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Hair (musical)

Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical is a rock musical with a book and lyrics by Gerome Ragni and James Rado and music by Galt MacDermot. A product of the hippie counterculture and sexual revolution of the late 1960s, several of its songs became anthems of the anti-Vietnam War peace movement; the musical's profanity, its depiction of the use of illegal drugs, its treatment of sexuality, its irreverence for the American flag, its nude scene caused much comment and controversy. The musical broke new ground in musical theatre by defining the genre of "rock musical", using a racially integrated cast, inviting the audience onstage for a "Be-In" finale. Hair tells the story of the "tribe", a group of politically active, long-haired hippies of the "Age of Aquarius" living a bohemian life in New York City and fighting against conscription into the Vietnam War. Claude, his good friend Berger, their roommate Sheila and their friends struggle to balance their young lives and the sexual revolution with their rebellion against the war and their conservative parents and society.

Claude must decide whether to resist the draft as his friends have done, or to succumb to the pressures of his parents to serve in Vietnam, compromising his pacifist principles and risking his life. After an off-Broadway debut on October 17, 1967, at Joseph Papp's Public Theater and a subsequent run at the Cheetah nightclub from December 1967 through January 1968, the show opened on Broadway in April 1968 and ran for 1,750 performances. Simultaneous productions in cities across the United States and Europe followed shortly thereafter, including a successful London production that ran for 1,997 performances. Since numerous productions have been staged around the world, spawning dozens of recordings of the musical, including the 3 million-selling original Broadway cast recording; some of the songs from its score became Top 10 hits, a feature film adaptation was released in 1979. A Broadway revival opened in 2009, earning strong reviews and winning the Tony Award and Drama Desk Award for Best Revival of a Musical.

In 2008, Time wrote, "Today Hair seems, if anything, more daring than ever." Hair was conceived by actors James Gerome Ragni. The two met in 1964 when they performed together in the Off-Broadway flop Hang Down Your Head and Die, they began writing Hair together in late 1964; the main characters were autobiographical, with Rado's Claude being a pensive romantic and Ragni's Berger an extrovert. Their close relationship, including its volatility, was reflected in the musical. Rado explained, "We were great friends, it was a passionate kind of relationship that we directed into creativity, into writing, into creating this piece. We put the drama between us on stage."Rado described the inspiration for Hair as "a combination of some characters we met in the streets, people we knew and our own imaginations. We knew this group of kids in the East Village who were dropping out and dodging the draft, there were lots of articles in the press about how kids were being kicked out of school for growing their hair long".

He recalled, "There was so much excitement in the streets and the parks and the hippie areas, we thought if we could transmit this excitement to the stage it would be wonderful.... We hung out with them and went to their Be-Ins let our hair grow." Many cast members were recruited right off the street. Rado said, "It was important and if we hadn't written it, there'd not be any examples. You could read about it and see film clips. We thought,'This is happening in the streets', we wanted to bring it to the stage."Rado and Ragni came from different artistic backgrounds. In college, Rado wrote musical revues and aspired to be a Broadway composer in the Rodgers and Hammerstein tradition, he went on to study acting with Lee Strasberg. Ragni, on the other hand, was an active member of The Open Theater, one of several groups Off-off Broadway, that were developing experimental theatre techniques, he introduced Rado to the modern theatre methods being developed at The Open Theater. In 1966, while the two were developing Hair, Ragni performed in The Open Theater's production of Megan Terry's play, Viet Rock, a story about young men being deployed to the Vietnam War.

In addition to the war theme, Viet Rock employed the improvisational exercises being used in the experimental theatre scene and used in the development of Hair. Rado and Ragni brought their drafts of the show to producer Eric Blau who, through common friend Nat Shapiro, connected the two with Canadian composer Galt MacDermot. MacDermot had won a Grammy Award in 1961 for his composition "African Waltz"; the composer's lifestyle was in marked contrast to his co-creators: "I had short hair, a wife, and, at that point, four children, I lived on Staten Island." "I never heard of a hippie when I met Rado and Ragni." But he shared their enthusiasm to do a roll show. "We work independently", explained MacDermot in May 1968. "I prefer it that way. They hand me the material. I set it to music." MacDermot wrote the first score in three weeks, starting with the songs "I Got Life", "Ain't Got No", "Where Do I Go" and the title song. He first wrote "Aquarius" as an unconventional art piece, but rewrote it into an uplifting anthem.

