Elmer Francis Layden was an American football player, college athletics administrator, professional sports executive. He played college football at the University of Notre Dame where he starred at fullback as a member of the legendary "Four Horsemen" backfield. Layden played professionally in the original AFL in 1925 and 1926 with three clubs, the Hartford Blues, the Brooklyn Horsemen, the Rock Island Independents, he began his coaching career during the same two seasons at Columbia College in Dubuque, now known as Loras College. Layden served as the head coach at Duquesne University from 1927 to 1933 and at his alma mater, Notre Dame, from 1934 to 1940, where he held the position of athletic director. From 1941 to 1946, Layden was the commissioner of the National Football League, he was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a player in 1951. Layden was born in Davenport, where he attended Davenport High School, now Davenport Central High School. At Notre Dame, he played fullback alongside quarterback Harry Stuhldreher, left halfback Jim Crowley, right halfback Don Miller.
Named an All-American during his senior year, Layden culminated his collegiate career in the 1925 Rose Bowl against Stanford, returning two interceptions for touchdowns in Notre Dame's 27–10 victory. The Four Horsemen were reunited for a professional football game in 1925 by the Hartford Blues as they played the Cleveland Bulldogs; the game though resulted in a 13–6 Hartford loss, with the Blues spending $5,000 on the Horsemen for just one game. After his playing days, Layden was head football coach at Columbia College in 1925–26, where he compiled an 8–5–2 record. From 1927 to 1933 he was head coach at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, going 48–16–6 and winning the 1933 season's Festival of Palms Bowl on New Year's Day, 1934. In 1934, he became head coach and athletic director at Notre Dame, three years after his legendary mentor Knute Rockne was killed in an airplane crash on March 31, 1931. Layden posted an overall 47 -- 13 -- 3 docket, his 1935 squad posted one of the greatest wins in school history by rallying to defeat Ohio State 18–13.
His 1938 team finished 8–1, losing only to USC in the season finale. This loss cost them a possible consensus national championship, but the team was named national champion by the Dickinson System. Like Rockne before him, Layden was a goodwill ambassador for Notre Dame, he was able to schedule a home-and-home series with Michigan after meeting with Fielding H. Yost, healing a rift between the two schools; the two teams had not met since 1909, after eight straight losses to the Wolverines, the Irish posted their first win. They were scheduled to meet again in 1910, but Michigan canceled the game and refused to play the Irish again. By the time they met again in 1942–43, Layden had left Notre Dame and Frank Leahy had taken his place. Unlike the easygoing Layden, Leahy was intense, after the Irish had thrashed Michigan by a score of 35–12 in 1943, Wolverine coach and athletic director Fritz Crisler never scheduled the Irish again. While Layden was a solid, competent coach, he was subjected to criticism during his years at Notre Dame.
Critics lacked scoring punch. It was felt that they lost games they should have won. In 1941, the National Football League franchise owners voted to change the league's constitution in an attempt to bring all professional football leagues under the authority of one commissioner, who would have similar powers to that of Commissioner of Baseball Kenesaw Mountain Landis. Chicago Tribune journalist Arch Ward was offered the position of commissioner, but he turned it down and suggested Elmer Layden for the position. Layden was appointed commissioner in February 1941, his appointment was not voted on by the entire league, which upset owners Alexis Thompson, Bert Bell, Dan Topping. Chicago Bears owner George Halas contended that Layden's hiring was legal because it had been agreed upon by a majority of owners. Layden was signed to a five-year contract with an annual salary of $20,000. In five years as Commissioner, Layden saw the NFL through the World War II years, in which teams had to use many men of inferior abilities as replacements while most of the regulars were fighting in the war.
During this period a few teams temporarily merged due to lack of manpower, most notably the Pittsburgh Steelers with the Philadelphia Eagles. The Cleveland Rams ceased operations for the 1943 season; as NFL commissioner, Layden had once conducted an investigation into a betting scam, without advising the owners, which did not reveal any conspiracy. At the end of the war, after Japan announced it would surrender, NFL Commissioner Elmer Layden called for all of the league's teams to play “The Star-Spangled Banner” at their games, arguing, “The National Anthem should be as much a part of every game as the kick-off. We must not drop it because the war is over. We should never forget what it stands for.” Prior to this proclamation "The Star-Spangled Banner" had not been required to be sung before the start of any NFL games. Layden's tenure as NFL commissioner came to an end in January 1946. After Brooklyn owner Dan Topping withdrew his team from the league to join the new All-America Football Conference, the remaining owners agreed not to renew Layden's contract, feeling that he was too much of a gentleman and not forceful
A quarterback, colloquially known as the "signal caller", is a position in American and Canadian football. Quarterbacks are members of the offensive line up directly behind the offensive line. In modern American football, the quarterback is considered the leader of the offensive team, is responsible for calling the play in the huddle; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, is the offensive player that always throws forward passes. In modern American football, the quarterback is the leader of the offense; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, his successes and failures can have a significant impact on the fortunes of his team. Accordingly, the quarterback is among the most glorified and highest-paid positions in team sports. Prior to each play, the quarterback will tell the rest of his team which play the team will run. After the team is lined up, the center will pass the ball back to the quarterback. On a running play, the quarterback will hand or pitch the ball backwards to a halfback or fullback.
