England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Woodford tube station
Woodford is a London Underground station in the town of Woodford in the London Borough of Redbridge, East London. The station is on the Central line, between South Woodford and Buckhurst Hill stations and is in Travelcard Zone 4; the station acts as a terminus for services via the Hainault loop. The station was opened on 22 August 1856 as part of the Eastern Counties Railway branch from Leyton to Loughton. Further alterations were carried out by the successor company, the Great Eastern Railway, including services to Ilford via the Fairlop Loop opened between Woodford and Newbury Park in 1903. After 1923 the station came under the control of the London & North Eastern Railway until transfer to the London Passenger Transport Board on 14 December 1947 as part of the extension of the Central line services of the London Underground; the station acted as a terminus of the Central line, with passengers transferring to a steam shuttle onwards towards Epping, where the LNER still had local freight services running between Epping and Loughton, continued to Stratford until 5 October 1970.
The extension was delayed by World War II and electric services commenced as far as Loughton on 21 November 1948. As part of the electrification carried out for the transfer to the LPTB the original level crossing at the station, where Snakes Lane crossed the line, was closed and a bridge, to the south, was constructed; the original goods yard, closed in the late 1960s, now forms the car park. During the planning of the Victoria line, route options included a continuation of the line from Walthamstow Central to Woodford or South Woodford stations. However, in 1961, the decision was taken to build only as far as Walthamstow Central; the main western entrance is located off The Broadway with access to the station car park. The eastern entrance is located on Snakes Lane East; this entrance is closed after 21:00 and intercom is used to ask staff to unlock the gates at other times if necessary. The ticket office on that entrance is no longer in use. There are one side and one island platform; the station had gone through refurbishment works.
The stanchions have been repainted in two-tone green with tactile strips work completed. Extensive PA and Help Points have been added with new public address system. An ‘owl’ has appeared suspended from the girder. Train frequencies vary throughout the day, but operate every 6–11 minutes between 05:22 and 00:49 eastbound to Epping, every 11–25 minutes between 06:48 and 23:37 to Hainault and every 5–10 minutes between 05:24 and 23:36 westbound. London Bus routes 275, 549 and W14 serve the station. Leboff, David. London Underground Stations. Ian Allan. ISBN 978-0-7110-2226-3
Ealing Broadway station
Ealing Broadway is a major single-leveled interchange station in Ealing in London, England, in the London Borough of Ealing, West London and is served by the London Underground and National Rail on the Great Western Main Line. On the Underground, it is one of three western termini of the District line, the next station being Ealing Common, it is one of two western termini of the Central line, the next station being West Acton. On the National Rail networks, it is a through-station on the Great Western Main Line, 5 miles 56 chains down the line from London Paddington and is situated between Acton Main Line and West Ealing; the station is managed by TfL Rail in preparation of Crossrail. In December 2018 the TfL Rail service will be re-branded as the Elizabeth line and in December 2019 the Elizabeth line service will open to Reading and Heathrow Airport; the Great Western Railway opened its pioneering broad gauge tracks through Ealing Broadway between Paddington and Taplow on 6 April 1838, although Ealing Broadway station did not open until 1 December of that year.
As the only station in the area when it opened, it was named'Ealing', but was renamed Ealing Broadway in 1875. District Railway services commenced on 1 July 1879, when the DR opened a branch from Turnham Green on its Richmond line; the DR built its own three-platform station to the north of the GWR one, following the installation of a connection between the two railways to the east of the stations, DR trains served the GWR station from 1 March 1883 to 30 September 1885, on a short-lived service running to Windsor and Eton Central station, withdrawn as unremunerative. It was intended to use the connection for a service to Uxbridge Vine Street station, but this was never introduced. Following electrification of the main District line route through Ealing Common to South Harrow in 1903, the section to Ealing Broadway was electrified in 1905, the first electric trains ran to Ealing Broadway on 1 July 1905; the original brick-built DR station was replaced with a stone-faced building in 1910. Prior to World War I, plans were made by the GWR to construct a new freight, line between Ealing and Shepherd's Bush, to connect west-to-south with the West London Railway.
