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Haider al-Abadi

Haider Jawad Kadhim al-Abadi is an Iraqi-British politician, Prime Minister of Iraq from September 2014 until October 2018. He served as Minister of Communication from 2003 to 2004, in the first government after Saddam Hussein was deposed, he was designated as Prime Minister by President Fuad Masum on 11 August 2014 to succeed Nouri al-Maliki and was approved by the Iraqi parliament on 8 September 2014. Al-Abadi's father was a member of the Baghdad Neurosurgery Hospital and Inspector General of the Iraqi Ministry of Health, he was forced to retire in 1979 due to disagreements with the Ba'athist regime, was buried abroad after his death. Al-Abadi, who speaks English, graduated high school in 1970 from the Central High School in Bagdad. In 1975, he earned a Bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Baghdad. In 1980, he earned a PhD degree in Electrical engineering from the University of Manchester. Al-Abadi joined the Dawa Party in 1967. Two of his brothers were killed and one was put in prison 1980, 1981, 1982 for belonging to the Dawa Party.

In 1981, his third brother was spent 10 years in prison. In 1977, he became in charge of its organization in Britain. In 1979, he became a member of the party's executive leadership. In 1983, the government confiscated al-Abadi's passport for conspiring against Iraq's Ba'ath Party. Al-Abadi remained in voluntary exile, until the 2003 invasion of Iraq, his positions during this time included: Director general of a small design and development firm in London specialising in high-technology vertical and horizontal transportation Consultant, in London, in matters relating to transportation Research leader for a major modernization contract in London Al-Abadi was awarded a grant from the UK Department of Trade and Industry in 1998. While working in London in 2001 al-Abadi registered a patent relating to rapid transit systems. In 2003, al-Abadi became skeptical of the Coalition Provisional Authority privatization plan, proposing to Paul Bremer that they had to wait for a legitimate government to be formed.

In October 2003, al-Abadi with all 25 of the interim Governing Council ministers protested to Paul Bremer and rejected the CPA's demand to privatize the state-owned companies and infrastructure prior to forming a legitimate government. The CPA, led by Bremer, fell out with the Governing Council; the CPA worked around the Governing Council, forming a new government that remained beholden to the CPA to serve until the general elections, prompting more aggressive armed actions by insurgents against US-led coalition personnel. While al-Abadi was Minister of Communications, the CPA awarded licenses to three mobile operators to cover all parts of Iraq. Despite being rendered nearly powerless by the CPA, Al-Abadi was not prepared to be a rubber stamp and introduced more conditions for the licenses. Among them that a sovereign Iraqi government has the power to amend or terminate the licenses and introduce a fourth national license, which caused some friction with the CPA. In 2003, press reports indicated Iraqi officials were under investigation over a questionable deal involving Orascom, an Egypt-based telecoms company, which in late 2003 was awarded a contract to provide a mobile network to central Iraq.

Al-Abadi asserted. In 2004, it was revealed that these allegations were fabrications, a US Defense Department review found that telecommunications contracting had been illegally influenced in an unsuccessful effort led by disgraced US Deputy Undersecretary of Defense John A. Shaw and not by Iraqis. Between January and December 2005, he served as an adviser to the Prime Minister of Iraq in the first elected government, he was elected as a member of the Iraqi Parliament in the December 2005 parliamentary election and chaired the parliamentary committee for Economy and Reconstruction. Al-Abadi was re-elected in the 2010 parliamentary election as a member of the Iraqi Parliament representing Baghdad. In 2013, he chaired the Finance Committee and was at the center of a parliamentary dispute over the allocation of the 2013 Iraqi budget. Al-Abadi's name was circulated as a prime ministerial candidate during the formation of the Iraqi government in 2006 during which time Ibrahim al-Jaafari was replaced by Nouri al-Maliki as Prime Minister.