On a passing play, the quarterback is always the player responsible for trying to throw the ball downfield to an eligible receiver. Additionally, the quarterback will run with the football himself, which could be part of a designed play like the option run or quarterback sneak, or it could be an effort to avoid being sacked by the defense. Depending on the offensive scheme by his team, the quarterback's role can vary. In systems like the triple option the quarterback will only pass the ball a few times per game, if at all, while the pass-heavy spread offense as run by schools like Texas Tech requires quarterbacks to throw the ball in most plays; the passing game is emphasized in the Canadian Football League, where there are only three downs as opposed to the four downs used in American football, a larger field of play and an extra eligible receiver. Different skillsets are required of the quarterback in each system - quarterbacks that perform well in a pass-heavy spread offensive system, a popular offensive scheme in the NCAA and NFHS perform well in the National Football League, as the fundamentals of the pro-style offense used in the NFL are different from those in the spread system.
While quarterbacks in Canadian football need to be able to throw the ball and accurately. In general, quarterbacks need to have physical skills such as arm strength and quick throwing motion, in addition to intangibles such as competitiveness, leadership and downfield vision. In the NFL, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 19. In the National Collegiate Athletic Association and National Federation of State High School Associations, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 49. In the CFL, the quarterback can wear any number from 0 to 49 and 70 to 99; because of their numbering, quarterbacks are eligible receivers in the NCAA, NFHS, CFL. Compared to captains of other team sports, before the implementation of NFL team captains in 2007, the starting quarterback is the de facto team leader and well-respected player on and off the field. Since 2007, when the NFL allowed teams to designate several captains to serve as on-field leaders, the starting quarterback has been one of the team captains as the leader of the team's offense.
In the NFL, while the starting quarterback has no other responsibility or authority, he may, depending on the league or individual team, have various informal duties, such as participation in pre-game ceremonies, the coin toss, or other events outside the game. For instance the starting quarterback is the first player to be presented with the Lamar Hunt Trophy/George Halas Trophy and the Vince Lombardi Trophy; the starting quarterback of the victorious Super Bowl team is chosen for the "I'm going to Disney World!" campaign, whether they are the Super Bowl MVP or not. Dilfer was chosen though teammate Ray Lewis was the MVP of Super Bowl XXXV, due to the bad publicity from Lewis' murder trial the prior year. Being able to rely on a quarterback is vital to team morale. San Diego Chargers safety Rodney Harrison called the 1998 season a "nightmare" because of poor play by Ryan Leaf and Craig Whelihan and, from the rookie Leaf, obnoxious behavior toward teammates. Although their 1999 season replacements Jim Harbaugh and Erik Kramer were not stars, linebacker Junior Seau said "you can't imagine the security we feel as teammates knowing we have two quarterbacks who have performed in this league and know how to handle themselves as players and as leaders".
Commentators have noted the "disproportionate importance" of the quarterback, describing it as the "most glorified -- and scrutinized -- position" in team sports. It is believed that "there is no other position in sports that'dictates the terms' of a game the way quarterback does, whether that impact is positive or negative, as "Everybody feeds off of what the quarterback can and cannot do... Defensively, everybody reacts to what threats or non-threats the quarterback has. Everything else is secondary". "An argument can be made that quarterback is the most influential position in team sport
The Daytona Beach News-Journal
The Daytona Beach News-Journal is a Florida daily newspaper serving Volusia and Flagler counties. It grew from the Halifax Journal, started in 1883; the Davidson family purchased the newspaper in 1928 and retained control until bankruptcy in 2009. In 1986, The Morning Journal and Evening News merged into one morning newspaper; the newspaper began its online services in 1994. Daytona's early settlers decided that a newspaper would be important for the development of the town. A group of citizens raised money to persuade Florian A. Mann to move his printing press from Ohio to Daytona and start a new publication. Prior to publication of the first issue, 86 subscribers were signed up, all paid in advance. Advertisers paid in advance for the first three months; the first issue was scheduled for release on February 1, 1883. This delayed publication of the first issue until Mann decided to buy a bolt of cotton cloth from Laurence Thompson's dry goods store to use as a substitute; the first issue of the Halifax Journal was printed and published on the cotton cloth, dated February 15, 1883.
