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The haka is a ceremonial dance or challenge in Māori culture. It is performed by a group, with vigorous movements and stamping of the feet with rhythmically shouted accompaniment. Although associated with the traditional battle preparations of male warriors, haka have long been performed by both men and women, several varieties of the haka fulfil social functions within Māori culture. Haka are performed to welcome distinguished guests, or to acknowledge great achievements, occasions or funerals. Kapa haka groups are common in schools; the main Māori performing arts competition, Te Matatini, takes place every two years. New Zealand sports teams' practice of performing a haka before their international matches has made the haka more known around the world; this tradition began with the 1888–89 New Zealand Native football team tour and has been carried on by the New Zealand rugby union team since 1905. This is considered by some Māori to be a form of cultural appropriation; the group of people performing a haka is referred to as a kapa haka.

The Māori word haka has cognates in other Polynesian languages, for example: Tongan haka,'hand action while singing'. In some languages, the meaning is divergent, for example in Tikopia saka means to'perform rites in traditional ritual system'; the form reconstructed for Proto-Polynesian is *saka, deriving from Proto-Oceanic *saŋka. It may be cognate to the Austronesian languages' words in Cebuano and Tagalog, meaning dance or martial art. According to Tīmoti Kāretu, the haka has been "erroneously defined by generations of uninformed as'war dances'", whereas Māori mythology places haka as the dance "about the celebration of life". According to its creation story, the sun god, Tama-nui-te-rā, had two wives, the Summer Maid, Hine-raumati, the Winter Maid, Hine-takurua. Haka originated in the coming of Hine-raumati, whose presence on still, hot days was revealed in a quivering appearance in the air; this was the haka of Tāne-rore, the son of Hine-raumati and Tama-nui-te-rā. Hyland comments. Jackson and Hokowhitu state, "haka is the generic name for all types of dance or ceremonial performance that involve movement."

The various types of haka include tūtū ngārahu and peruperu. The tūtū ngārahu involves jumping from side to side. Another kind of haka performed without weapons is the ngeri, the purpose of, to motivate a warrior psychologically; the movements are free, each performer is expected to be expressive of their feelings. Manawa wera haka were associated with funerals or other occasions involving death. Like the ngeri they were performed without weapons, there was little or no choreographed movement. War haka were performed by warriors before a battle, proclaiming their strength and prowess in order to intimidate the opposition. Various actions are employed in the course of a performance, including facial contortions such as showing the whites of the eyes, poking out the tongue, a wide variety of vigorous body actions such as slapping the hands against the body and stomping of the feet; as well as chanted words, a variety of cries and grunts are used. Haka may be understood as a kind of symphony in which the different parts of the body represent many instruments.

The hands, legs, voice, eyes and the body as a whole combine to express courage, joy or other feelings relevant to the purpose of the occasion. The earliest Europeans to witness the haka were invariably struck by its ferocity. Joseph Banks, who accompanied James Cook on his first voyage to New Zealand in 1769 recorded, "The War Song and dance consists of Various contortions of the limbs during which the tongue is thrust out far and the orbits of the eyes enlarged so much that a circle of white is distinctly seen round the Iris: in short nothing is omittd which can render a human shape frightful and deformd, which I suppose they think terrible."From their arrival in the early 19th century, Christian missionaries strove unsuccessfully to eradicate the haka, along with other forms of Māori culture that they saw as conflicting with Christian beliefs and practice. Henry Williams, the leader of the Church Missionary Society mission in New Zealand, aimed to replace the haka and traditional Māori chants with hymns.

Missionaries encouraged European harmonic singing as part of the process of conversion. The use of the haka in welcoming ceremonies for members of British royal family helped to improve its standing among Europeans. Prince Alfred, the Duke of Edinburgh, was the first royal to visit New Zealand, in 1869. Upon the Duke's arrival at the wharf in Wellington, he was greeted by a vigorous haka; the Wellington Independent reported, "The excitement of the Maoris becomes uncontrollable. They gesticulate, they dance, they throw their weapons wildly in the air, while they yell like fiends let loose, but all this fierce yelling is of the most friendly character. They are bidding the Duke welcome." In modern times, various haka have been composed to be performed by women and children. Haka are performed for various reasons: for welcoming distinguished guests, or to acknowledge great achievements

James Marsh (chemist)

James Marsh was a British chemist who invented the Marsh test for detecting arsenic. While Marsh was most famous for inventing the test that bears his name, he was a skilled and inventive scientist who held the post of Ordnance Chemist at the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich, he developed the screw time fuze in 1830 the percussion tube. In 1832 HMS Castor was the first ship to have her guns modified with these innovations, they were not approved for the Army until 1845, when Woolwich began their manufacture—for coastal artillery only. They became obsolete in 1866. Marsh worked as an assistant to Michael Faraday at the nearby Royal Military Academy from 1829 to 1846. Marsh invented the earliest form of vibrating electrical interrupter in 1824, it consisted of a straight wire electrically connected and flexibly suspended at the top while the lower end extending into a shallow mercury filled trough which served as a second electrical contact. The lower end of the wire was positioned between the poles of a powerful permanent horseshoe-shaped magnet.

