Palestine in defiance of British policy.

After the United Nations adopted a partition plan for Palestine in 1947, the Haganah came into the open as the biggest fighting force among Palestinian Jews overcoming Arab forces during the civil war. Shortly after Israel's independence declaration and the beginning of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Haganah was dissolved and became the official army of the state; the evolution of Jewish defense organisations in Palestine and Israel went from small self-defense groups active during Ottoman rule, to larger and more sophisticated ones during the British Mandate, leading through the Haganah to the national army of Israel, the IDF. The evolution went step by step from Bar-Giora, to Hashomer, to Haganah, to IDF; the Jewish paramilitary organisations in the New Yishuv started with the Second Aliyah. The first such organization was Bar-Giora, founded in September 1907, it consisted of a small group of Jewish immigrants. At no time did Bar-Giora have more than 100 members, it was converted to Hashomer in April 1909, which operated until the British Mandate of Palestine came into being in 1920.

Hashomer was an elitist organization with narrow scope, was created to protect against criminal gangs seeking to steal property. During World War I, the forerunners of the Haganah/IDF were the Zion Mule Corps and the Jewish Legion, both of which were part of the British Army. After the Arab riots against Jews in April 1920, the Yishuv's leadership saw the need to create a nationwide underground defense organization, the Haganah was founded in June of the same year; the Haganah became a full-scale defense force after the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine with an organized structure, consisting of three main units—the Field Corps, Guard Corps, the Palmach strike force. During World War II the successor to the Jewish Legion of World War I was the Jewish Brigade, joined by many Haganah fighters. During the 1947–48 civil war between the Arab and Jewish communities in what was still Mandatory Palestine, a reorganised Haganah managed to defend or wrestle most of the territory it was ordered to hold or capture.

At the beginning of the ensuing 1948–49 full-scale conventional war against regular Arab armies, the Haganah was reorganised to become the core of the new Israel Defense Forces. After the 1920 Arab riots and 1921 Jaffa riots, the Jewish leadership in Palestine believed that the British, to whom the League of Nations had given a mandate over Palestine in 1920, had no desire to confront local Arab gangs that attacked Palestinian Jews. Believing that they could not rely on the British administration for protection from these gangs, the Jewish leadership created the Haganah to protect Jewish farms and kibbutzim; the first head of the Haganah was a 28 year-old named a veteran of the Jewish Legion. In addition to guarding Jewish communities, the role of the Haganah was to warn the residents of and repel attacks by Palestinian Arabs. In the period between 1920 -- 1929, the Haganah lacked coordination. Haganah "units" were localized and poorly armed: they consisted of Jewish farmers who took turns guarding their farms or their kibbutzim.

Following the 1929 Palestine riots, the Haganah's role changed dramatically. It became a much larger organization encompassing nearly all the youth and adults in the Jewish settlements, as well as thousands of members from the cities, it acquired foreign arms and began to develop workshops to create hand grenades and simple military equipment, transforming from an untrained militia to a capable underground army. Many Haganah fighters objected to the official policy of havlagah that Jewish political leaders had imposed on the militia. Fighters had been instructed to only defend communities and not initiate counterattacks against Arab gangs or their communities; this policy appeared defeatist to many. In 1931, the more militant elements of the Haganah splintered off and formed the Irgun Tsva'i-Leumi, better known as "Irgun". During the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, the Haganah worked to protect British interests and to quell Arab rebellion using the FOSH, Hish units. At that time, the Haganah fielded 10,000 mobilized men along with 40,000 reservists.

Although the British administration did

PolyGram Polska

PolyGram Polska Sp. Z o.o. was a Polish subsidiary of PolyGram. The label was founded in 1994 in Warsaw when independent record label Izabelin Studio was brought by PolyGram. Label was closed in 1998 when PolyGram, within its Polish subsidiary was brought by Seagram and Universal Music Group was formed. PolyGram Polska catalogue have been taken over by Universal Music Polska. PolyGram Polska bestselling artists included Edyta Bartosiewicz and Katarzyna Kowalska among others, with several albums certified Gold and Platinum in Poland. BMG Poland EMI Music Poland Sony Music Entertainment Poland Sony BMG Music Entertainment Poland Warner Music Poland


The Dziwna is a channel of the Oder River in northwestern Poland, one of three straits connecting the Oder Lagoon with the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea. It separates the island of Wolin from the rest of the Polish mainland; the other two channels are the Peene. About 32 kilometers in length, the Dziwna forms on the eastern end of the Szczecin Lagoon near the town of Zagórze, Kamień County. Flowing north, it passes the town of Wolin and widens and forms a number of connected features. Towards the west the main channel of the Dziwna forms the large Kamieński Lagoon. To the east a side channel develops into the Zatoka Cicha, flows north through the strait of Promna as it approaches the city of Kamień Pomorski rejoins the Kamieński Lagoon. Between these two channels stands the small agricultural island of Chrząszczewo connected to Kamień Pomorski by a single bridge; the Kamieński Lagoon reforms into the well-defined Zatoka Wrzosowska, narrows flows past the coastal city of Dziwnów for just a few kilometers as the Dziwna again before reaching the Bay of Pomerania

Carnegie Public Library (Havre, Montana)

The Carnegie Public Library in Havre, Montana is a historic Carnegie library built in 1914, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. It is in the Classical revival style, it was known as the Havre Public Library and as the Old Carnegie Library. In 2017 it is occupied by the Old Library Gallery. Hopes for obtaining Carnegie funds for a library were expressed in the Milk River Eagle newspaper by 1901. A first library in Havre was started by 50 women who formed a Women's Club and subscribed for twenty-five cents per month. A room in the Havre Security State Bank was used to lend out its initial 200 donated books; the library moved to the Havre City Hall by 1906. The Havre Plaindealer newspaper noted that Glasgow, fifty miles away built a Carnegie library in 1908. By 1911 the women's club and others had lobbied for local tax funding to support a librarian, the Havre Library Board lobbied the City Council to purchase land at 4th Avenue and 5th Street to build a library. In 1913, $12,000 funding for construction was approved by Carnegie, the building was built within a year.

