Haitian gourde

The gourde or goud is the currency of Haiti. Its ISO 4217 code is HTG and it is divided into 100 centimes or santim; the word "gourde" is a French cognate for the Spanish term "gordo", from the "pesos gordos" in which colonial-era contracts within the Spanish sphere of influence were denominated. The first gourde was introduced in 1813 and replaced the livre at a rate of 1 gourde = 8 livres and 5 sous; the first issues of coins were silver pieces of 6, 12, 25 centimes. In 1827, 50 and 100 centimes coins were introduced, followed by 1 and 2 centimes in 1828. In 1846 and 1850, 6¼ centimes coins were issued as well as 6 centimes pieces. In 1863, bronze coins, produced by the Heaton mint of Birmingham, were issued; these were in denominations of 5, 10 and 20 were the last coins of the first gourde. The governments of Haiti issued paper money in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 gourdes. In 1870 the gourde was revalued at a rate of ten to one. Only banknotes were issued for this second gourde, with the government issuing notes of 10 and 25 gourdes.

In 1872, the gourde was again revalued, this time at a rate of three hundred to one. In the early years of this third gourde, only banknotes were being issued and the name piastre was sometimes used instead of gourde on a banknote issue dated 1875. In 1881, the gourde was linked to the French franc at 5 francs = 1 gourde and coin production recommenced; the peg to the franc did not last but, in 1912, the gourde was pegged to the US dollar at a value of 5 gourdes to the US dollar. Although this peg was abandoned in 1989 and the currency now floats, because of the old link, five gourdes is referred to as a "Haitian dollar". 5 centimes is a "Haitian penny". Indeed, in many places, prices are given not in gourdes, but rather in "Haitian dollars", which must be multiplied by five to convert to gourdes; the 1881 issue of coins consisted of denominations of 1, 2, 10, 20, 50 centimes and 1 gourde. 5 centimes coins were added in 1889. Production of the 1 and 2 centimes and 1 gourde pieces ceased in the mid-1890s, whilst coin production ceased from 1908 until 1949, when 5 and 10 centimes coins were again minted.

These were followed by 20 centimes pieces in 1956, 50 centimes in 1972 and 1 and 5 gourdes in 1995. Coins in circulation are: 50 centimes 1 gourde 5 gourdes In 1875, banknotes were issued by the Banque nationale d'Haïti in denominations of 25 centimes, 1 and 5 piastres. Following this, banknotes were issued in denominations ranging from 10 centimes to 5 gourdes by the various Haitian governments until 1916, when the Banque nationale de la République d'Haïti began issuing notes. In 1920, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 gourdes notes were issued, with 50 and 100 gourdes added in 1925. In the 1970s, 25, 250, 500 gourdes notes were introduced. In 1979, the Banque de la République d'Haïti replaced the National Bank as the paper money issuing body. A 1000 gourdes note was introduced in 1999, to commemorate the 250th anniversary of the founding of Port-au-Prince. A 20 gourdes note was released into circulation in 2001, both as a commemorative and as a regular issue. In 2004, the Banque de la République d'Haïti issued a series of notes to commemorate the bicentennial of Haiti.

Banknotes in circulation are: 10 gourdes 25 gourdes 50 gourdes 100 gourdes 250 gourdes 500 gourdes 1000 gourdes Note: The 1, 2, 5, 20 gourde notes are no longer produced and may no longer be in circulation. Central banks and currencies of the Caribbean Economy of Haiti Facsimiles of Haitian banknotes Coins of Haiti

Vatra Dornei

Vatra Dornei is a city in Suceava County, north-eastern Romania. It is situated in the historical region of Bukovina. Vatra Dornei is the fifth largest urban settlement in the county, with a population of 13,659 inhabitants, according to the 2011 census, it was declared a municipality in 2000, being the smallest municipality in the county. The city administers three villages: Roșu and Todireni. Vatra Dornei is a well known spa and ski resort in the Carpathian Mountains and is home to the historic Vatra Dornei Casino; the town's current local council has the following political composition, according to the results of the 2016 Romanian local elections: Vatra Dornei is located in north-east Romania, in the south-western part of Suceava County, 110 km away from Suceava, the capital of the county. The city of Câmpulung Moldovenesc is 40 km away, the city of Bistrița 85 km away, the town of Gura Humorului 74 km away and the town of Broșteni 52 km away. Vatra Dornei is in Dorna Depression; because of its mountain surroundings, the city is a spa and ski resort, one of the oldest resorts in Romania.

