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Haiku

Haiku listen is a short form of Japanese poetry in three phrases characterized by three qualities: The essence of haiku is "cutting". This is represented by the juxtaposition of two images or ideas and a kireji between them, a kind of verbal punctuation mark which signals the moment of separation and colours the manner in which the juxtaposed elements are related. Traditional haiku consist of 17 on, in three phrases of 5, 7, 5 on, respectively. A kigo drawn from a saijiki, an extensive but defined list of such terms. Modern Japanese haiku are said by some to vary from the tradition of 17 on or taking nature as their subject. Despite the western influence, the use of juxtaposition continues to be honored in both traditional and modern haiku. There is a common, although recent, perception that the images juxtaposed must be directly observed everyday objects or occurrences. In Japanese, haiku are traditionally printed in a single vertical line while haiku in English appear in three lines parallel to the three phrases of Japanese haiku.

Called hokku, haiku was given its current name by the Japanese writer Masaoka Shiki at the end of the 19th century. In Japanese haiku a kireji, or cutting word appears at the end of one of the verse's three phrases. A kireji fills a role somewhat analogous to a caesura in classical western poetry or to a volta in sonnets. Depending on which cutting word is chosen, its position within the verse, it may cut the stream of thought, suggesting a parallel between the preceding and following phrases, or it may provide a dignified ending, concluding the verse with a heightened sense of closure; the fundamental aesthetic quality of both hokku and haiku is that it is internally sufficient, independent of context, will bear consideration as a complete work. The kireji lends the verse structural support, allowing it to stand as an independent poem; the use of kireji distinguishes hokku from second and subsequent verses of renku. However, renku employ kireji. In English, since kireji have no direct equivalent, poets sometimes use punctuation such as a dash or ellipsis, or an implied break to create a juxtaposition intended to prompt the reader to reflect on the relationship between the two parts.

The kireji in the Bashō examples "old pond" and "the wind of Mt Fuji" are both "ya". Neither the remaining Bashō example nor the Issa example contain a kireji although they do both balance a fragment in the first five on against a phrase in the remaining 12 on. In comparison with English verse characterized by syllabic meter, Japanese verse counts sound units known as "on" or morae. Traditional haiku consist of 17 on, in three phrases of five and five on respectively. Among contemporary poems teikei haiku continue to use the 5-7-5 pattern while jiyuritsu haiku do not. One of the examples below illustrates that traditional haiku masters were not always constrained by the 5-7-5 pattern. Although the word "on" is sometimes translated as "syllable", one on is counted for a short syllable, two for an elongated vowel or doubled consonant, one for an "n" at the end of a syllable. Thus, the word "haibun", though counted as two syllables in English, is counted as four on in Japanese; this is illustrated by the Issa haiku below.

Conversely, some sounds, such as "kyo" may look like two syllables to English speakers but are in fact a single on in Japanese. In 1973, the Haiku Society of America noted that the norm for writers of haiku in English was to use 17 syllables, but they noted a trend toward shorter haiku. Shorter haiku are much more common in 21st century English haiku writing; some translators of Japanese poetry infer that about 12 syllables in English approximate the duration of 17 Japanese on. A haiku traditionally contains a kigo, a word or phrase that symbolizes or implies the season of the poem and, drawn from a saijiki, an extensive but prescriptive list of such words. Kigo are in the form of metonyms and can be difficult for those who lack Japanese cultural references to spot; the Bashō examples below include "kawazu", "frog" implying spring, "shigure", a rain shower in late autumn or early winter. Kigo are not always included in non-Japanese haiku or by modern writers of Japanese "free-form" haiku; the best-known Japanese haiku is Bashō's "old pond": 古池や蛙飛び込む水の音 ふるいけやかわずとびこむみずのおと furu ike ya kawazu tobikomu mizu no oto This separates into on as: fu-ru-i-ke ya ka-wa-zu to-bi-ko-mu mi-zu-no-o-to Translated: old pond frog leaps in water's soundAnother haiku by Bashō: 初しぐれ猿も小蓑をほしげ也 はつしぐれさるもこみのをほしげなり hatsu shigure saru mo komino o hoshige nariThis separates into on as: ha-tsu shi-gu-re sa-ru mo ko-mi-no o ho-shi-ge na-ri Translated: the first cold shower the monkey seems to want a little coat of strawThis haiku by Bashō illustrates that he was not always constrained to a 5-7-5 on pattern.

It contains 18 on in the pattern 6-7-5 富士の風や扇にのせて江戸土産 ふじのかぜやおうぎにのせてえどみやげ Fuji no kaze ya ōgi ni nosete Edo miyageThis s

Transfer of Property Act 1882

The Transfer of Property Act 1882 is an Indian legislation which regulates the transfer of property in India. It contains specific provisions regarding what constitutes a transfer and the conditions attached to it, it came into force on 1 July 1882. According to the Act,'transfer of property' means an act by which a person conveys the property to one or more persons, or himself and one or more other persons; the act of transfer may be done for the future. The person may include an individual, company or association or body of individuals, any kind of property may be transferred, including the transfer of immovable property. Property is broadly classified into the following categories: Immovable Property Movable PropertyThe Interpretation of the Act, says "Immovable property does not includes standing timber, growing crops or grass". Section 3, The General Clauses Act, 1897, defines, " immovable property" shall include land, benefits to arise out of the land, things attached to the earth, or permanently fastened to anything attached to the earth.

