A hairdresser is a person whose occupation is to cut or style hair in order to change or maintain a person's image. This is achieved using a combination of hair coloring and hair texturing techniques. Most hairdressers are professionally licensed as a barber or a cosmetologist. Hairdressing as an occupation dates back thousands of years. Ancient art drawings and paintings have been discovered depicting people working on another person's hair. Greek writers Aristophanes and Homer both mention hairdressing in their writings. In Africa, it was believed in some cultures that a person's spirit occupied his or her hair, giving hairdressers high status within these communities; the status of hairdressing encouraged many to develop their skills, close relationships were built between hairdressers and their clients. Hours would be spent washing, oiling and ornamenting their hair. Men would work on men, women on other women. Before a master hairdresser died, they would give their combs and tools to a chosen successor during a special ceremony.
In ancient Egypt, hairdressers had specially decorated cases to hold their tools, including lotions and styling materials. Barbers worked as hairdressers, wealthy men had personal barbers within their home. With the standard of wig wearing within the culture, wigmakers were trained as hairdressers. In ancient Rome and Greece household slaves and servants took on the role of hairdressers, including dyeing and shaving. Men who did not have their own private hair or shaving services would visit the local barbershop. Women had their hair groomed at their homes. Historical documentation is lacking regarding hairstylists from the 5th century until the 14th century. Hair care service grew in demand after a papal decree in 1092 demanded that all Roman Catholic clergymen remove their facial hair; the first appearance of the word "hairdresser" is in 17th century Europe, hairdressing was considered a profession. Hair fashion of the period suggested that wealthy women wear large and adorned hairstyles, which would be maintained by their personal maids and other people, who would spend hours dressing the woman's hair.
A wealthy man's hair would be maintained by a valet. It was in France where men began styling women's hair for the first time, many of the notable hairdressers of the time were men, a trend that would continue into contemporary times; the first famous male hairdresser was Champagne, born in Southern France. Upon moving to Paris, he opened his own hair salon and dressed the hair of wealthy Parisian women until his death in 1658. Women's hair grew taller in style during the 17th century, popularized by the hairdresser Madame Martin; the hairstyle, "the tower," was the trend with wealthy English and American women, who relied on hairdressers to style their hair as tall as possible. Tall piles of curls were pomaded and decorated with ribbons, lace and jewelry; the profession of hairdressing was launched as a genuine profession when Legros de Rumigny was declared the first official hairdresser of the French court. In 1765 de Rumigny published his book Art de la Coiffure des Dames, which discussed hairdressing and included pictures of hairstyles designed by him.
The book was a best seller amongst Frenchwomen, four years de Rumigny opened a school for hairdressers: Academie de Coiffure. At the school he taught women to cut hair and create his special hair designs. By 1777 1,200 hairdressers were working in Paris. During this time, barbers formed unions, demanded that hairdressers do the same. Wigmakers demanded that hairdressers cease taking away from their trade, hairdressers responded that their roles were not the same, hairdressing was a service, wigmakers made and sold a product. De Rumigny died in 1770 and other hairdressers gained in popularity three Frenchmen: Frederic, Léonard. Leonard and Larseueur were the stylists for Marie Antoinette. Leonard was her favorite, developed many hairstyles that became fashion trends within wealthy Parisian circles, including the loge d'opera, which towered five feet over the wearer's head. During the French Revolution he escaped the country hours before he was to be arrested, alongside the king and other clients.
He emigrated to Russia. Parisian hairdressers continued to develop influential styles during the early 19th century. Wealthy French women would have their favorite hairdressers style their hair from within their own homes, a trend seen in wealthy international communities. Hairdressing was a service affordable only to those wealthy enough to hire professionals or to pay for servants to care for their hair. In the United States, Marie Laveau was one of the most famous hairdressers of the period. Laveau, located in New Orleans, began working as a hairdresser in the early 1820s, maintaining the hair of wealthy women of the city, she was a voodoo practitioner, called the "Voodoo Queen of New Orleans," and she used her connections to wealthy women to support her religious practice. She provided "help" to women who needed it for money and other favors. French hairdresser Marcel Grateau developed the "Marcel wave" in the late part of the century, his wave required the use of a special hot hair iron and needed to be done by an experienced hairdresser.
Fashionable women asked to have their hair "marceled." During this period, hairdressers began opening salons in cities and towns, led by Martha Matilda Harper, who developed one of the first retail chains of hair salons, the Harper Method. Beauty salons became popularized during the 20th century, alongside men's barbersho
The large Asian roundleaf bat is a species of bat in the family Hipposideridae. It is found in Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand; the specific name commemorates conservationist Boonsong Lekagul. It was described as a new speccies in 1974 by Hill; the holotype had been collected in the Kaeng Khoi District of Thailand in 1972 by Boonsong Lekagul. Lekagul is the eponym for the species name "lekaguli." Its forearm length is 66.5–79.3 mm. Its ears are broad and triangular, its nose-leaf is complexly foliated with intermediate and posterior leaflets. It was first documented in Thailand in 1972. In 1992, it was additionally documented in the Philippines, it is found in Peninsular Malaysia. It has been documented at a range of elevations from 50–400 m; the Large Asian roundleaf bat is listed as a near-threatened species by the IUCN as of 2019. It meets the criteria for this classification because it is experiencing a significant population decline; the decline is less than 30% loss from 1998–2008, which would qualify it for vulnerable status.
It is experiencing widespread habitat loss. Images of this species
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