Waseda University, abbreviated as Sōdai, is a Japanese private research university in Shinjuku, Tokyo. Founded in 1882 as the Tōkyō Senmon Gakkō by Ōkuma Shigenobu, the school was formally renamed Waseda University in 1902. Waseda is organized into thirty-six departments: thirteen undergraduate schools and twenty-three graduate schools; as of May 2016, there were 8,269 graduate students. In addition to a central campus in Shinjuku, the university operates campuses in Chūō, Nishitōkyō, Honjō, Kitakyūshū. Waseda operates twenty-one research institutes at its main Shinjuku campus; the Waseda University Library is collectively one of the largest libraries in Japan and hold some 4.5 million volumes and 46,000 serials. Waseda ranks among the most academically selective and prestigious universities in Japanese university rankings, it is ranked alongside Keio University, its rival, as the best private university in Japan. In 2015–2016, Waseda ranked 212th in the QS World University Rankings. Waseda is among the top type of the select Japanese universities assigned additional funding under the MEXT's Top Global University Project to enhance Japan's global educational competitiveness.
Waseda has graduated many notable alumni, including seven Prime Ministers of Japan, numerous important figures of Japanese literature, including Haruki Murakami, many CEOs, including Tadashi Yanai, the CEO of UNIQLO, Nobuyuki Idei, the former CEO of Sony, Takeo Fukui, the former President and CEO of Honda, Norio Sasaki, the former CEO of Toshiba, Lee Kun-hee, the Chairman of Samsung Group, Mikio Sasaki, the former Chairman of Mitsubishi, Hiroshi Yamauchi and Shuntaro Furukawa and current Presidents of Nintendo respectively. Waseda was founded as Tōkyō Senmon Gakkō on October 21, 1882 by samurai scholar and Meiji-era politician and former prime minister Ōkuma Shigenobu. Before the name'Waseda' was selected, it was known variously as Waseda Gakkō or Totsuka Gakkō after the location of the founder's villa in Waseda Village and the school's location in Totsuka Village respectively, it was renamed Waseda University on September 1902, upon acquiring university status. It started as a college with three departments under the old Japanese system of higher education.
In 1882, the university had the department of political science and economics and physical science. Along with these departments, an English language course was established, where the students of all the departments could learn English. Three years the department of physical science was closed because it had too few applicants; the department of literature was established in 1890, the department of education in 1903, the department of commerce in 1904, the department of science and engineering in 1908. Although Waseda formally adopted the term university in its title in 1902 it was not until 1920 that, in common with other Japanese schools and colleges, it received formal government recognition as a university under the terms of the University Establishment Ordinance, thus Waseda became, with Keio University, the first private university in Japan. Much of the campus was destroyed in the fire bombings of Tokyo during World War II, but the university was rebuilt and reopened by 1949, it has grown to become a comprehensive university with two senior high schools and school of art and architecture.
In June 12, 1950, sixty police raided Waseda University and seized copies of a Communist-inspired open letter to General MacArthur. The open letter to MacArthur was once read at a Communist-sponsored rally a week earlier; the letter demanded a peace treaty for Japan that would include Russia and Communist China, withdrawal of occupation forces, the release of eight Japanese sent to prison for assaulting five U. S soldiers at a Communist rally. A police official said most meetings at Waseda would be banned in the future because "political elements" might try to utilize them. Yuichi Eshima, Vice-Chairman of the Students Autonomy Society, said the police action "stupefied" students and professors, that "This is worse than the prewar peace preservation measures." Ōkuma had long desired to create an academic cap so distinctive that someone wearing the cap would be identified as a Waseda student. The chief tailor of Takashimaya, was called upon to design a cap in three days; each square cap was stamped on the inside with the student's name, his department, the school seal and the legend, "This certifies that the owner is a student of Waseda".
Thus, the cap served as a form of identification, a status symbol. The cap, with its gold-braided badge, is registered as a trademark. On October 21, 2007, Waseda University celebrated its 125th anniversary. Ōkuma talked about the "125 years of life" theory: "The lifespan of a human being can be as long as 125 years. He will be able to live out his natural lifespan as long as he takes proper care of his health", because "physiologists say that every animal has the ability to live five times as long as its growth period. Since a man is said to require about 25 years to become mature, it follows that he can live up to 125 years of age." This theory propounded by Ōkuma was popular and referred to in the media of the time. In commemorative events relating to Waseda University and Ōkuma, the number 125 is accorded special significance, as it marks an important epoch; the tower of Ōkuma Auditorium, completed on the university's 45th anniversary, is 125 shaku, or about 38 m high. In 1963, there were events to mark the 125th anniversary of Ōkuma Shigenobu's birth.