The premier issue contained local news, as well as Mann's editorial of praise and hope for the Halifax area. The Halifax Journal continued as a weekly publication until Mann sold the newspaper in 1889 to J. M. Jolley. In 1908, Jolley died and the newspaper was bought by Galen Seaman. After Seaman's death, the paper was bought by W. C. Carter of the Halifax Printing Company, which operated a printing shop connected with the Halifax Journal. After selling the Halifax Journal, Mann started the Ormond Gazette, he sold this paper to L. Moreton Murray and returned to Daytona, to start the Daytona News. Thomas E. Fitzgerald bought the Daytona News in 1900 and the Ormond Gazette in 1903. Fitzgerald consolidated the two papers and on December 1, 1903, published the first issue of The Daytona Daily News. Hugh Sparkman started a stock company which bought the Halifax Journal and turned it into a daily publication. In 1926, the stock company bought The Daytona Daily News from Fitzgerald; the stock company ceased publication of The Morning Journal, but continued The Evening News and The Sunday News-Journal.
In 1928, Julius Davidson and his son, Herbert M. Davidson, purchased a majority interest in the company, beginning an 80-year period of single family control of the publication. Soon after, the minority owner sold his interest to R. H. Gore, a competitor; the minority shares were sold to Perry Publications, the owner of The Palm Beach Post. In 1969, The Palm Beach Post was purchased by Cox Enterprises, a media company that owns The Atlanta Journal-Constitution and other publications. Cox acquired Perry's 47.5% interest in the News-Journal, assigned a value of $5 million, as part of the transaction. The Davidson family continued to hold a 52.5% majority of the stock. Cox had no say in corporate decisions. In January 2003, the News-Journal offered to pay $13 million for naming rights to a new performing arts center in Daytona Beach being built as a new home for the Seaside Music Theater, founded by News-Journal CEO Tippen Davidson. Cox Enterprises filed suit against the News-Journal Corp. in U. S. Federal Court, alleging they "acted irresponsibly in spending corporate funds".
Cox alleged. Court documents reveal that in the five-year period prior to the filing of Cox's complaint, at least 58 employees of Davidson's arts and entertainment ventures were on the News-Journal Corp. payroll, unbeknownst to NJC's sole minority shareholder. Despite the fact that these employees did no work for NJC, the corporation provided them with full salaries and benefits, at a cost to the company of at least $5.7 million. The trial court found that tens of millions of dollars were diverted to Davidson family projects to "indulge personal interests in the arts". After failing to have the suit dismissed, the News-Journal Corp. decided to exercise its option to buy out the minority shares. In 2006, the federal court set a valuation of $129.2 million on Cox's interest in the paper. Newspaper management announced in April 2008 that the newspaper would be sold in order to satisfy the judgment. On April 17, 2009, the News-Journal announced its intention to declare bankruptcy, but the judge overseeing the case rejected that option.
The board of directors was subsequently removed and the company was placed under court control, with James Hopson serving as the court-appointed manager. Halifax Media Holdings purchased the News-Journal on March 1, 2010, for $20 million and assumed control on April 1, 2010. Michael Redding, Halifax Media's CEO and a former News-Journal department manager, welcomed Bill Offill as publisher of the paper on July 29, 2013. Halifax Media became the 12th largest media company in the U. S. publishing 33 newspapers and affiliated websites in five states in the Southeast. The company was owned by a group of investors, including Stephens Capital Partners, of Little Rock, Arkansas. On August 28, 2013, Halifax Media signed a letter of intent with HarborPoint Media for the acquisition of three additional Florida papers. In 2015, Halifax was acquired by New Media Investment Group. News-Journal prices are: daily, $1. Sales tax is included at newsracks. Official website Today's The Daytona Beach News-Journal front page at the Newseum website
Noble E. "Nobe" Kizer was an American football and basketball player, football coach, college athletics administrator. He served as the head football coach at Purdue University from 1930 to 1936. During his tenure as head coach, he won two Big Ten Conference titles and compiled a record of 42–13–3. Kizer was the athletic director from 1933 until his death in 1940. From 1922 to 1924, Kizer played right guard at Notre Dame under Knute Rockne. In 1925, he became an assistant coach at Purdue under James Phelan and inherited the head coaching position upon Phelan's departure for the University of Washington. Kizer died on June 13, 1940 in Lafayette, Indiana from a kidney ailment and high blood pressure
BYU Cougars football
The BYU Cougars football team is the college football program representing Brigham Young University, a private university owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and located in Provo, Utah. The Cougars began collegiate football competition in 1922, have won 23 conference championships and one national championship in 1984; the team has competed in several different athletic conferences during its history, but since July 1, 2011, they have competed as an Independent. The team plays home games at the 63,470-seat LaVell Edwards Stadium, named after legendary head coach LaVell Edwards. LaVell Edwards won 19 conference championships, seven bowl games, one national championship while coaching at BYU, is regarded as the most successful coach in BYU program history. BYU traces its football roots back to the late 19th century. Benjamin Cluff became the third principal of Brigham Young Academy in 1892 and was influenced by his collegiate studies at the University of Michigan to bring athletic competition to Brigham Young.