The Central London Railway would use the line by extending its tracks the short distance north from its terminus at Wood Lane, to meet the new GWR tracks. CLR services to two new platforms at Ealing Broadway, built between the GWR and DR stations, started on 3 August 1920, with just one intermediate stop at East Acton; the line carried GWR steam freight trains until 1938, when the links at Ealing Broadway and west of North Acton were removed, the line was transferred to London Underground. Separate companies, by 1920 the DR and the CLR were both owned by the Underground Electric Railways Company of London. Despite this, the CLR services operated via the GWR station building, not the Underground one; the GWR-built station was demolished in 1961 and replaced by a low concrete structure containing shops and a ticket hall, opened in 1965, with a high-rise office building above. The new station building serves all the lines, the separate District Line station ticket hall was closed, although the building remains, the original station facade is now the entrance for multiple shops.
On Platform 9 there are some roundels of a style dating from c. 1908, three of which are replicas made in 1992. On 16 November 1937, a steam railcar overran crashed into the signal box. On 20 December 1973, an express passenger train was derailed when an unsecured inspection door on the locomotive hauling it struck point rodding, causing a set of points to move under the train. Ten people were killed, 94 were injured. On 19 July 2000, a Real IRA bomb was planted near tracks in the station, it was destroyed by police under a controlled explosion. The combined station has nine platforms: four National Rail. Trains do not stop except during engineering works or other disruption. Platforms 1 and 3 are on lines leaving London, while 4 are on lines into London. Most of the National Rail platforms are open to the elements, although there are some waiting rooms on each platform. Two Central line, which have a shared awning canopy. Three District Line. District Line platforms 8 and 9 are covered by a short canopy, retain a number of examples of early solid-disc Underground signs, used before Edward Johnston designed the familiar roundel in 1919.
All platforms are accessed through a gateline of ticket barriers. National Rail services are provided at the four Great Western Main Line platforms by Great Western Railway and TfL Rail. London Underground provide services to the two Central line platforms; the typical off-peak service frequency is: Great Western Railway 4tph to London Paddington 2tph to Reading 2tph to Didcot ParkwayTfL Rail 4tph to London Paddington 2tph to Hayes and Harlington 2tph to Heathrow Terminal 4London Underground 6tph on the District line to Upminster via Earl's Court 9tph on the Central line of which: 3tph to Hainault via Newbury Park 3tph to Woodford via Hainault 3tph to Newbury Park via Wanstead & Redbridge London Buses routes 65, 112, 207, 226, 297, 427, 483, 607, E1, E2, E7, E8, E9, E10 and E11 and night routes N7, N11, N83 and N207 serve the station. Crossrail will call at Ealing Broadway. Through services across London are expected to commence in autumn 2019. To accommodate Crossrail services, various alterations will be made by N
Newbury Park tube station
Newbury Park is a London Underground station in Newbury Park, east London. It is between Barkingside and Gants Hill stations on the Hainault loop of the Central line, in Travelcard Zone 4; the station was opened by the Great Eastern Railway on 1 May 1903 and subsequently transferred its services to the London & North Eastern Railway due to the amalgamation. Underground trains only started serving the station on 14 December 1947, operating via the Gants Hill tunnel; the line was extended to Hainault on 31 May 1948. The Grade II listed bus shelter designed by Oliver Hill opened on 6 July 1949. Lifts were installed at Newbury Park in November 2018 to provide step-free access to the station 10 years after TfL abandoned the project. Newbury Park is located in Newbury Park of northeastern Ilford in the London Borough of Redbridge, it was built to serve the growing neighbourhood of Newbury Park where the earliest settlement, Birkbeck Estate, dates back to the 1880s. When Eastern Avenue was completed through Newbury Park as a bypass in 1920, development sprung-up around the area.