When electric current flowed through the wire, the magnetic field of the wire created a force with the field of the permanent magnet such that the wire would rotate out of the mercury trough and interrupt the electrical circuit. Without the magnetic force, the wire would fall back due to the force of gravity into the mercury thereby restoring the connection and restarting the cycle of vibration. In 1832 Marsh was called as a chemist by the prosecution in a murder trial, wherein a certain John Bodle was accused of poisoning his grandfather with arsenic-laced coffee. Marsh performed the standard test by mixing a suspected sample with hydrogen sulfide and hydrochloric acid. While he was able to detect arsenic as yellow arsenic trisulfide, when it came to showing it to the jury it had deteriorated, allowing the suspect to be acquitted due to reasonable doubt. Annoyed by this, Marsh developed a much better test, he combined a sample containing arsenic with sulfuric acid and arsenic-free zinc, resulting in arsine gas.

The gas was ignited, it decomposed to pure metallic arsenic which, when passed to a cold surface, would appear as a silvery-black deposit. So sensitive was the test, he first described this test in The Edinburgh Philosophical Journal in 1836. The Inheritor's Powder: a cautionary tale of poison and greed by Sandra Hempel. BBC Radio 4 Book of the Week Marsh J.. "Account of a method of separating small quantities of arsenic from substances with which it may be mixed". Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal. 21: 229–236. McMuigan, Hugh. An Introduction to Chemical Pharmacology. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co. pp. 396–397. Retrieved 2007-12-16. Wanklyn, James Alfred. Arsenic. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. Ltd. pp. 39–57. Retrieved 2007-12-16. Webster, Stewart H.. "The Development of the Marsh Test for Arsenic". Journal of Chemical Education. 24: 487–490. Doi:10.1021/ed024p487

George Cecil Jones

George Cecil Jones, Jr.) was a British chemist, one time member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and co-founder of the magical order A∴A∴. According to author and occultist Aleister Crowley, Jones lived for some time in Basingstoke, England, working at a metallurgy there. Born in Croydon, Jones was educated at City of London School, Central Technical College and Birmingham University, he was the son of Sr.. He studied analytical chemistry at Central Technical College in South Kensington and Birmingham University and became employed in the profession upon graduation. On 12 July 1895 he became a member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, he is best known for the pivotal role he played in the life of British Aleister Crowley, stoking Crowley's youthful enthusiasm for magick. Jones introduced Crowley to the Golden Dawn, which Jones was a member of, going by the Latin magical motto Volo Noscere. On 25 January 1905, he married Ethel Melinda Baker at Balham, she was the sister of Golden Dawn member Julian Levett Baker.

In 1906 Jones and Crowley would found the A∴A∴, taking some of the lessons from their experiences with the Golden Dawn as well as the teachings of Crowley's The Book of the Law, incorporating them into their new order, which Crowley would head. Jones would contribute to Crowley's book of essays on and references for Qabalah, 777 and other Qabalistic writings. In 1911 he unsuccessfully sued a newspaper, the Looking Glass, for libellously associating him with Crowley. Little is known about his life except for his roles in the history of the Golden Dawn and as a friend and associate of Crowley, he retired as a chemist in 1939. In the 1950s Jones and his wife were living at Hastings, his wife died on 4 January 1952 at Hastings. He died on 30 October 1960 at St. Helens Hospital in Hastings, they had at least two children: George Alan Jones. Aleister Crowley: His Contribution to the Western Mysteries Aleister Crowley in the Desert Crowley, Aleister: The Confessions of Aleister Crowley. Penguin, ch. 19, 20, 67, 76 Sutin, Lawrence: Do.

St. Martin's Press, 2000

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1473

United Nations Security Council resolution 1473, adopted unanimously on 4 April 2003, after recalling previous resolutions on East Timor Resolution 1410, the Council adjusted the United Nations Mission of Support to East Timor to improve its capacity to train the National Police of East Timor in light of the security situation, slowed the downsizing of the operation. The Security Council welcomed progress East Timor had made with UNMISET assistance, stressing the priority of improving the capabilities of the national police and noting continuing challenges to the country's security and stability, it decided that composition and strength of the UNMISET police component and its downsizing would include the following measures: inclusion of an international unit for one year. The resolution decided that the downsizing of the military component of UNMISET until December 2003 would be adjusted so that the number of military peacekeepers would be reduced from 1,750 more than envisaged in Resolution 1410.

