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The Haijin or sea ban was a series of related isolationist Chinese policies restricting private maritime trading and coastal settlement during most of the Ming dynasty and some of the Qing. Despite official proclamations the Ming policy was not enforced in practice, trade continued without hindrance. First imposed to deal with Japanese piracy amid the mopping up of Yuan partisans, the sea ban was counterproductive: by the 16th century and smuggling were endemic and consisted of Chinese, dispossessed by the policy. China's foreign trade was limited to irregular and expensive tribute missions, the military pressure from the Mongols after the disastrous Battle of Tumu led to the scrapping of Zheng He's fleets. Piracy dropped to negligible levels only upon the end of the policy in 1567, but a modified form was subsequently adopted by the Qing; this produced the Canton System of the Thirteen Factories, but the opium smuggling that led to disastrous wars with Britain and other European powers in the 19th century.

The policy was mimicked by both Tokugawa Japan and Joseon Korea, which became known as the "Hermit Kingdom", before they were opened militarily in 1853 and 1876. The 14th century was a time of chaos throughout East Asia; the second bubonic plague pandemic began in Mongolia around 1330 and may have killed the majority of the population in Hebei and Shanxi and millions elsewhere. Another epidemic raged for three years from 1351–1354. Existing revolts over the government salt monopoly and severe floods along the Yellow River provoked the Red Turban Rebellion; the declaration of the Ming in 1368 did not end its wars with Mongol remnants under Toghon Temür in the north and under the Prince of Liang in the south. King Gongmin of Korea had begun freeing himself from the Mongols as well, retaking his country's northern provinces, when a Red Turban invasion devastated the areas and laid waste to Pyongyang. In Japan, Emperor Daigo II's Kenmu Restoration succeeded in overthrowing the Kamakura shogunate but simply replaced them with the weaker Ashikaga.

The loose control over Japan's periphery led to pirates setting up bases on the realm's outlying islands Tsushima and the Gotōs. These "dwarf pirates" raided Japan as well as China; the Treasure voyages of Zheng He were discontinued due to a rise in Mongol assertiveness after the Emperor's capture at the Battle of Tumu in 1449. The large scale of private overseas trade had caused price competition for the Ming government's purchases, such as warhorses for the northern frontier, funds had to be reallocated. However, after the end of the Treasure voyages, Chinese trade within Asia and North Africa continued; as a rebel leader, Zhu Yuanzhang promoted foreign trade as a source of revenue. As the Hongwu Emperor, first of the Ming Dynasty, however, he issued the first sea ban in 1371. All foreign trade was to be conducted by official tribute missions, handled by representatives of the Ming Empire and its "vassal" states. Private foreign trade was made punishable by death, with the offender's family and neighbors exiled from their homes.

A few years in 1384, the Maritime Trade Intendancies at Ningbo and Quanzhou were shuttered. Ships and shipyards were destroyed and ports sabotaged with rocks and pine stakes. Although the policy is now associated with imperial China it was at odds with Chinese tradition, which had pursued foreign trade as a source of revenue and become important under the Tang and Yuan. A 1613 edict prohibited maritime trade between the lands north and south of the Yangtze River, attempting to put a stop to captains claiming to be heading to Jiangsu and diverting to Japan. Although the policy has been ascribed to national defense against the pirates, it was so counterproductive and yet carried on for so long that other explanations have been offered; the initial conception seems to have been to use the Japanese need for Chinese goods to force them to terms. Parallels with Song and Yuan measures restricting outflows of bullion have led some to argue that it was intended to support the Hongwu Emperor's printing of fiat currency, whose use was continued by his successors as late as 1450.