Ōkuma, who twice served as prime minister of Japan, organized his second cabinet when he was 77 and died when he was 83. He
A pleat is a type of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and securing it in place. It is used in clothing and upholstery to gather a wide piece of fabric to a narrower circumference. Pleats are categorized as pressed, that is, ironed or otherwise heat-set into a sharp crease, or unpressed, falling in soft rounded folds. Pleats sewn into place are called tucks. A vertically hanging piece of fabric such as a skirt or a drape will be described in terms of its "fullness." Fullness represents the thickness/ depth of the pleats in relation to the original width of the fabric: fabric sewn at "zero fullness" would be flat and have no pleats. Accordion pleats or knife pleats are a form of tight pleating which allows the garment to expand its shape when moving. Accordion pleating is used for some dress sleeves, such as pleating the end of the elbow, with the fullness of the pleat gathered at the cuff; this form of pleating inspired the "skirt dancing" of Loie Fuller. Accordion pleats may be used in hand fans.
Box pleats are knife pleats back-to-back, have a tendency to spring out from the waistline. They have the same 3:1 ratio as knife pleats, may be stacked to form "stacked-" or "double-box pleats"; these stacked box pleats have a 5:1 ratio. They create a bulkier seam. Inverted box pleats have the "box" on the inside rather than the outside. Cartridge pleats are used to gather a large amount of fabric into a small waistband or armscye without adding bulk to the seam; this type of pleating allows the fabric of the skirt or sleeve to spring out from the seam. During the 15th and 16th centuries, this form of pleating was popular in the garments of men and women. Fabric is evenly gathered using two or more lengths of basting stitches, the top of each pleat is whipstitched onto the waistband or armscye. Cartridge pleating was resurrected in 1840s fashion to attach the full bell-shaped skirts to the fashionable narrow waist. Fluted pleats or "flutings" are small, rounded or pressed pleats used as trimmings.
The name comes from their resemblance to a pan flute. Fortuny pleats are crisp pleats set in silk fabrics by designer Mariano Fortuny in the early 20th century, using a secret pleat-setting process, still not understood. Honeycomb pleats are narrow, rolled pleats used as a foundation for smocking. Kick pleats are short pleats leading upwards from the bottom hem of garments such as skirts or coats at the back, they allow the garment to drape straight down when stationary while allowing freedom of movement. Organ pleats are parallel rows of rounded pleats resembling the pipes of a pipe organ. Carl Köhler suggests. Plissé pleats are narrow pleats set by gathering fabric with stitches, wetting the fabric, "setting" the pleats by allowing the wet fabric to dry under weight or tension. Linen chemises or smocks pleated with this technique have been found in the 10th century Viking graves in Birka. Rolled pleats create tubular pleats. A piece of the fabric to be pleated is pinched and rolled until it is flat against the rest of the fabric, forming a tube.
A variation on the rolled pleat is the stacked pleat, rolled and requires at least five inches of fabric per finished pleat. Both types of pleating create a bulky seam. Watteau pleats are one or two box pleats found at the back neckline of 18th century sack-back gowns and some late 19th century tea gowns in imitation of these; the term is not contemporary, but is used by costume historians in reference to these styles as portrayed in the paintings of Antoine Watteau. Kingussie pleats, named after the town in Scotland, are a rarely seen type of pleat used in some Scottish kilts, they consist of a single centrally located box pleat in the rear of the kilt with knife pleats fanning out on either side. Clothing features pleats for practical reasons as well as for purely stylistic reasons. Shirts and blouses have pleats on the back to provide freedom of movement and on the arm where the sleeve tapers to meet the cuff; the standard men's shirt has a box pleat in the center of the back just below the shoulder or alternately one simple pleat on each side of the back.