Vatra Dornei is connected to the Romanian national railway system and has two railway stations, Vatra Dornei and Vatra Dornei Băi, both historical monuments. The European route E58, that links the region of Moldavia with Transylvania, crosses the city; the earliest written mention of the settlement is from 1592. Together with the rest of Bukovina, Vatra Dornei was under the rule of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1775 to 1918; this was a period of development for the town, which became a well known resort in the early 19th century. Between 1925-1950, Vatra Dornei was part of the former Câmpulung County. From 1950 to present it's part of Suceava County; the historic Vatra Dornei Casino is located in the municipality. Until the early 1950s, Vatra Dornei had an ethnically mixed population of Romanians, Germans and Jews; the large synagogue and a picturesque Jewish cemetery bear witness to the Jewish presence in the area. Vatra Dornei reached its peak population in 1992, when about 18,500 people were living within the town limits.

The city population declined gradually. According to the 2011 census, Vatra Dornei had a total population of 13,659 inhabitants. Of this population, 98.65% are ethnically Romanians, 0.64% Roma, 0.23% Germans, 0.22% Hungarians, 0.10% Ukrainians. Vatra Dornei is the fifth most populated urban settlement in Suceava County, after the county capital and the cities of Rădăuți, Fălticeni, Câmpulung Moldovenesc. Vatra Dornei is the smallest and newest municipality in Suceava County. Vatra Dornei is a well known ski resort in the Carpathian Mountains. There are ski slopes nearby the city, attracting tourists in winter season. Vatra Dornei is surrounded by proper places for practicing alpine tourism. There are mineral water springs in the city limits and its surroundings, that helped the settlement to develop as a spa. In the late 19th century and early 20th century Bukovina had only two spa towns: Vatra Dornei and Solca. Vatra Dornei has several hotels, two museums and a few old buildings that are considered historical and architectural monuments: the casino, the main spa building, the two railway stations, the town hall, Sentinela Spring, the post office building, a few old churches.

Vasile Deac - Mayor of Vatra Dornei Platon Pardău - poet and writer Vatra Dornei Town Hall official site Vatra Dornei unofficial site Vatra Dornei touristic site The City Hospital of Vatra Dornei Vatra Dornei Live - Local news site Suceava County site - Vatra Dornei web page Photo Gallery - Old photos of Vatra Dornei


Kotasur is a growing modern village in Mayureswar II CD Block in Rampurhat subdivision of Birbhum district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is situated in the bank of river Mayurakshi.. It is common to listen that there was a time when Kotasur was inhabited by Raja and Asur during Mahabharat's time and it was the capital of the kingdom Kouteshwar; the present name of Kotasur came from that ancient name Kouteswar. The headquarters of Mayureswar II CD block are located at Kotasur. Kundala Gram Panchayet The northern portion of Rampurhat subdivision is part of the Nalhati Plains, a sub-micro physiographic region, the southern portion is part of the Brahmani-Mayurakshi Basin, another sub-micro physiographic region occupying the area between the Brahmani in the north and the Mayurakshi in the south. There is an occasional intrusion of Rajmahal Hills, from adjoining Santhal Parganas, towards the north-western part of the subdivision. On the western side is Santhal Parganas and the boder between West Bengal and Jharkhand can be seen in the map.

Murshidabad district is on the eastern side. A small portion of the Padma River and the border with Bangladesh can be seen in the north-eastern corner of the map.96.62% of the population of Rampurhat subdivision live the rural areas and 3.38% of the population live in the urban areas. Note: The map alongside presents some of the notable locations in the area. All places marked in the map are linked in the larger full screen map; as per the 2011 Census of India, Katasur had a total population of 4,302 of which 2,196 were males and 2,106 were females. Population below 6 years was 486; the total number of literates in Katasur was 2,867. SH 11, running from Mohammad Bazar to Ranaghat, passes through Kotasur. Nearby Railway station Sainthia Junction is about 7.9 km away from Kotasur. Kotasur has a government-aided higher-secondary co-educational school, as well as government primary schools and private primary schools. Students from the neighbouring villages are seen admitted to the Kotasur High school.

Kotasur has a delivery branch post office, with PIN 731213, under Mayureswar sub office and Suri head office. Kotasur is famous for the renowned Madaneswar temple situated in the heart of the village; the main festival of this temple are "Shibratri", "Jaldhala". + It is one of the favourite picnic spots of nearby people of kotasur located in the bank of river Mayurakshi. Kotasur has a Primary Health Centre, Sub centre, veterinary hospital and other public health care centres