Others assert that it was a side effect of a desire to elevate Confucian humaneness and eliminate greed from the realm's foreign relations or a ploy to weaken the realm's southern subjects to the benefit of the central government. Nonetheless, it may have been the case that the Hongwu Emperor prioritized protecting his state against the Northern Yuan remnants, leaving the policy and its local enforcers as the most he could accomplish and his mention of them in his Ancestral Injunctions as responsible for their continuation; the policy offered too little—decennial tribute missions comprising only two ships—as a reward for good behavior and enticement for Japanese authorities to root out their smugglers and pirates. The Hongwu Emperor's message to the Japanese that his army would "capture and exterminate your bandits, head straight for your country, put your king in bonds" received the Ashikaga shogun's reply that "your great empire may be able to invade Japan but our small state is not short of a strategy to defend ourselves".

Although the sea ban left the Ming army free to extirpate the remaining Yuan loyalists and secure China's borders, it tied up local resources. 74 coastal garrisons were established from Guangzhou in Guangdong to Shandong. The loss of income from taxes on trade contributed to chronic funding difficu

Johanna San Miguel

Johanna San Miguel is a Peruvian actress and comedian. Best known for being the host of the entertainment segment of "Primera Edición" morning news show, her segment is called "America Espectáculos." and being in the teen soap opera "Carmín" and playing the fun and extroverted Queka in the popular show "Patacláun"'. Her career in television started in 1984 with the teen soap "Carmín". In 1995, she participated in the popular soap "Los Unos y los Otros", where she met the actor Carlos Carlin, who became her partner in various successful theater projects, it was around this time that she became part of the cast of the comedy troupe "Patacláun" which had a TV show of the same name. That show was broadcast by Frecuencia Latina, where she and her character "Queka" became popular. Four years she did "Carita de Atún" An avant garde show that parodied shmaltzy children's soap operas by infusing them with comedy and adding elements of theater design in their sets, she co- hosted for a time along with Carlos Carlin, a radio show called "Yo te amo, yo tampoco." on Lima's Radio Planeta.

She's the host of radio a radio show called "Jamon, Jamon" in Lima's Studio92 radio. Along with Carlos Carlin, she acted in successful plays like "Chancho Amor" and "Puro Cuento" the last one a funny and irreverent take on fairy tales with an adult and sexy twist. Johanna, serves as host of the showbiz segment for the morning news program "Primera Edición" on America TV, in addition to conducting the radio program "Jamon, Jamon" on Lima's Studio92 radio


Year 1090 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. A third Almoravid expedition is launched in Al-Andalus, designed to subdue the Taifa's Kingdoms; the cities of Córdoba, Granada, Málaga, Almería and Ronda fall to the troops of Sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin. King Stephen II of Croatia becomes involved in an open conflict between factions of Croatian nobles, who reassert their traditional rights in their own counties. Hassan-i Sabbah founds the Nizari Ismaili state after taking control of the Alamut Castle and organising the military group called the Order of Assassins. Béjaïa becomes the capital of the Hammadid Dynasty in modern Algeria, it becomes an important centre of culture. Troubadours begin playing in western Gascony. Qin Guan, Chinese poet of the Song Dynasty, writes the Can Shu, which describes a silk-reeling machine that has the world's oldest known mechanical belt drive. January 17 – Qin Hui, Chinese chancellor and traitor Agnes I, German abbess of Quedlinburg Alaungsithu, Burmese king of the Pagan Dynasty Bernard of Clairvaux, French abbot and theologian Chen Yuyi, Chinese politician of the Song Dynasty Eliezer ben Nathan, German rabbi and liturgical poet Eric II, king of Denmark Frederick II, German nobleman Fujiwara no Akisuke, Japanese nobleman and poet Fujiwara no Atsuyori, Japanese waka poet Juliane de Fontevrault, French noblewoman Conrad I, German nobleman and rector of Burgundy Niklot, Obotrite prince and tribal chief Robert FitzRoy, 1st Earl of Gloucester Sigurd I, king of Norway Theobald II, French nobleman Theobald of Bec, archbishop of Canterbury William de Mohun, 1st Earl of Somerset March 22 – García II, king of Galicia and Portugal April 16 – Sikelgaita, Lombard duchess of Apulia May 12 – Liutold of Eppenstein, German nobleman May 18 – Berthold of Rheinfelden, German nobleman June 26 – Jaromír, Bohemian prince and bishop July 3 – Egbert II, German nobleman August 13 – Constance of Normandy, duchess of Brittany Abd al-Jalil ibn Wahbun, Moorish poet and writer Adelaide of Rheinfelden, queen consort of Hungary Fayun Faxiu, Chinese Chan Buddhist monk Fujiwara no Atsuie, Japanese nobleman Guo Xi, Chinese landscape painter Hedwig of Formbach, German noblewoman Isaiah of Rostov, Kievan missionary and bishop Michael VII, Byzantine emperor Osbern of Canterbury, English hagiographer Raynald I, French Benedictine abbot Richard fitz Gilbert, Norman nobleman William of Poitiers, French priest and writer