Nearby landmarks include Oaks Park High School, Alborough Primary School, St. Theresa Roman Catholic Church, Ilford War Memorial Gardens and Holiday Inn Express Hotel. Newbury Park has two car parks; the entrance to the station is accessible via the bus shelter. Newbury Park opened on 1 May 1903, as part of a Great Eastern Railway branch line from Woodford to Ilford via Hainault, known as the Fairlop Loop; this line, designed to stimulate suburban growth, had chequered success. In the 1920s, only areas such as Newbury Park were decently populated; as a consequence of the Railways Act 1921, the GER was merged with other railway companies in 1923 to become part of the London & North Eastern Railway. A new station building was built by the LNER; as part of the 1935–1940 "New Works Programme" of the London Passenger Transport Board, the majority of the loop, including the station, was to be transferred to form part of the eastern extensions of the Central line. Although work commenced in 1938, it was suspended upon the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 and work only recommenced in 1945.
This involved the construction of a new tube tunnel from Leytonstone via Redbridge which surfaced at Newbury Park to connect with the lines of the existing Ilford to Woodford branch. During the war, a part of the constructed tunnel system was used as an underground aircraft munitions factory, was used as an air raid shelter. Steam train services serving Newbury Park were permanently suspended after 29 November 1947. Electrified Central line passenger services, to Central London via Gants Hill commenced on 14 December 1947. Lord Ashfield and local dignitaries attended the opening ceremony of the extension. A train crew depot was established on 30 November 1947 but closed on 2 November 1953. In addition, the line beyond, to the new Hainault depot, was electrified for empty train movements; the station ceased to be the temporary terminus of the Central line on 31 May 1948 with passenger services to Hainault station reopened. The surface tracks from Newbury Park to Ilford were severed by the expansion of Ilford Carriage Sheds in 1947, whilst those to Seven Kings were severed in 1956.
The former alignment was in a cutting, filled in and subsequently provided land for allotment gardens and housing. Three road bridges spanning a missing alignment are the only clues to the old railway. Goods services used to run from the station via Woodford to Temple Mills, reversed via a turn-back siding south of the station until 1965, by Underground engineering trains until 1992 when it was abandoned. An unelectrified track existed next to the 9 sidings, a reception track to Barkingside goods yard. With the freight yard closed on 4 October 1965, these were demolished on 12 October 1969. North of the station, the tracks were rearranged upon transfer to London Underground such that the existing tracks were separated further apart, where the former through eastbound track became a reversing siding, though retaining the connection towards Barkingside, whilst through trains use a track part of the sidings and freight yard built to the west of the running lines; the northern end of the platforms were truncated to facilitate insertion of the points-work for the re-arrangement.
Nine stabling sidings were added to the northwest of the station, connected to the westbound track via a flat crossing and another reversing siding in between the through tracks in autumn 1947. These did not last; the remaining ones were abandoned on 24 January 1966 and demolished on 12 October 1969. Newbury Park's most prominent feature is the bus shelter connected to the station entrance, designed by Oliver Hill in 1937, opened on 6 July 1949. Distinguished by a copper-covered barrel-vaulted roof, the structure is a Grade II listed building and won a Festival of Britain architectural award in 1951; the award was marked by a plaque by the side of the shelter. The LNER station building, which looked similar to Chigwell, was demolished in 1956 to facilitate widening of the adjacent A12 Eastern Avenue; the station features GER insignia just beneath the platform canopies, has a London Transport canteen adjoining the entrance. In 2009, because of financial constraints, TfL decided to stop work on a project to provide step-free access at Newbury Park and five other stations, on the grounds that these are quiet stations
London Buses is the subsidiary of Transport for London that manages bus services within Greater London. It was formed following the Greater London Authority Act 1999 that transferred control of bus services in Greater London and its surrounding areas from the UK Government's London Regional Transport to TfL, controlled by the locally elected Mayor of London. Transport for London's key areas of direct responsibility through London Buses are the following: planning new bus routes revising existing bus routes specifying service levels monitoring service quality management of bus stations and bus stops assistance in'on ground' set up of diversions, bus driver assistance in situations over and above job requirements, for example Road Accidents providing information for passengers in the form of timetables and maps at bus stops and online, an online route planning service producing leaflet maps, available from Travel Information Centres, libraries etc. and as online downloads. Operating CentreComm London Buses' 24‑hour command-and-control centre based in Southwark All bus operations are undertaken under a tendering system in which operators bid for routes in return for a set price per route operated.