In 2008, al-Abadi remained steadfast in his support of Iraqi sovereignty, insisting on specific conditions to the agreement with the U. S. regarding its presence in Iraq. In 2009, al-Abadi was identified by the Middle East Economic Digest as a key person to watch in Iraq's reconstruction, he is an active member of the Iraq Petroleum Advisory Committee, participating in the Iraq Petroleum Conferences of 2009–2012 organized by Nawar Abdulhadi and Phillip Clarke of The CWC Group. He was one of several Iraqi politicians supporting a suit against Blackwater as a result of the 2010 dismissal of criminal charges against Blackwater personnel involved in the 2007 killing of 17 Iraqi civilians. Al-Abadi was again tapped as a possible Prime Minister during the tough negotiations between Iraqi political blocs after the elections of 2010 to choose a replacement to incumbent PM Nouri al-Maliki. Again in 2014, he was nominated by Shia political parties as an alternative candidate for Prime Minister. On 24 July 2014, Fuad Masum became the new president of Iraq.

He, in turn, nominated al-Abadi for prime minister on 11 August. For the appointment to take effect, al-Abadi was required to form a government to be confirmed by Parliament within 30 days. Al-Maliki, refused to give up his post and referred the matter to the federal court claiming the president'


Bellowhead was an English contemporary folk band, active from 2004 to 2016. The eleven-piece act played traditional dance tunes, folk songs and shanties, with arrangements drawing inspiration from a wide diversity of musical styles and influences; the band included a four-piece brass section. Bellowhead's bandmembers played more than 20 instruments between them, their third album, Hedonism, is the highest selling independently released folk album of all time, having sold over 60,000 copies and earning the band a silver disk. The band parted after their final gig at Oxford Town Hall in May 2016; the idea for the band came to Boden while the duo were in a traffic jam on tour. The longer they sat in traffic, the more friends they thought to invite to join; this led to the formation of a ten-piece band, with Benji Kirkpatrick, Rachael McShane, Paul Sartin, Pete Flood, Brendan Kelly, Justin Thurgur, Andy Mellon and Giles Lewin completing the initial line-up. Before they had time to rehearse, the fledgling band were invited to play the first Oxford Folk Festival in April 2004, earning critical approval.

In 2004, the band independently released a five-track EP, publicised as "English World Music", called E. P. Onymous, which generated positive reviews. In 2006 Gideon Juckes joined the band playing the tuba, they released their first full-length album, featuring material from the Napoleonic Wars, the American minstrel movement and sea-shanties from Brazil. Towards the end of 2007 they became Artists in Residence at the Southbank Centre, making their inaugural appearance with a Christmas Revels event. In 2008 Bellowhead released their second album Matachin, a live performance at the Proms followed, broadcast live on BBC Four and BBC Radio 3. Sam Sweeney joined the band on bagpipes following the departure of Giles Lewin; the following year in August the band were approached about recording music for a 20th anniversary episode of The Simpsons. In 2010, Ed Neuhauser replaced Gideon Juckes on sousaphone. In October 2010, Bellowhead released their third studio album, recorded in Abbey Road Studios; the album was produced by John Leckie.

In honour of the new album, the band developed a new ale named "Hedonism," with several band members being involved in the brewing process. Broadcast from April 2011, The Archers spin-off Ambridge Extra featured a revised version of Archers theme tune "Barwick Green," arranged and performed by Bellowhead. In May 2011, at the 02 Academy in Bournemouth, the band recorded a DVD, Hedonism Live, released in late November; the band recorded a new album, Broadside, in March 2012 at Rockfield Studios with John Leckie, released mid-October 2012. The album generated positive reviews and went straight to number 16 in the UK official album charts and number 1 in the UK independent album charts. In early 2012 the band undertook a European tour and in November 2012 toured the UK. In early 2013 the band toured the Netherlands and Belgium. In October 2013 they recorded a jingle for the flagship BBC Radio 2 folk music show The Folk Show with Mark Radcliffe. During 2013 they recorded a double A-sided single, Christmas Bells / Jingle Bells, released on 1 December in digital-only format.