In 2017, the current public library in Havre is the Havre-Hill County Library, located at 402 Third Avenue, about a block away. Photo at Flickr

Dewaar: The Best of Junoon

Dewaar: The Best of Junoon is the third compilation album and the fourteenth overall album released by Pakistani rock band, Junoon. The album is produced by Salman Ahmad. "Garaj Baras" was the soundtrack of the Bollywood movie, Paap and "Azadi" was the soundtrack of the movie based on Pakistan founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Jinnah the Movie. All music written and composed by Ali Azmat, Salman Ahmad and Sabir Zafar, those which are not are mentioned below. All information is taken from the CD. JunoonSalman Ahmad - vocals, lead guitar Ali Azmat - vocals, backing vocals Brian O'Connell - bass guitar, backing vocalsAdditional musiciansVocals on "Azadi" by Samina Ahmad Vocals on "Piya" by Morten Harket Orchestral arrangements by Paul SchwartzProductionProduced by Salman Ahmad Mastered by Gus Shaw & Brian O'Connell Junoon's Official Website

Bank of England £50 note

The Bank of England £50 note is a banknote of the pound sterling. It is the highest denomination of banknote issued for public circulation by the Bank of England; the current cotton note, first issued in 2011, bears the image of Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse and the images of engineer and scientist James Watt and industrialist and entrepreneur Matthew Boulton on the reverse. The next £50 note, to be printed in polymer, will enter circulation in 2021, it will bear the image of Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse and the image of computer scientist and World War II codebreaker Alan Turing on the reverse. £50 notes were introduced by the Bank of England for the first time in 1725. The earliest notes were issued as needed to individuals; these notes were written on one side only and bore the name of the payee, the date, the signature of the issuing cashier. With the exception of the Restriction Period between 1797 and 1821, when the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars caused a bullion shortage, these notes could be exchanged in full, or in part, for an equivalent amount of gold when presented at the bank.

If redeemed in part, the banknote would be signed to indicate the amount, redeemed. From 1853 printed notes replaced handwritten notes, with the declaration "I promise to pay the bearer on demand the sum of fifty pounds" replacing the name of the payee; this declaration remains on Bank of England banknotes to this day. A printed signature of one of three cashiers appeared on the printed notes, although this was replaced by the signature of the Chief Cashier from 1870 onwards; the ability to redeem banknotes for gold ceased in 1931 when Britain stopped using the gold standard. The £50 note ceased to be produced by the Bank of England in 1943 and did not reappear until it was reintroduced in 1981; these D series notes were predominantly olive green on both sides, with an image of Queen Elizabeth II on the front and an image of architect Christopher Wren on the back. As a security feature, this note had a metallic thread running through it, upgraded to a "windowed" thread from July 1988 onward; the thread is woven into the paper such that it forms a dashed line, yet appears as a single line when held up to the light.

The series D note was replaced by the series E, beginning in 1994. This reddish note replaced Christopher Wren with John Houblon, the first governor of the Bank of England, on the reverse; as an additional security feature, these notes had a foil patch on the front. The E revision series did not have a £50 note; the current £50 note was introduced in 2011. It features two portraits on the reverse: engineer and scientist James Watt and industrialist and entrepreneur Matthew Boulton, along with the Whitbread Engine and the Soho Manufactory, Birmingham; the note has a number of security features in addition to the metallic thread, including motion thread, raised print, a watermark, microlettering, a see-through registration device, a colourful pattern that only appears under ultraviolet light. The current note is the first Bank of England banknote to feature two people on the reverse, the first Bank of England note to feature the motion thread security feature; this is an image in a broken green thread.

The new £50 note will be bought into circulation by the of 2021. The reverse of the note will codebreaker Alan Turing. Suggestions were sought by the Bank for eligible scientists prior to Turing's selection; some 227,299 nominations covering 989 scientists were received, the shortlist consisted of, Mary Anning, Paul Dirac, Rosalind Franklin, William Herschel and Caroline Herschel, Dorothy Hodgkin, Ada Lovelace and Charles Babbage, Stephen Hawking, James Clerk Maxwell, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Ernest Rutherford, Frederick Sanger and Turing. The Bank of England has issued new £ 5, £ £ 20 notes in polymer form. In October 2018, the Bank of England announced that the £50 note would be retained, with a new Series G polymer note planned to replace the Series F note by the end of 2021; the Bank of England had a committee to consider nominations for the face of the new notes via public consultation. On 15 July 2019 Alan Turing was announced as its new face. Peter Sands, an advisor to the British Government and former Chief Executive of Standard Chartered, has raised concern with the Bank of England over high denomination notes and their role in tax evasion.

He claimed that scrapping the £50, other high denomination notes such as the CHF 1000 and $100, would reduce financial crime. Information taken from Bank of England website. Bank of England note issues Bank of England website