Contracts are for five years, with two-year extensions available if performance criteria is met. Routes are set up, controlled and tendered out by Transport for London and they provide day to day assistance via CentreComm which coordinates a large scale network of Network Traffic Controllers to help with any traffic issues that may occur. Operators provide staff to drive the buses, provide the buses to operate and adhere to set TfL guidelines. Operators are in return paid per mile that each bus runs, the pricing is announced on new tenders. London Buses publishes a variety of bus maps; some are traditional street maps of London marked with bus numbers. In 2002, TfL introduced the first "spider" maps. Rather than attempting to cover the entire city, these maps are centred on a particular locality or bus station, convey the route information in the schematic style of Harry Beck's influential Tube map, capitalising on TfL's iconic style of information design; the arachnoid form of bus routes radiating from a centre earned them the nickname "spider" maps, although TfL refer to them on their website as route maps.
The maps are displayed at most major bus stops, can be downloaded in PDF format via the Internet from the TfL website. The legal identity of London Buses is London Bus Services Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London. East Thames Buses was the trading name of another wholly owned subsidiary of TfL called, rather confusingly, London Buses Limited. LBL was formed on 1 April 1985 as part of the privatisation of London bus services, acted as an arm's-length subsidiary of TfL's precursor organisation, London Regional Transport, holding twelve bus operating units and other assets; the operating units were sold off in 1994/95, their purchasers make up the majority of companies awarded bus operating tenders from the current London Buses. After 1994/95, the LBL company lay dormant, passing from LRT to TfL, it was resurrected when East Thames Buses was formed, separated by a chinese wall from LBSL, acted as a London bus operator by proxy. The local bus network in London is one of the most comprehensive in the world.
Over 8000 scheduled buses operate on over 700 different routes. Over the year this network carries over 1.8 billion passenger journeys. Buses in the London Buses network accept Travelcards, Oyster card products and contactless debit and credit cards. Cash fares have not been available since 6 July 2014, but Day Bus passes were re-introduced on 2 January 2015. Single journey fares used to be charged in relation to length of journey, but are now charged as single flat fares for any length of journey. From 2000, the flat fare was higher for journeys in Zone 1 than in outer zones, although from 2004 this difference was eliminated, the change coinciding with the introduction of Oyster card flat fares. With Oyster pay as you go, users are charged a set amount for single journeys, although there is a "daily cap", which limits the maximum amount of money that will be deducted from the balance, regardless of how many buses are taken that day. Alternatively and monthly passes may be purchased and loaded onto an Oyster card.
Passengers using contactless payment cards are charged the same fares as on Oyster pay. Unlike Oyster cards, contactless cards have a 7-day fare cap though it only operates on a Monday-Sunday basis. Under 11s can travel free on London buses and trams at any time unaccompanied by an adult. Children aged 11 to 15 travel free on buses with an 11–15 Oyster photocard. Visitors can have a special discount added to an ordinary Oyster card at TfL's Travel Information Centres. There are concessions for London residents aged 16 to 18; the Freedom Pass scheme allows Greater London residents over state pension age, those with a disability, to travel free at any time on buses and TfL's rail services. People who have concessionary bus passes issued by English local authorities travel free on TfL bus services at any time. Bus services in London are operated by Abellio London, Arriva London, CT Plus, Go-Ahead London, London Sovereign, London United, Quality Line, Stagecoach London, Sullivan Buses, Tower Transit and Uno.