In 2014 the band celebrated ten years performing together with two'Bel10whead' performances in April: Bridgewater Hall and the Royal Albert Hall. A new studio album, followed, released on 30 June 2014 by Island Records. Bellowhead headlined the concert in July 2015 to celebrate the opening of the refurbished Cardigan Castle; the band announced their intention to go their separate ways following a decision by Jon Boden to step down as frontman. Bellowhead played their final gig at Oxford Town Hall the venue for their first concert twelve years earlier, on 1 May 2016. Jon Boden - lead vocals, tambourine, shaky egg, thunder tube, whistle John Spiers - melodeons, Anglo concertina, kazoo, tambourine Benji Kirkpatrick - guitar, mandolin, tenor banjo, kazoo Rachael McShane - cello, kazoo, vocals Paul Sartin - fiddle, slide whistle, vocals Giles Lewin - fiddle, bagpipes Sam Sweeney - fiddle, English bagpipes, vocals, whistle Pete Flood - percussion, vocals Gideon Juckes - sousaphone, tuba Ed Neuhauser - sousaphone, tuba, vocals Brendan Kelly - saxophone, bass clarinet, vocals Justin Thurgur - trombone, vocals Andy Mellon - trumpet, vocals Bellowhead Live: The Farewell Tour New York Girls Cold Blows The Wind 10,000 Miles Away Roll The Woodpile Down Betsy Baker Christmas Bells / Jingle Bells Gosport Nancy Let Her Run / I Want To See The Bright Lights Tonight Roll Alabama E.

P. Onymous Live at Shepherds Bush Empire Hedonism Live Bellowhead Live: The Farewell Tour Umbrellowhead Pandemonium - The Essential Bellowhead The BBC Radio 2 Folk Awards are an annual awards ceremony held to celebrate achievement among folk artists that year. During their 12 years together, Bellowhead won eight of these awards, including Best Live Act on five occasions. Bellowhead website Bellowhead forum Bellowhead Interview - Folk Radio UK Official YouTube Channel

Luighne Connacht

Luighne Connacht was a territory located in north-central Connacht, on the borders of what is now County Mayo and County Sligo, Ireland. The Luighne were a people found in Brega, south of Kells in what is now County Meath; the baronies of Lune in Meath, Leyney in Sligo, were called after them. According to Lambert McKenna: " acquired their land in Connacht as a reward for military service rendered to the tribes which had victoriously invaded that part of the country, their migration... and their settlement in Connacht are referred to in the poems of this book" "and are the chief subject of the story of the Battle of Crionna. According to this story, the Luighne accompanied Tadhg mac Cian, who "The genealogists brought Tadc and his descendants from Éli in northern Munster, but since we find the Luigni and Gailenga associated as neighbours and allies in Connacht... There is reason to agree with MacNeill that they were vassal tribes of fighting men whom the Connachta and Ui Neill... planted on the lands they had conquered" Of the original Brega-based tribes called Gailenga, Saitne, Ciannachta, Francis John Byrne goes on to say: "the Brega peoples of that name... extending as they did in a group of tribal kingdoms from Glasnevin to Lough Ramor in Cavan, give the impression of a remarkably homogeneous body.

They are so connected that in the period before the Norman invasion we find that the kingship of the various tribes seem to have been interchangeable. They form a striking contrast to the population of Mide... But the Boyne valley had been an area of settled culture since Neolithic times, so that it is that a basic unity persisted under the superstructures of succeeding conquests." Members of these population-groups were able to exploit the political weakness of the Clann Cholmáin during the 11th and 12th centuries and become Kings of Brega after centuries of subordination. The early Connachta had close alliances with the Luighne, Gailenga and Corca Fhir Trí, all of whom were found in close association with that Connachta territory west of the Shannon.. In Connacht, the Luighne and neighbouring tribes were classed as Fortuatha, meaning external or alien tribes. Byrne notes that the Luighne dominated smaller, minor tribes, "and have some claim to be considered an over-kingdom, as was recognised in the 12th century when their lands were erected into the diocese of Achonry."

McKenna writes "Less common that "Luighne" there is "Luighne Connacht", the use of, puzzling. Sometime it appears to be synonymous with "Luighne".... On the other hand, "Luighne Connacht" is used to denote a folk distinct from "Luighne".' In Rawlinson B 502... we find a separate "genealogy of Luighne Connacht" breaking off from the main Luighne line somewhere in the 8th century, descending from Ceannfhaoloadh brother of Flaithgheas.. Ailill Aulom | |________________________________________ | | | | | | Cormac Cas Eógan Már Cian | | | | | | Dal gCais Eóganacht Tadhg | _____________|___________ | | | | Cormac Gaileang Connla | | Loi | |_________________ | | | | Nia Corb Art Corb | | Art | | Fiodhchuire | | Fidsheng | | Natfraoch | | Brénuinn | | Fionnbharr | | Diarmaid Mór | | Ceann Faoladh | | Taicleach | |______________________________ | | | | Flaithgheas Ceann Faoladh | | | | Béc "Luighne Connacht" | | Saorghus | |________________________________________________