The Registration Act,1908, 2 "immovable property" includes land, hereditary allowances, rights to ways, ferries, fisheries or any other benefit to arise out of the land, things attached to the earth or permanently fastened to anything, attached to the earth, but not standing timber, growing crops nor grass. A transfer of property passes forthwith to the transferee all the interest which the transferor is capable of passing in the property unless a different intention is expressed or implied. According to Section 43 of the Transfer of Property Act 1882, in case a person either fraudulently or erroneously represents that he is authorized to transfer certain immovable property and does some acts to transfer such property for consideration such a transfer will continue to operate in future, it will operate on any interest. This will be at the option of the transferee and can be done during the time during which the contract of transfer exists; as per this rule, the rights of the bona fide transferee, who has no notice of the earlier transfer or of the option, are protected.

This rule embodies a rule of estoppel i.e. a person who makes a representation cannot on go against it. Every person, competent to contract, is competent to transfer property, which can be transferred in whole or in part, he should be entitled to the transferable property, or authorized to dispose of transferable property, not his own. The right may be either absolute or conditional, the property may be movable or immovable, present or future; such a transfer can be made orally unless a transfer in writing is required under any law. When a person is mentally competent, but physically unable to sign any contract, the property lawyer hired by him, can do that with the help of a power of attorney. According to Section 6 of the Transfer of Property Act, the property of any kind may be transferred; the person insisting non-transferability must prove the existence of some law or custom which restricts the right of transfer. Unless there is some legal restriction preventing the transfer, the owner of the property may transfer it.

However, in some cases, there may be a transfer of property by an unauthorized person who subsequently acquires an interest in such property. In case the property is transferred subject to the condition which restrains the transferee from parting with or disposing of his interest in the property, the condition is void; the only exception is in the case of a lease where the condition is for the benefit of the lessor or those claiming under him. Only the person having interest in the property is authorized to transfer his interest in the property and can pass on the proper title to any other person; the rights of the transferees will not be adversely affected, provided: they acted in good faith. These conditions must be satisfied: There must be a representation by the transferor that he has authority to transfer the immovable property; the representation should be either erroneous. The transferee must act on the representation in good faith; the transfer should be done for a consideration. The transferor should subsequently acquire some interest in the property.

The transferee may have the option to acquire the interest which the transferor subsequently acquires. There are 18 other statutes that are concerned with Property Law, or matter to Property Law, as listed below: Trusts Act, 1882 Specific Relief Act, 1963 Easements Act, 1882 Registration Act, 1908 Stamp Act, 1899 U. P. Stamp Act, 2008 Limitation Act, 1963 General Clauses Act, 1897 Evidence Act, 1872 Succession Act, 1925 Partition Act, 1893 Presidency-Towns Insolvency Act, 1909 Provincial Insolvency Act, 1920 Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest fact, 2002 Contract Act, 1872 Sale of Goods Act, 1930 Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 Enemy Property Act. Text of the Transfer of Property Act 1882

Sabine–Neches Waterway

The Sabine–Neches Waterway is located in southeast Texas and Calcasieu Parish, United States. The waterway includes parts of the Neches River, Sabine River, Sabine Lake, Taylor Bayou; the waterway ranks as third-busiest waterway in the U. S. in terms of cargo tonnage, according to the American Association of Port Authorities. It ranks as the top bulk liquid cargo waterway, the top U. S. crude-oil importer, is projected to become the largest LNG exporter in the United States. The Gulf Intracoastal Waterway crosses the waterway near Port Arthur. Two of the top twenty ports in terms of tonnage are located on the waterway; the Port of Beaumont, ranked fourth in the 2013 U. S. Port Ranking by Cargo Tonnage survey is located at the northern end of the waterway; the Port of Port Arthur, ranked eighteenth in the same survey, is located near the southern end of the waterway. The Port of Orange is served by the waterway; the waterway is a minimum of 40 feet deep and a minimum of 400 feet wide. In 2014, federal congressional approval was received to deepen the waterway to a depth of 48 feet.

The $1.1 billion deepening project began in 2019 with an estimated project length of 12 to 15 years. The project was estimated to begin in 2017; the governing navigation district, Sabine–Neches Navigation District was formed in 1909. The channel was deepened to twenty-five feet in 1912. Channel depth was increased to thirty feet in 1925; the channel was deepened to thirty-five feet in 1935. The channel was deepened to a minimum of forty feet in 1962. United States Army Corps of Engineers New Start $18,000,000 funding was approved in mid November, 2018; the New Start phase was listed on the November 21, 2018 United States Army Corps of Engineers 2019 Work Plan. The Sabine-Neches Waterway Channel Improvement Project, which began in early 2019, will increase the channel depth to forty-eight feet by its conclusion, it will increase the waterway length from 64 miles to 77 miles. Port of Beaumont Port of Port Arthur Port of Orange Beaumont Reserve Fleet