The Puppy Episode

"The Puppy Episode" is a two-part episode of the situation comedy television series Ellen. The episode details lead character Ellen Morgan's realization that she is a lesbian and her coming out, it was the 23rd episode of the series' 4th season. The episode was written by series star Ellen DeGeneres with Mark Driscoll, Tracy Newman, Dava Savel and Jonathan Stark and directed by Gil Junger, it aired on ABC on April 30, 1997. The title was used as a code name for Ellen's coming out so as to keep the whole episode under wraps. DeGeneres began negotiating with ABC in 1996 to have Morgan come out; when word of the negotiations got out, DeGeneres found herself at the center of intense speculation about when she or her character, or both, would come out. With DeGeneres hinting at her and her character's coming out both off-screen and within the show, the rumors were confirmed when the episode went into production in March 1997. Despite threats from advertisers and religious groups, "The Puppy Episode" was an enormous ratings success, won multiple awards and became a cultural phenomenon.

Nonetheless, DeGeneres and her show garnered criticism for being "too gay". Ellen goes out to dinner with her old friend Richard, a reporter, in town to cover a story, his producer, joins them for dessert and she and Ellen hit it off. Ellen goes back to Richard's hotel room, he comes on to her and, Ellen leaves. She runs into returns with her to her room, they continue to enjoy each other's company until Susan tells Ellen that she's gay and that she thought Ellen might be too. Ellen suggests that Susan is trying to "recruit" her. Susan sarcastically says that she'll have to call "national headquarters" and let them know Ellen got away. An agitated Ellen leaves Susan's room and returns to Richard's room, determined to have sex with him to prove to herself she is not gay; the next day, Ellen tells her friends at the bookstore. She tells her therapist the truth. Ellen laments, her therapist asks if she has clicked with anyone and Ellen replies, "Susan." A message from Richard that he is leaving town ahead of schedule sends Ellen rushing to the airport to see Susan.

Ellen tells Susan that she struggles to say the word. Ellen is able to say, "I'm gay," inadvertently broadcasting her announcement over the airport's public address system. Ellen assumes that Susan will be leaving with Richard but in fact Susan will be staying in town for several more days. Ellen has a dream, she is offered a special lesbian discount on melons, her sexuality is announced to the other shoppers, she is offered a granola bar, she is beckoned toward a checkout lane with a pink triangular sign reading "10 lesbians or less" and given her grocery total of "a lesbian twenty-nine". She discusses the dream with her therapist and realizes that she has been suppressing her sexuality for many years, her therapist encourages her to come out to her friends but Ellen is worried about not being accepted. Ellen has her friends over to come out to them. Before they arrive, she comes out to her gay neighbor Peter; when everyone else arrives, Ellen balks at telling them but Peter outs her. Ellen confirms that it is true and her friends are all supportive of her, although her friend Paige is hesitant.

The next day Susan are at the bookstore. Susan tells Ellen that she does have feelings for her but she is in a long-term relationship. Ellen is heartbroken and Susan leaves. To cheer her up, her friends take her to a lesbian coffeehouse. There Ellen mistakenly thinks her waitress is coming on to her and is chagrined when a woman flirts with Paige instead of her. Under the closing credits, Susan leads Ellen over to Melissa Etheridge, who confirms that Ellen is gay and, after completing the necessary paperwork, awards Susan a toaster oven. By the end of the third season of Ellen, producers were becoming frustrated by the series' lack of focus and the lack of interest that the character Ellen Morgan displayed toward the standard sitcom tropes of dating and relationships. Disney boss Michael Eisner suggested that since the character showed no inclination toward dating, she should get a puppy. "It was an indication of just how lost the show was that network executives would be excited by Ellen buying a puppy", said executive producer Mark Driscoll.