Salisbury Playhouse

Salisbury Playhouse is a theatre in the English city of Salisbury, Wiltshire. It was built in 1976 and comprises the 517-seat Main House and the 149-seat Salberg, a rehearsal room and a community & education space. Plays in the Main House are own or co-produced work, of which there are between eight and ten a year; the Playhouse houses touring productions and a variety of events as part of the Salisbury International Arts Festival. The Studio programme is the focus for the theatre’s work for and with young people: which includes toured-in work, work from its Youth Theatre called Stage'65, workshop productions. Salisbury Playhouse’s Tesco Community & Education Space and Rehearsal Room opened in July 2007; the Artistic Director is Gareth Machin, appointed in October 2011 and the Executive Director is Sebastian Warrack, appointed October 2012. The Board Of Trustees are Tim Crarer, Doric Bossom, Sarah Butcher, Andy Bridewell, Tom Clay, Nick Frankfort, Rosemary Macdonald, Niall Murphy, John Perry, Rupert Sebag-Montefiore and Susan Shaw.

It is part of Arts Council England's National Portfolio of Organisations and receives regular funding from Wiltshire Council and Salisbury City Council. The Herbal Bed by Peter Whelan People at Sea by J. B. Priestly Taming the Tempest devised and directed by Mark Powell Touched by Stephen Lowe What the Butler Saw by Joe Orton Oliver! A Stage ’65 Youth Theatre Production Drowning on Dry Land by Alan Ayckbourn A Taste of Honey by Shelagh Delaney A Number by Caryl Churchill A Month in the Country by J. L. Carr, adapted by Philip Wilson. Premiere Let’s Face The Music and Dance a celebration of Irving Berlin Dick Whittington and his Cat by Mark Clements Our Country’s Good by Timberlake Wertenbaker Estelle Bright by Sarah Tullamore and Frederic Baptiste The Winslow Boy by Terence Rattigan The Real Thing by Tom Stoppard Restoration by Rose Tremain, adapted by Matthew Francis. World premiere Faith Healer by Brian Friel The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde The Wizard of Oz A Stage ’65 Youth Theatre Production The Lady in the Van by Alan Bennett Blackbird by David Harrower Romeo and Juliet: Unzipped and directed by Mark Powell After Miss Julie, a version of Strindberg’s Miss Julie by Patrick Marber Arsenic and Old Lace by Joseph Kesselring Cinderella by Mark Clements, with original songs by Paul Herbert The Way You Look Tonight, a celebration of Jerome Kern With a Song in My Heart a celebration of Rodgers and Hart Aladdin by Mark Clements, with original songs by Paul Herbert The Picture by Philip Massinger Death and the Maiden by Ariel Dorfman A Voyage Round My Father by John Mortimer Peter Pan by J. M. Barrie Les liaisons dangereuses by Christopher Hampton Toro!

Toro! by Michael Morpurgo, adapted by Simon Reade Low Pay? Don't Pay by Dario Fo, translated by Joseph Farrell The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams, co produced with Shared Experience Private Lives by Noël Coward The Little Mermaid and Other Tales, devised by Stage ’65 Youth Theatre, based on original stories by Hans Christian Andersen The Constant Wife by W. Somerset Maugham The Game of Love and Chance by Pierre Marivaux, translated by Neil Bartlett The Country by Martin Crimp Guys and Dolls, a co-production with Clwyd Theatr Cymru and New Wolsey Theatre Ipswich Around the World in 80 Days adapted by Phil Wilmott from the novel by Jules Verne The Women of Troy by Euripides Official site

Southern Outfall Sewer

The Southern Outfall Sewer is a major sewer taking sewage from the southern area of central London to Crossness in south-east London. Flows from three interceptory sewers combine at a pumping station in Deptford and run under Greenwich, Woolwich and across Erith marshes; the Outfall Sewer was designed by Joseph Bazalgette after an outbreak of cholera in 1853 and "The Big Stink" of 1858. Work started on the sewer in 1860 and it was opened on 4 April 1865 by H. R. H; the Prince of Wales. Until this time, central London's drains were built to cope with rain water, the growing use of flush toilets meant these became overloaded, flushing mud, shingle and industrial effluent into the River Thames. Bazalgette's London sewerage system project included the construction of intercepting sewers north and south of the Thames. South of the river, three major interceptor sewers were constructed: The high-level sewer starts at Herne Hill, heads eastward under Peckham and New Cross to a pumping station at Deptford.