The creators received many rejections. Joe Papp, who ran the New York Shakespeare Festival, decided he wanted Hair to open the new Public Theater in New York City's East Village; the musical was the first work by living authors. The production did not go

Ghetto benches

Ghetto benches was a form of official segregation in the seating of university students, introduced in 1935 at the Lwow Polytechnic. Rectors at other higher education institutions in the Second Polish Republic had adopted this form of segregation when the practice became conditionally legalized by 1937. Under the ghetto ławkowe system, Jewish university students were required under threat of expulsion to sit in a left-hand side section of the lecture halls reserved for them; this official policy of enforced segregation was accompanied by acts of violence directed against Jewish students by members of the ONR and other extreme right and anti-Semitic organizations like the National Democracy movement. The seating in benches marked a peak of antisemitism in Poland between the world wars according to Jerzy Jan Lerski, it antagonized not only Jews, but many Poles. Jewish students protested these policies, along with some Poles who supported them by standing instead of sitting; the segregation continued until the invasion of Poland in World War II.

Poland's occupation by Nazi Germany suppressed the entire Polish educational system. In the eastern half of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union, similar discriminatory policies were lifted in exchange for other repressive actions against Jews; the percentage of Poland's Jewish population increased during the Russian Civil War. Following Poland's return to independence, several hundred thousand Jews joined the numerous Polish Jewish minority living predominantly in the cities; the new arrivals were the least assimilated of all European Jewish communities of that period. Polish Jews formed the second largest minority after Polish Ukrainians, of about 10 percent of the total population of the Polish Second Republic. Jewish representation in the institutions of higher learning began to increase during World War I. By early 1920s, Jews constituted over one-third of all students attending Polish universities; the difficult situation in the private sector, compounded by the Great Depression, led to a massive enrollment in universities.

In 1923 the Jewish students constituted 62.9 percent of all students of stomatology, 34 percent of medical sciences, 29.2 percent of philosophy, 24.9 percent of chemistry and 22.1 percent of law at all Polish universities. Their number, which remained out of proportion with that of the overwhelmingly gentile population of Poland during the Interbellum, were the probable cause of a backlash. Proposals to reinstitute the numerus clausus, which would restrict Jewish enrollment to 10 percent of the student body were made as early as 1923. However, as this would have violated the Little Treaty of Versailles, the proposals were rejected. In spite of these earlier objections, Poland renounced the Treaty in 1934. Polish nationalism and hostility towards minorities Jews, increased. Discriminatory policies regarding Jews in education in Poland continued the practice of the Russian Empire's numerus clausus policy, implemented by the Empire during Poland's partitions, which restricted, by means of quotas, the participation of Jews in public life.

Issues that had earlier been resolved by the Russian Empire were now decided locally, uniting the Poles while dividing the nation as a whole. Various means of limiting the number of Jewish students were adopted, seeking to reduce the Jewish role in Poland's economic and social life; the situation of Jews improved under Józef Piłsudski, but after his death in 1935 the National Democrats regained much of their power and the status of Jewish students deteriorated. A student "Green Ribbon" League was organized in 1931. In 1934 a group of rabbis petitioned the Archbishop of Warsaw, Aleksander Kakowski, to stop the "youthful outbursts". There were growing demands to decrease the number of Jews in science and business so that Christian Poles could fill their positions. In November 1931, violence accompanied demands to reduce the number of Jewish students at several Polish universities; the universities' autonomous status contributed to this, as university rectors tended not to call in police to protect Jewish students from attacks on the campuses, no action was taken against students involved in anti-Jewish violence.

In 1935, students associated with National Democracy and the National Radical Camp, influenced by the Nazi Nuremberg Laws, demanded segregation of Jews into separate sections in the classrooms, known as "ghetto benches". The majority of Jewish students refused to accept this system of seating, considering it to be a violation of their civil rights. At some universities Polish students attempted to forcibly move Jews to the ghetto benches. Following Piłsudski's death in 1935, anti-Jewish riots broke out at the University of Warsaw and the Warsaw Polytechnic; the violence spread from the campuses to the streets of Warsaw. Subsequently violence broke out at other universities in Poland as well; the student riots and violence were however mutual. Jewish students from Academic Zionist Association "Kadimah" were involved in violence against Polish students. An uninterrupted wave of anti-Jewish violence led to the temporary closure of all of Warsaw's institutions of higher educa

School Street Barn

The School Street Barn is the last remaining 19th century barn in Agawam, Massachusetts. Built in 1880, it is located in the town's School Street Park, is one of the few surviving elements of the Springfield City Jail Farm, located here in the mid-20th century; the barn was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2012. The School Street Barn is located in eastern Agawam, on the north side of School Street a short way west of its junction with River Road; the barn is located in School Street Park, between Main Street and the parking area within the park boundaries. It is about 41 feet wide, with a gable height of about 30 feet, it stands on a brick and stone foundation, has concrete ramps to the large barn doors centered on the gable ends. It is sided with vertically mounted tongue-and-groove wooden boards; the interior of the barn is a typical three story New England post-and-beam construction. The area where the barn stands was agricultural land from early in the colonial period, serving as a food source for Springfield, located just across the Connecticut River to the east.