The first BYU football team in 1896 played the University of Utah, the Elks, the Crescents, the YMCA of Salt Lake City, the Wheel Club of Denver, Westminster College. In its second year of competition, the BYA football team won the championship too, but as a result of an accidental football-related death in Utah in 1900, football was banned from all LDS Church schools until 1919. After a twenty-year ban on football, the sport was brought back to BYU on an intramural basis in 1919, intercollegiate games were resumed in 1920 under coach Alvin Twitchell. BYU was admitted to the Rocky Mountain Conference in 1921 and had its first winning year in 1929 under the helm of coach G. Ott Romney, who BYU recruited from Montana State University the year before. Romney and his successor Eddie Kimball ushered in a new era in Cougar football in which the team went 65–51–12 between 1928–1942. In 1932, the Cougars posted an 8–1 record and outscored their opponents 188–50, which remains one of the school's finest seasons on record.
The university did not field a team from 1943–1945 due to World War II, in 1949 suffered its only winless season, going 0–11. The team began to rebuild in the mid-1950s, recruiting University of Rhode Island head coach Hal Kopp to lead the Cougars, whom achieved back-to-back winning seasons in 1957 and 1958, led by southpaw quarterback Jared Stephens and nose tackle Gavin Anae. In 1961, Eldon "The Phantom" Fortie became the school's first All-American, in 1962, BYU moved to the Western Athletic Conference. In 1964, Cougar Stadium was built, which included a capacity of 30,000, in 1965, head coach Tommy Hudspeth led the Cougars to their first conference championship with a record of 6–4. In 1972, assistant coach LaVell Edwards was promoted succeeding Hudspeth. Edwards and his staff installed a drop-back passing game considered to be an early implementation of the West Coast offense, resulting in Cougar Pete Van Valkenburg as the nation's leading rusher for that year; the following year, the Cougars struggled to a 5–6 finish, but this would be Edwards' only losing season during his run as BYU coach over the next three decades.
In fact, the Cougars won the conference championship every year except one from 1974 to 1985, including the national championship in 1984. However, the Cougars lost their first four bowl games, their first post-season win came in the 1980 Holiday Bowl, which has become known as the "Miracle Bowl" since BYU was trailing SMU 45–25 with four minutes left in the game and came back to win. BYU would win its 1981, 1983, 1984 bowl games as well. During this period, Young finished second for the Heisman Trophy in 1983 and McMahon finished third for the trophy in 1981. In 1984, BYU reached the pinnacle of college football; the undefeated Cougars opened the season with a 20–14 victory over Pitt, ranked No. 3 in the nation at the time and finished with a victory over the Michigan Wolverines. BYU defeated Michigan 24–17 in the Holiday Bowl, marking the only time a national champion played in a bowl game before New Year's Day, the last time the national championship was won by a team from a non-power 5 conference.