By January 2004, 325 officers would be still present in the country. Two battalions would be retained; the Secretary-General Kofi Annan was requested to report by 20 May 2003 on a revised schedule for the downsizing of UNMISET and to keep the Council informed of developments in East Timor. The East Timorese government was asked to co-operate with UNMISET in the implementation of police and military strategies. 1999 East Timorese crisis East Timor Special Autonomy Referendum Indonesian occupation of East Timor List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1401 to 1500 United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor Works related to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1473 at Wikisource Text of the Resolution at

Tenryƫgawa Station

Tenryūgawa Station is a railway station in Higashi-ku, Shizuoka Prefecture, operated by the Central Japan Railway Company. Tenryūgawa Station is served by the JR Tōkai Tōkaidō Main Line, is located 252.7 kilometers from the official starting point of the line at Tokyo. Tenryūgawa Station has two island platforms, one serving Track 1, an infrequently used auxiliary platform, Track 2; the other island platform serves Track 3, Track 4, an infrequently used auxiliary platform. The two platforms are connected by an overpass; the station building is staffed. Tenryūgawa Station was opened on July 1898 for both passenger and freight services. Scheduled freight service was discontinued on March 15, 1972. A new station building was complete in September 2016. In fiscal 2017, the station was used by an average of 2783 passengers daily. Hamamatsu Arena List of Railway Stations in Japan Yoshikawa, Fumio. Tokaido-sen 130-nen no ayumi. Grand-Prix Publishing ISBN 4-87687-234-1. Media related to Tenryūgawa Station at Wikimedia Commons Tenryūgawa Station home page

Rock crawling

Rock crawling is an extreme form of off road driving using vehicles anywhere from stock to modified to overcome obstacles. In rock crawling, drivers drive modified four-wheel-drive vehicles such as trucks, "buggies" over harsh terrain. Driving locations include mountain foothills, rock piles, mountain trails, etc.. Rock crawling is about slow-speed and precise driving, high torque generated through large gear reductions in the vehicles drivetrain. Rock crawlers drive up, down and across obstacles that would appear impassable. Rock crawling competitions range from local events to national series; these consist of 100-200 yard long courses with obstacles set up with gates, similar to a slalom ski race. Vehicles used include Jeep, Lada Niva, BAW, Nissan Patrol, Toyota Hilux, Toyota Land Cruiser, Land Rover, Mercedes-Benz G-Class, Santana PS-10, Ford Bronco, Suzuki Samurai, International Harvester Scout among many other 4x4's; these vehicles are outfitted with custom parts. Rock Crawlers can be built by a wide array of companies as well as in people's garages.

Power is not an issue, as rock crawlers lower their gear ratios in order to drive more over obstacles without stalling the engine. These custom parts can include: locking differentials taller off-road tires upgraded suspension four wheel steering heavy duty steering components roll cage for driver protection lowered gearing in either or all of the transmission, transfer case, or axle differentials winches body armour beadlocks long-travel shock absorbers, drop shackles, spring-over conversions, coil-over spring/shock combinations, upgraded control arms portal axlesOversized, low-pressure, mud-terrain tires are used. Most vehicles have a low-geared transfer case to make the most torque in the low speeds used for rock crawling. Suspension-wise, rock crawling vehicles sometimes have after-market lift kits installed, raising the chassis and increasing suspension flex, though the rock crawlers running the tougher trails have fabricated suspension systems, or home-assembled leaf packs to cheaply achieve the goals, making it easier to drive over larger obstacles with less risk of damage to the vehicle.

Most suspensions are made to be flexible, allowing for the maximum amount of tire area to contact the ground, while keeping the vehicle as low as possible. Due to the conflicting nature of the dynamics and needs of rock crawling and highway driving vehicles, it is not unusual to modify a vehicle for off-road recreational usage. Once a vehicle is deemed "off-road only" i.e. not driven on the street and trailered to trails or OHV parks the modification possibilities are endless. Those with the financial resources can build their own rock crawler; the biggest benefit of this approach is that the owner has complete control over what their vehicle is capable of, since each part of the vehicle can be custom designed. Acquiring sponsors can help to cover some of these costs. Jeep Wrangler BAW Land Rover Toyota Land Cruiser Suzuki Samurai Daihatsu International Harvester Scout Tuff Truck Challenge Mercedes Unimog