Jackets designed for active outdoor wear have pleats to allow for freedom of movement. Norfolk jackets have double-ended inverted box pleats at the back. Skirts and kilts can include pleats of various sorts to add fullness from the waist or hips, or at the hem, to allow freedom of movement or achieve design effects. One or more kick pleats may be set near the hem of a straight skirt to allow the wearer to walk comfortably while preserving the narrow style line. Modern kilts may be made with either box pleats or knife pleats, can be pleated to the stripe or pleated to the sett. Pleats just below the waistband on the front of the garment are typical of many styles of formal and casual trousers including suit trousers and khaki
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons; the best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity. The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism-like structure of the silk fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles, thus producing different colors. Silk is produced by several insects. There has been some research into other types of silk. Silk is produced by the larvae of insects undergoing complete metamorphosis, but some insects, such as webspinners and raspy crickets, produce silk throughout their lives. Silk production occurs in Hymenoptera, mayflies, leafhoppers, lacewings, fleas and midges. Other types of arthropods produce most notably various arachnids, such as spiders; the word silk comes from Old English: sioloc, from Ancient Greek: σηρικός, translit.
Sērikós, "silken" from an Asian source — compare Mandarin sī "silk", Manchurian sirghe, Mongolian sirkek. Several kinds of wild silk, which are produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm, have been known and used in China, South Asia, Europe since ancient times. However, the scale of production was always far smaller than for cultivated silks. There are several reasons for this: first, they differ from the domesticated varieties in colour and texture and are therefore less uniform. Thus, the only way to obtain silk suitable for spinning into textiles in areas where commercial silks are not cultivated was by tedious and labor-intensive carding. Commercial silks originate from reared silkworm pupae, which are bred to produce a white-colored silk thread with no mineral on the surface; the pupae are killed by either dipping them in boiling water before the adult moths emerge or by piercing them with a needle. These factors all contribute to the ability of the whole cocoon to be unravelled as one continuous thread, permitting a much stronger cloth to be woven from the silk.
Wild silks tend to be more difficult to dye than silk from the cultivated silkworm. A technique known as demineralizing allows the mineral layer around the cocoon of wild silk moths to be removed, leaving only variability in color as a barrier to creating a commercial silk industry based on wild silks in the parts of the world where wild silk moths thrive, such as in Africa and South America. Silk was first developed in ancient China; the earliest example of silk has been found in tombs at the neolithic site Jiahu in Henan, dates back 8,500 years. Silk fabric from 3630 BC was used as wrapping for the body of a child from a Yangshao culture site in Qingtaicun at Xingyang, Henan. Legend gives credit for developing silk to Leizu. Silks were reserved for the Emperors of China for their own use and gifts to others, but spread through Chinese culture and trade both geographically and and to many regions of Asia; because of its texture and lustre, silk became a popular luxury fabric in the many areas accessible to Chinese merchants.
Silk was in great demand, became a staple of pre-industrial international trade. In July 2007, archaeologists discovered intricately woven and dyed silk textiles in a tomb in Jiangxi province, dated to the Eastern Zhou Dynasty 2,500 years ago. Although historians have suspected a long history of a formative textile industry in ancient China, this find of silk textiles employing "complicated techniques" of weaving and dyeing provides direct evidence for silks dating before the Mawangdui-discovery and other silks dating to the Han Dynasty. Silk is described in a chapter of the Fan Shengzhi shu from the Western Han. There is a surviving calendar for silk production in an Eastern Han document; the two other known works on silk from the Han period are lost. The first evidence of the long distance silk trade is the finding of silk in the hair of an Egyptian mummy of the 21st dynasty, c.1070 BC. The silk trade reached as far as the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and North Africa; this trade was so extensive that the major set of trade routes between Europe and Asia came to be known as the Silk Road.