Coupled with the 11 consecutive wins to close out the 1983 season, BYU concluded the 1984 championship on a 24-game winning streak. At the end of the season, BYU was crowned as National Champion after being a unanimous number one in all four NCAA sanctioned polls AP, Coaches, NFF, FWAA. In 1985, quarterback Robbie Bosco finished third in the Heisman balloting. In 1990, the Cougars achieved their first victory over a top-ranked team when they defeated the #1 Miami Hurricanes early in the season, the season culminated with quarterback Ty Detmer becoming BYU's first and only Heisman Trophy winner. In 1996, BYU won the first WAC Championship Game in Las Vegas and earned a bid to play in the Cotton Bowl against Kansas State of the newly formed Big 12 Conference, making it BYU's first New Year's Day bowl game, which they won 19–15. BYU finished ranked No. 5 in both the Coaches and AP polls, became the first team in NCAA history to win 14 games in a season. In 1999, BYU left the WAC along with seven other teams to form the Mountain West Conference, with the Cougars winning a share of the inaugural MWC championship.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws. Such an event may be attributed to a supernatural being, magic, a miracle worker, a saint, or a religious leader. Informally, the word miracle is used to characterise any beneficial event, statistically unlikely but not contrary to the laws of nature, such as surviving a natural disaster, or a "wonderful" occurrence, regardless of likelihood, such as a birth, a human conclusion reached after an actual, or supposed event, has occurred. Other such miracles might be: survival of an illness diagnosed as terminal, escaping a life-threatening situation or'beating the odds'; some coincidences may be seen as miracles. A true miracle would, by definition, be a non-natural phenomenon, leading many thinkers to dismiss them as physically impossible or impossible to confirm by their nature; the former position is expressed for instance by the latter by David Hume. Theologians say that, with divine providence, God works through nature yet, as a creator, is free to work without, above, or against it as well.
The word "miracle" is used to describe any beneficial event, physically impossible or impossible to confirm by nature. Wayne Grudem defines miracle as "a less common kind of God's activity in which he arouses people's awe and wonder and bears witness to himself." Deistic perspective of God's relation to the world defines miracle as a direct intervention of God into the world. A miracle is a phenomenon not explained by known laws of nature. Criteria for classifying an event as a miracle vary. A religious text, such as the Bible or Quran, states that a miracle occurred, believers may accept this as a fact. Statistically "impossible" events are called miracles. For instance, when three classmates accidentally meet in a different country decades after having left school, they may consider this as "miraculous". However, a colossal number of events happen every moment on earth. Events that are considered "impossible" are therefore not impossible at all — they are just rare and dependent on the number of individual events.
British mathematician J. E. Littlewood suggested that individuals should statistically expect one-in-a-million events to happen to them at the rate of about one per month. By Littlewood's definition miraculous events are commonplace; the Aristotelian view of God has God as pure actuality and considers him as the prime mover doing only what a perfect being can do, think. Jewish neo-Aristotelian philosophers, who are still influential today, include Maimonides, Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon, Gersonides. Directly or indirectly, their views are still prevalent in much of the religious Jewish community. In his Tractatus Theologico-Politicus Spinoza claims that miracles are lawlike events whose causes we are ignorant of. We should not treat them as having no cause or of having a cause available. Rather the miracle is like a political project. According to the philosopher David Hume, a miracle is "a transgression of a law of nature by a particular volition of the Deity, or by the interposition of some invisible agent".
The crux of his argument is this: "No testimony is sufficient to establish a miracle, unless the testimony be of such a kind, that its falsehood would be more miraculous, than the fact which it endeavours to establish." Hume defines a miracles as "a violation of the laws of nature", or more "a transgression of a law of nature by a particular volition of the Deity, or by the interposition of some invisible agent." By this definition, a miracle goes against our regular experience of. As miracles are single events, the evidence for them is always limited and we experience them rarely. On the basis of experience and evidence, the probability that miracle occurred is always less than the probability that it did not occur; as it is rational to believe what is more probable, we are not supposed to have a good reason to believe that a miracle occurred. According to the Christian theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher "every event the most natural and usual, becomes a miracle as soon as the religious view of it can be the dominant".
The philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, following Hume and Johann Georg Hamann, a Humean scholar, agrees with Hume's definition of a miracle as a transgression of a law of nature, but Kierkegaard, writing as his pseudonym Johannes Climacus, regards any historical reports to be less than certain, including historical reports of miracles, as all historical knowledge is always doubtful and open to approximation. James Keller states that "The claim that God has worked a miracle implies that God has singled out certain persons for some benefit which many others do not receive implies that God is unfair." According to a 2011 poll by the Pew Research Center, more than 90 percent of evangelical Christians believe miracles still take place. While Christians see God as sometimes intervening in human activities, Muslims see Allah as a direct cause of all events. "God’s overwhelming closeness makes it easy for Muslims to admit the miraculous in the world." The Haedong Kosung-jon of Korea records that King Beopheung of Silla had desired to promulgate Buddhism as the state religion.
However, officials in his court opposed him. In the fourteenth year of his reign, Beopheung's "Grand Secretary", devised a strategy to overcome court opposition. Ichadon schemed with the king, convincing him to make a procla