Part of larger parcels, the property had a farmhouse built on it about 1840. By 1880 the property was owned by absentee owners, whose renters built the barn around 1880; the barn's double-ramp form is unusual in the Connecticut River valley, where bank barns and single-ramp barns were more common. Private farming of the property ended with flooding on the river in 1938, the property was acquired by the county. From 1938 until the late 1980s the area was part of Hampden County's jail farm, which provided food for the prison population in the Springfield York Street jail, some of whose inmates served as farmhands; the property was turned over to the town. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hampden County, Massachusetts


Bispebjerg, more referred to as Nordvest, is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. Located on the northern border of the municipality, it covers an area of 5.39 km² and a population of 40,033. More Bispebjerg refers to a smaller neighbourhood within the district, located on the Bispebjerg Hill from which it takes its name. Bispebjerg covers an area of 5.39 km² and has a population of 40,033, giving a population density of 7,389 per km². The district is bounded by Gentofte Municipality to the north, Østerbro and Nørrebro to the east and south-east, Frederiksberg to the south, Vanløse and Brønshøj-Husum to the west and Gladsaxe Municipality to the northwest; the name Bispebjerg is known from 1681 as Biszebierg. A windmill was built in the area in 1808. Bispebjerg belonged to the civil parish of Brønshøj but in the 1890s, the City of Copenhagen acquired large pieces of land in the area with the intention of establishing a cemetery and a hospital in the grounds. Bispebjerg was together with the rest of Brønshøj merged with Copenhagen in 1901.

Bispebjerg Cemetery opened in 1903 and Bispebjerg Hospital was built between 1908 and 1913. The district was built over with a combination of residential neighbourhoods and industry in the 1920s and 1930s. Grundtvig's Church was built between 1921 and 1940. Bispebjerg station Bispebjerg Hospital

The Magicians (Priestley novel)

The Magicians is a short novel by J. B. Priestley, first published in 1954. An example of Priestley's perennial concern with the true nature of time, the story uses fantasy elements to discuss the midlife crisis of a successful industrialist touching on social problems and mass psychology. Sir Charles Ravenstreet, finding himself unexpectedly dropped from his position as managing director of the New Central Electric Company, retires to his country house to consider his future, he makes the acquaintance of three strange old gentlemen, Wayland and Marot, who take an interest in his life and in his recent dealings with the imperious Lord Mervil, who plans to market a new drug. The main character, Sir Charles Ravenstreet, is an industrialist in his mid-fifties, the managing director of the Birmingham-based New Central Electric Company. At a meeting of the Board in London, he finds, he turns down an offer to be named Production Manager instead, rebuffs the chairman's suggestion that he enter politics.

That evening, at a dinner party at Mr Garson's house, he is introduced to Mavis Westfret, a youngish widow. He sells his stock for £200,000 and begins to frequent fashionable restaurants and clubs, but they bore him, he starts going out with Mavis. After a sexual encounter, she bursts into a sobbing confession of her dissatisfaction with her life, both past and present; the next evening he goes, on the suggestion of an acquaintance named Karney and his friend Prisk, to meet the newspaper tycoon Lord Mervil, who has a new business proposition for him. The proposition concerns. Suspicious, Ravenstreet tries a sample back at his club bedroom, it makes him so cheerful that he telephones at once to ask for another meeting; the week after, Ravenstreet is driving to his country house, Broxley Manor, when he sees the crash of a jet fighter a few miles ahead. An inn called; the three men strike him as harmless cranks, Ravenstreet suggests that they stay with him at his house. On their arrival, Perperek goes straight to the kitchen, waves away Ravenstreet's housekeepers, starts making goulash for dinner.