The middle-level sewer starts on Balham Hill and runs under Clapham High Street, under Stockwell and Brixton, through Camberwell to Deptford. The low-level sewer begins in Putney and runs through Battersea and under the Old Kent Road and Bermondsey to Deptford. At Deptford pumping station the sewage is lifted by 18.9 ft to the next section of the sewer. The covered sewer forms the southern boundary of Thamesmead and has been landscaped as an elevated footpath called the Ridgeway. Deptford Pumping Station Crossness Pumping Station Northern Outfall Sewer Crossness Pumping Station

Kautokeino Airport

Kautokeino Airport is a general aviation airport located in Kautokeino, Norway. It consists of a 1,200-meter gravel runway; the airport was built by the Luftwaffe during World War II. It was rebuilt in 1958 by the Royal Norwegian Air Force to supply its radar station at Kautokeino, it is unused and is now owned by the Norwegian Directorate of Public Construction and Property and the Finnmark Estate. Local politicians have called for the airport to be upgraded to a regional airport, but this has been rejected by Avinor; the airfield was built by the Luftwaffe as an emergency landing field during the early 1940s. In addition to this, it stationed a detachment of reconnaissance aircraft; the Royal Norwegian Air Force established a radio station at Kautokeino in 1945. Transport to the new airport was among other means carried out using seaplanes which used the Altaelva river to land; the station was designated as a reporting post. Its first upgrade took place in 1958, the same year as renovations of the airfield were carried out.

The main users of the airfield were Twin Otters from Bodø Main Air Station. On occasion supplies would be dropped by parachute. Once only a jet fighter has landed here if the field is too short for them. In June 1970 an F5 landed and took off using a parachute and extra rockets. Enontekiö Airport in Finland started marketing itself as Enontekiö–Kautokeino Saami Airport from 2008, although Finavia does not use the term any more. Enontekiö is located 90 kilometers from Kautokeino. Local politicians have proposed. In 2007 a unison municipal council supported an upgrade to the airport, they cited that Kautokeino would receive a hotel from 2008 and that it would be necessary to have an airport to support the village's tourism industry. A secondary argument is. Finnmark County Council voted with a single decisive vote in 2010 to work towards making Kautokeino Finnmark's twelfth regional airport; the airport is located 3 kilometers north of the village center. It consists of a 1,200-by-40-meter gravel runway aligned 01–19.

There is no regular traffic on the airfield. The airport is located at an elevation of 355 meters above mean sea level in a flat area; the airport is owned by the Norwegian Directorate of Public Construction and Property, which leases the land from the Finnmark Estate. Avinor, the agency responsible for running state-owned airports, conducted an analysis in 2012 of upgrading Kautokeino to a regional airport with a 1,199-meter runway. Kautokeino's population of 2,935 make an estimated 10,000 annual flights from Alta Airport, located 135 kilometers by road and 1 hour and 50 minutes from the village. Avinor studied two alternative services, one with three daily flights directly to Tromsø and one using the existing Dash 8 aircraft network; the latter would require a stop-over at Sørkjosen Airport before Tromsø, allowing for two daily services, or directly with only one. Either way this gives an average 20 daily passengers per direction; such a route would need subsidies of about 10 million Norwegian krone per year.

Construction of an airport is estimated to cost NOK 530 million and have an annual operating cost of NOK 28 million. An economic analysis showed that the airport would have a negative net present value for society of NOK 1014 million, excluding operating subsidies for the airline. There is little time gain from the project as travelers to Oslo would have to fly via Sørkjosen to Tromsø and there change aircraft, instead of taking direct flights from Alta. Only passengers having Tromsø as travel target would have a gain from an airport. Avinor has recommended not upgrading the Kautokeino Airport. A Junkers Ju 52/3m transport aircraft of the Luftwaffe crashed at the airport in 1944, resulting in a write-off