It was this suggestion that gave writer Jonathan Stark the idea to give that working title to the episode, it stuck. In the summer of 1996 DeGeneres and the show's other writers opened negotiations with ABC and its parent company, Disney, to have Ellen Morgan come out during season four. Word of the secret negotiations leaked in September of that year, sparking a storm of speculation as to whether the character, the actress, or both would come out; the LGBT media watchdog group Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation launched a "Let Ellen Out!" campaign, including an "Ellen Watch" website. Disney rejected the first draft of the script, with Disney executive Dean Valentine stating that it did not go far enough. Director Junger reported that Valentine said "'If we're going to do it, let's do it.' Once he said to go as far as we could, it became great fun to write." Once final approval from Disney was secured, ABC announced on March 3, 1997, that Ellen Morgan would be coming out. "The Puppy Episode" went into production on March 7.

Guest stars sought to be a part of the project. According to writer/producer Driscoll, "Suddenly all these talente

Francisco-Javier Lozano Sebastián

Francisco-Javier Lozano Sebastián is a Spanish prelate of the Catholic Church who has spent his career in the diplomatic service of the Holy See. He has been an archbishop since 1994 and held the title of Apostolic Nuncio to several countries until his resignation in 2015, he was born to a farming family in Villaverde de Íscar on 28 November 1943. He studied at the seminary at the Pontifical University of Salamanca, he earned his licentiate in theology in 1966 from the Pontifical Gregorian University. He was ordained a priest on 19 March 1968 by Cardinal Antonio Samorè. In 1977 he obtained a doctorate in canon law from Lateran University, while working in the Nunciature in Nigeria, his other early postings in the diplomatic service of the Holy See included South Africa, Zimbabwe and Guatemala. On 25 July 1994, Pope John Paul II appointed him titular archbishop of Penafiel and Apostolic Nuncio to Tanzania, he received his episcopal consecration from Cardinal Angelo Sodano on 25 July. John Paul made him Nuncio to the Democratic Republic of the Congo on 20 March 1999, during the Second Congo War, where in 2000 he criticized the shelling of Kisangani as a "tragic and unjustified" targeting of the Christian population.

He returned to Rome in 2001 and worked in the Section for General Affairs of the Secretariat of State and in December was made a member of the administrative council of Vatican Television. John Paul made him Nuncio to Croatia on 4 August 2003, he received his next posting from Pope Benedict XVI as Nuncio to both Romania and Moldova on 10 December 2007. Pope Francis accepted his resignation as Nuncio on 20 July 2015. Catholic Hierarchy: Archbishop Francisco-Javier Lozano Sebastián

Chalcoela iphitalis

Chalcoela iphitalis, the sooty-winged chalcoela, is a moth species of the family Crambidae that occurs throughout North America. They are seen as far south as California and South Carolina and as far north as Ontario. Adults can be seen from May to August; the head and front portion of the forewings are yellow-orange while the hindwing and back portion of the forewings are grey and silver. The back edge of the hindwing has black spots, it was first described as Cataclysta iphitalis by Francis Walker in 1859. The larvae are parasitoids, feeding on the larvae of paper wasps, including species such as Polistes dominulus, P. exclamans, P. metricus, Mischocyttarus flavitarsis and P. apachus. For example, M. flavitarsis nest cells are invaded by the larvae at night because the wasps cannot see them. The larvae migrate among consuming wasp larvae and pupae, they will pupate, spinning their cocoons in empty cells. M. flavitarsis do not attempt to rid the nest of the parasite. Instead, they will continue as a nest or abandon and renest elsewhere