The Emperors of China strove to keep knowledge of sericulture secret to maintain the Chinese monopoly. Nonetheless sericulture reached Korea with technological aid from China around 200 BC, the ancient Kingdom of Khotan by AD 50, India by AD 140. In the ancient era, silk from China was the most lucrative and sought-after luxury item traded across the Eurasian continent, many civilizations, such as the ancient Persians, benefited economically from trade. Chinese silk making process Silk has a long history in India, it is known as Resham in eastern and north India, Pattu in southern parts of India. Recent archaeological discoveries in Harappa and Chanhu-daro suggest that sericulture, employing wild silk threads from native silkworm species, existed in South Asia during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization dating between 2450 BC and 2000 BC, while "hard and fast evidence" for silk production in China dates back to around 2570 BC. Shelagh Vainker, a s
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense and law enforcement applications, physical and spiritual development. Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of East Asia, it referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s; the term means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors. Martial arts may be categorized along a variety of criteria, including: Traditional or historical arts vs. contemporary styles of folk wrestling and modern hybrid martial arts. Techniques taught: Armed vs. unarmed, within these groups by type of weapon and by type of combat By application or intent: self-defense, combat sport, choreography or demonstration of forms, physical fitness, etc. Within Chinese tradition: "external" vs. "internal" styles UnarmedUnarmed martial arts can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, those focusing on grappling and those that cover both fields described as hybrid martial arts.
Strikes Punching: Boxing, Wing Chun, Karate Kicking: Taekwondo, Savate Others using strikes: Muay Thai, Kung Fu, Pencak SilatGrappling Throwing: Hapkido, Sumo, Aikido Joint lock/Chokeholds/Submission holds: Judo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Sambo Pinning Techniques: Judo, AikidoArmedThe traditional martial arts, which train in armed combat encompass a wide spectrum of melee weapons, including bladed weapons and polearms. Such traditions include eskrima, kalaripayat and historical European martial arts those of the German Renaissance. Many Chinese martial arts feature weapons as part of their curriculum. Sometimes, training with one specific weapon will be considered a style of martial arts in its own right, the case in Japanese martial arts with disciplines such as kenjutsu and kendo and kyudo. Modern martial arts and sports include modern fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat, modern competitive archery. Combat-oriented Health-orientedMany martial arts those from Asia teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices.
This is prevalent in traditional Asian martial arts which may teach bone-setting and other aspects of traditional medicine. Spirituality-orientedMartial arts can be linked with religion and spirituality. Numerous systems are reputed to have been disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns. Throughout Asia, meditation may be incorporated as part of training. In those countries influenced by Hindu-Buddhist philosophy, the art itself may be used as an aid to attaining enlightenment. Japanese styles, when concerning non-physical qualities of the combat, are strongly influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy. Concepts like "empty mind" and "beginner's mind" are recurrent. Aikido, for instance, can have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace fostering, as idealised by its founder Morihei Ueshiba. Traditional Korean martial arts place emphasis on the development of the practitioner's spiritual and philosophical development. A common theme in most Korean styles, such as taekkyeon and taekwondo, is the value of "inner peace" in a practitioner, stressed to be only achieved through individual meditation and training.
The Koreans believe. Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual; some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner. Many such martial arts incorporate music strong percussive rhythms; the oldest works of art depicting scenes of battle are cave paintings from eastern Spain dated between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE that show organized groups fighting with bows and arrows. Chinese martial arts originated during the legendary apocryphal, Xia Dynasty more than 4000 years ago, it is said. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who before becoming China's leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You, credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling.
The foundation of modern Asian martial arts is a blend of early Chinese and Indian martial arts. During the Warring States period of Chinese history extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War. Legendary accounts link the origin of Shaolinquan to the spread of Buddhism from ancient India during the early 5th century AD, with the figure of Bodhidharma, to China. Written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Sangam literature of about the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD; the combat techniques of the Sangam period were the earliest precursors to Kalaripayattu. In Europe, the earlie
Iaidō, abbreviated with iai, is a Japanese martial art that emphasizes being aware and capable of drawing the sword and responding to a sudden attack. Iaido is associated with the smooth, controlled movements of drawing the sword from its scabbard, striking or cutting an opponent, removing blood from the blade, replacing the sword in the scabbard. While beginning practitioners of iaido may start learning with a wooden sword depending on the teaching style of a particular instructor, most of the practitioners use the blunt edged sword, called iaitō. Few, more experienced, iaido practitioners use a sharp edged sword. Practitioners of iaido are referred to as iaidoka; the term "iaido" appears in 1932 and consists of the kanji characters 居, 合, 道. The origin of the first two characters, iai, is believed to come from saying Tsune ni ite, kyū ni awasu, that can be translated as "being match/meet immediately", thus the primary emphasis in'iai' is on the psychological state of being present. The secondary emphasis is on drawing the sword and responding to the sudden attack as as possible.