Each company has its own operating code, every bus garage in London has its own garage
London Underground 1960 Stock
The London Underground 1960 Stock was a class of electric multiple unit for the London Underground Central line. Twelve motor cars were supplied by Cravens, pairs were made up to four cars by the addition of two converted standard stock trailers. A production run of 338 motor cars was shelved, due to the time needed to assess the new features and the cost of converting the trailer cars; some of the pre-1938 trailers were replaced by 1938 stock trailers. The trains were used as a test-bed for automatic train operation, where control signals were picked up from the running rails, all control of the moving train, apart from the initial command to start when leaving a station, was managed by a "black box" controller; the Woodford to Hainault section of the Central line was used for these tests, in preparation for the introduction of the system on the Victoria line when it opened. In 1986, three trains were converted back for manual operation, a 3-car unit worked the peak-only Epping to Ongar shuttle service, until that line closed in 1994.
One train still works as a track recording unit, while a second is in private ownership and has been used for railtours on the Underground. London Underground has a history of building small batches of prototype trains in order to try out ideas, prior to building a large production run of new trains, thus in 1935, four six-car trains were supplied by Metropolitan Cammell Carriage and Wagon Company, which were used as a test-bed for ideas which would be incorporated into the 1938 stock, while in 1986, three trains, each of four cars and built by different manufacturers, were ordered with subsequent larger orders in mind. The 1960 stock was part of a similar solution, consisted of twelve motor cars, built by Cravens of Sheffield, incorporating a number of features which it was anticipated would form the basis for a major batch of vehicles to replace the pre-1938 stock in use on the Central line. If the plan had proceeded, a further 338 motor cars would have been built. However, assessment of the new features took longer than the time available, the Central line refurbishment was achieved using 1962 stock, based on the previous batch of 1959 stock.
Many of the design features of the 1960 stock were incorporated into the 1967 stock built for the opening of the Victoria line. The twelve aluminium-bodied motor cars were ordered from Cravens in 1958, each was equipped with four traction motors, instead of the two which previous stock had used, they were controlled by a Pneumatic Camshaft Motor controller, where an air-operated camshaft controlled the switching of the motors, itself governed by an accelerating relay. This system had proved reliable in the control of two motors. In order for it to control four, without a major re-design, pairs of motors were wired together in series, the controller switched between all four motors operating in series, the two pairs operating in parallel. In order to protect against wheel-spin, the controller automatically reset if one motor of a pair began to run faster than the other. Whereas previous bogies had been asymmetric, to ensure that more weight was carried by the axle driven by the motor, the pivot was central as every axle carried a motor.
One further innovation was that the automatic couplers at the outer ends of the trains were not "handed". Trains were designated with'A' and'D' ends, could only be coupled together by joining an'A' end of one train to a'D' end of another; this could cause operational problems on a line such as the Central, where operating a train right round the Hainualt loop resulted in it facing the wrong way. The 1960 stock avoided this problem by duplicating most of the connections in the automatic coupler, so that trains could be joined either way round; the cars included a flat floor for the first time, rather than having a raised section over the motor bogies.. The first of the new trains entered service on 9 November 1960; the driving motor cars were numbered 3900-3911 although the first two cars were delivered by Cravens numbered 3000 and 3001 but were renumbered 3900 and 3901 before entering service. To make the sets up to four cars, each incorporated two trailer cars which were rebuilt from old Pre-1938 Standard Stock.
Two units were intended to be coupled together. The 1960 Stock ran on the main Central line, before being cascaded to the Hainault Loop. One of the main factors affecting the use of 1962 stock for the Central line upgrade, rather than a production run of 1960 stock, was the cost of refurbishing the Standard Stock cars to run with the new driving motor cars; the 1960 stock cars were coupled to two modernised "Standard Stock" trailers, numbered 4900-4911. The cars were to have been numbered starting at 4000. Conversion work included the fitting of fluorescent lighting, the addition of door indicator lights to the outside of the cars, painting in silver paint, to match the unpainted aluminium of the motor cars. Four of the trailers had been built in 1927, only included two sets of double central doors. Two of these were rebuilt with additional single doors at each end; the rest of the trailers were built in 1931, included the extra single doors when built. Four of these trailers were fitted with de-icing gear, carried a'D' below the running number to indicate this.