While he prepares it he perplexes his host by claiming that he and his friends knew in advance that the jet would crash, but that no-one would listen to them. At dinner the three men assert that they are magicians, although Ravenstreet will not discuss his recent meeting with the tycoon, he is sufficiently intrigued by their manner that he allows Marot to "show him his past." He finds himself reliving, in full, an afternoon from September 1926, when he was on holiday with his girlfriend at a cottage on Pelrock Bay. The day is a turning-point in his life, as it is the day on which he received a letter calling him back to work early prompting him to break with Philippa to marry the boss's daughter Maureen. Philippa realises what is happening, but Ravenstreet is resolutely dishonest, his future self finds the experience a torment as the decision turned out to be a poor one. Ravenstreet approaches the trio the next morning, still somewhat sceptical, asks for more information, they are reluctant to talk in detail, but say that superhuman forces are battling for control of humanity's destiny, they succeed in persuading Ravenstreet to reveal that his dealings with Lord Mervil concern a new drug.

Prisk telephones, wanting him to meet Ernest Sepman, the inventor, at his home. The magicians ask Ravenstreet to hold the next meeting at Broxley Manor so that they can inspect Lord Mervil and his associates. Ravenstreet drives to Cheshire and finds Sepman to be a bitter and greedy man who idolises his serially unfaithful wife Nancy while she boldly flirts with Prisk. Ravenstreet manages with difficulty to arrange a meeting at Broxley Manor. At first and Lord Mervil are furious at finding other guests in the house, but soon accept the magicians as harmless cranks, during dinner they find themselves speaking with unusual frankness about their views. Lord Mervil asserts the necessity of a hidden elite in every society and Sepman loudly denounces him, in an outburst which causes his wife to run from the room with Prisk in tow. After dinner, the situation spirals out of Ravenstreet's control. Perperek announces that he has seen Karney somewhere before—in 1921, in a police station in Constantinople, charged with smuggling.

The revelation causes the ultra-respectable Karney to flee in irrational panic. Lord Mervil demands to know who the three strangers are; when Prisk returns with Nancy, Sepman rounds on her and forces her to admit her unfaithfulness, they both leave at once in Sepman's car. Ravenstreet pursues in his Rolls, accompanied by Perperek, but he is too late: the Sepmans are dead, having driven at high speed into a quarry; the entire night is spent talking to police. When they return, Wayland gives the exhausted Ravenstreet another vision, of the happiest morning of his life, in the summer of 1910; when he wakes up, he finds that Lord Mervil and his associates have left, that he has been called to the Birmingham factory to help with a technical difficulty. He talks to the foreman, Tom Hurdlow, surprises him by agreeing to finance his son's new business; when he returns home he finds that he and Perperek have been ordered to an inquest on the Sepmans' deaths. The inquest, presided over by a self-important coroner named T. Brigden Coss, descends into farce when Perperek is called as a witness.

Perperek is charged with contempt of court

Demographics of Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador is a province of Canada on the country's Atlantic coast in northeastern North America. The province has an area of 405,212 square kilometres and a population in 2011 of 514,563, with 95% of the provincial population residing on the Island of Newfoundland, with nearly half of the population residing on the Avalon Peninsula. People from Newfoundland and Labrador are called "Newfoundlanders," "Labradorians", or "Newfoundlanders and Labradorians". Source: Statistics Canada More than half the population identified their ethnocultural ancestry as Canadian, while two-fifths identified English ancestry, one-fifth identified Irish ancestry. More than 100,000 Newfoundlanders have applied for membership in the Qalipu Mi'kmaq First Nation Band, equivalent to one-fifth of the total population; the same data on ethnocultural ancestry, grouped more geographically by Statistics Canada, are shown below: Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents and may total more than 100% due to dual responses.

Only groups of more than 0.02% are shown The 2006 Canadian census showed a population of 505,469. Of the 499,830 singular responses to the census question concerning mother tongue the most reported languages were: Note: "n.i.e.": not included elsewhere There were about 25 single-language responses for Amharic, 25 for Bisayan languages, 20 for Sinhala and 20 for Slovak. In addition, there were 435 responses of English and a non-official language; the 2006 Canadian census counted a total of 8,380 immigrants living in Labrador. The most reported origins for these immigrants were: There were about 115 immigrants from Portugal. A total of 41,840 people moved to Newfoundland and Labrador from other parts of Canada between 1996 and 2006 while 79,125 people moved in the opposite direction; these movements resulted in a net outmigration of 18,820 people to Alberta, 9,900 to Ontario 4,690 to Nova Scotia, 1,615 to British Columbia, 940 to Saskatchewan, 825 to the Northwest Territories, 700 to Prince Edward Island.

During this period there was a net outmigration of 580 francophones to Quebec and 230 francophones moving to Ontario, a net influx of 320 anglophones from Quebec. Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations in the province by population Demographics of Canada List of Canadian provinces and territories by population