The last character, 道, is translated into English as the way. The term "iaido" translates into English as "the way of mental presence and immediate reaction", was popularized by Nakayama Hakudo; the term emerged from the general trend to replace the suffix -jutsu with -dō in Japanese martial arts in order to emphasize the philosophical or spiritual aspects of the practice. Iaido encompasses hundreds of styles of swordsmanship, all of which subscribe to non-combative aims and purposes. Iaido is an intrinsic form of Japanese modern budo. Iaido is a reflection of the morals of the classical warrior and to build a spiritually harmonious person possessed of high intellect and resolute will. Iaido is for the most part performed solo as an issue of kata, executing changed strategies against single or various fanciful rivals; every kata finishes with the sword sheathed. Notwithstanding sword method, it obliges creative ability and fixation to keep up the inclination of a genuine battle and to keep the kata new.
Iaidoka are prescribed to practice kendo to safeguard that battling feel. To appropriately perform the kata, iaidoka learn carriage and development and swing. At times iaidoka will practice accomplice kata like kenjutsu kata. Dissimilar to kendo, iaido is never honed in a free-competing way; the metaphysical aspects in iaido have been influenced by several philosophical and religious directions. Iaido is a blend of the ethics of Confucianism, methods of Zen, the philosophical Taoism, the purificatory rites of Shintoism and aspects from bushido; because iaido is practiced with a weapon, it is entirely practiced using solitary forms, or kata performed against one or more imaginary opponents. Multiple person kata exist within some schools of iaido. Iaido does not use sparring of any kind; because of this non-fighting aspect, iaido's emphasis on precise, fluid motion, it is sometimes referred to as "moving Zen." Most of the styles and schools do not practice tameshigiri. A part of iaido is nukitsuke.
This is a quick draw of the sword, accomplished by drawing the sword from the saya and moving the saya back in saya-biki. Iaido started in the mid-1500s. Hayashizaki Jinsuke Shigenobu is acknowledged as the organizer of Iaido. There were a lot of people Koryu, however just a little extent remain today. Just about every one of them additionally concentrate on more seasoned school created amid 16-seventeenth century, in the same way as Muso-Shinden-ryu, Hoki-ryu, Muso-Jikiden-Eishin-ryu, Shinto-Munen-ryu, Tamiya-ryu, Yagyu-Shinkage-ryu, Mugai-ryu, Sekiguchi-ryu, et cetera. After the collapse of the Japanese feudal system in 1868 the founders of the modern disciplines borrowed from the theory and the practice of classical disciplines as they had studied or practiced; the founding in 1895 of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai 大日本武徳会 in Kyoto, Japan. Was an important contribution to the development of modern Japanese swordsmanship. In 1932 DNBK approved and recognized the Japanese discipline, iaido. After this initiative the modern forms of swordsmanship is organised in several iaido organisations.
During the post-war occupation of Japan, the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai and its affiliates were disbanded by the Allies of World War II in the period 1945–1950. However, in 1950, the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai was reestablished and the practice of the Japanese martial disciplines began again; the Zen Nippon Iaido Renmei, All Japan Iaido Federation was founded in 1948 by Ikeda Hayato. In 1952, the Kokusai Budoin, International Martial Arts Federation was founded in Japan. IMAF is a Japanese organization promoting international Budō, has seven divisions representing the various Japanese martial arts, including iaido. In 1952, the All Japan Kendo Federation was founded. Upon formation of various organizations overseeing martial arts, a problem of commonality appeared. Since members of the organization were drawn from various backgrounds, had experience practicing different schools of iaido, ther
Etiquette is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group. The French word étiquette signifying a tag or label, was used in a modern sense in English around 1750. Etiquette is behaviour that assists survival and has changed and evolved over the years. In the 3rd millennium BC, Ptahhotep wrote The Maxims of Ptahhotep; the Maxims were conformist precepts extolling such civil virtues as truthfulness, self-control and kindness towards one's fellow beings. Learning by listening to everybody and knowing that human knowledge is never perfect are a leitmotif. Avoiding open conflict wherever possible should not be considered weakness. Stress is placed on the pursuit of justice, although it is conceded that it is a god's command that prevails in the end; some of the maxims refer to one's behaviour when in the presence of the great, how to choose the right master and how to serve him. Others teach the correct way to lead through kindness.