By 1974, the trailers were a serious maintenance problem, a decision was taken to replace them with single 1938 Stock cars marshalled between the two motor cars, reducing the units from four to three cars
Hainault is a large suburban housing estate in Barkingside in North East London in the London Borough of Redbridge. It is located 12.5 miles northeast of Charing Cross. Most of the housing in Hainault was built by the London County Council between 1947 and 1953. Spanning the parishes of Chigwell and Ilford, in 1965 the area was combined in a single London borough and became part of Greater London, it is adjacent to the Metropolitan Green Belt, bordered on the east by Hainault Forest Country Park and to the north by open land and the boundary with the Epping Forest District of Essex. For postal addresses, it is split between the Chigwell and Ilford post towns and it is within the London 020 telephone area code; the area is served by London Underground's Central Line. The name Hainault was recorded as'Henehout' in 1221 and'Hyneholt' in 1239, it is Old English and means'wood belonging to a religious community', referring to the ownership of Hainault Forest, part of the larger Epping Forest, by Barking Abbey.
The spelling was altered from the 17th century because of a false connection to Philippa of Hainault, the wife of Edward III. The area was forested, it was owned by Barking Abbey and formed part of the Royal Forest of Essex; the large density of forest meant the area was predominately used for the provision of timber for building ships and houses. A decline in demand for timber, a greater demand for food, led in 1851 to an Act of Parliament authorising the deforestation of much of Hainault Forest. Within six weeks 3,000 acres of woodland was cleared. Urban development began after August 1856, when the Great Eastern Railway built a line between Stratford and Loughton. In 1903, from the line at Woodford Junction, a loop line to Ilford was opened. Hainault was one of the stations on that line. Although it had been hoped that housing development would follow from the building of the railway, it took several decades. Hainault station was closed five years after opening; as a result of the London Passenger Transport Board New Works Programme 1935–40 the line was taken over from the LNER and converted for use by London Underground trains.
Because of the lack of available land in the County of London, the London County Council was permitted to build housing and act as landlord outside of its territory. It purchased land in Chigwell and Ilford in 1943. Building of the Hainault Estate commenced after the Second World War from 1947 to 1953; the development of 2,779 houses was in the style known as a'cottage estate' with the names of the roads relating to the history of Hainault Forest. After the development of the Hainault Estate, the area was within three local government districts. Most of Hainault was split between the Chigwell Urban District and the Municipal Borough of Ilford, with a small part to the east within the Municipal Borough of Dagenham; the population of the Chigwell part of the estate was 7,071 in 1961. The whole area formed part of the review area of the Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London, it was recommended by the commission. During the passage of the London Government Act 1963 Chigwell became excluded from the new administrative area, which would have led to the estate being split by a county boundary.
Instead, the opportunity was taken to unite the estate in a single London Borough of Redbridge, by combining the 81 acres of the estate in Chigwell with the northern section of Dagenham and the whole of the boroughs of Ilford and Wanstead and Woodford. Three councillors are elected to represent the Hainault ward on Redbridge London Borough Council. For postal addresses, it is split between the Chigwell and Ilford post towns in the IG postcode area, it is within the London 020 telephone area code, with the Hainault telephone exchange located just outside the Greater London boundary in Grange Hill. Nearest places are Goodmayes Chigwell, Collier Row and Chadwell Heath; the nearest London Underground stations are Grange Hill on the Central line. The area is directly served by London bus routes 150, 247, 362, 462, N8 Hainault Athletic Football Club play in the Essex Sunday Combination League and have two teams of players. Hainault Forest