Greed is the base of all evil and should be guarded against, while generosity towards family and friends is deemed praiseworthy. Confucius was a Chinese teacher, editor and philosopher whose philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships and sincerity. Baldassare Castiglione, count of Casatico, was an Italian courtier, soldier and a prominent Renaissance author, most famous for his authorship of The Book of the Courtier; the work was an example of a courtesy book, dealing with questions of the etiquette and morality of the courtier, was influential in 16th century European court circles. Louis XIV "transformed a royal hunting lodge in Versailles, a village 25 miles southwest of the capital, into one of the largest palaces in the world moving his court and government there in 1682, it was against this awe-inspiring backdrop that Louis tamed the nobility and impressed foreign dignitaries, using entertainment, ceremony and a codified system of etiquette to assert his supremacy.”
During the Enlightenment era, a self-conscious process of the imposition of polite norms and behaviours became a symbol of being a genteel member of the upper class. Upwardly mobile middle class bourgeoisie tried to identify themselves with the elite through their adopted artistic preferences and their standards of behaviour, they became preoccupied with precise rules of etiquette, such as when to show emotion, the art of elegant dress and graceful conversation and how to act courteously with women. Influential in this new discourse was a series of essays on the nature of politeness in a commercial society, penned by the philosopher Lord Shaftesbury in the early 18th century. Shaftesbury defined politeness as the art of being pleasing in company:'Politeness' may be defined a dext'rous management of our words and actions, whereby we make other people have better opinion of us and themselves. Periodicals, such as The Spectator, founded as a daily publication by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele in 1711, gave regular advice to its readers on how to conform to the etiquette required of a polite gentleman.
Its stated goal was "to enliven morality with wit, to temper wit with morality... to bring philosophy out of the closets and libraries and colleges, to dwell in clubs and assemblies, at tea-tables and coffeehouses" It provided its readers with educated, topical talking points, advice in how to carry on conversations and social interactions in a polite manner. The allied notion of'civility' – referring to a desired social interaction which valued sober and reasoned debate on matters of interest – became an important quality for the'polite classes'. Established rules and procedures for proper behaviour as well as etiquette conventions, were outlined by gentlemen's clubs, such as Harrington's Rota Club. Periodicals, including The Tatler and The Spectator, infused politeness into English coffeehouse conversation, as their explicit purpose lay in the reformation of English manners and morals. Etiquette is the virtue of code of behaviour, it was Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield who first used the word'etiquette' in its modern meaning, in his Letters to His Son on the Art of Becoming a Man of the World and a Gentleman.
This work comprised over 400 letters written from 1737 or 1738 and continuing until his son's death in 1768, were instructive letters on various subjects. The letters were first published by his son's widow Eugenia Stanhope in 1774. Chesterfield endeavoured to decouple the issue of manners from conventional morality, arguing that mastery of etiquette was an important weapon for social advancement; the Letters were full of deduction. Chesterfield epitomised the restraint of polite 18th-century society, for instance, in 1748: I would heartily wish that you may be seen to smile, but never heard to laugh while you live. Frequent and loud laughter is the characteristic of folly and ill-manners. In my mind there is nothing so illiberal, so ill-bred, as audible laughter. I am neither of a melancholy nor a cynical disposition, am as willing and as apt to be pleased as anybody. By the Victorian era, etiquette had developed into an exceptionally complicated system of rules, governing everything from the proper method for writing letters and using cutlery to the minutely regulat
Shinto or kami-no-michi is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past. Shinto practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified religion, but rather to a collection of native beliefs and mythology. Shinto today is the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of "spirits", "essences" or "gods", suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals, applies as well to various sectarian organizations. Practitioners express their diverse beliefs through a standard language and practice, adopting a similar style in dress and ritual, dating from around the time of the Nara and Heian periods; the word Shinto was adopted as Jindō or Shindō, from the written Chinese Shendao, combining two kanji: shin, meaning "spirit" or kami.
The oldest recorded usage of the word Shindo is from the second half of the 6th century. Kami is rendered in English as "spirits", "essences", or "gods", refers to the energy generating the phenomena. Since the Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, kami refers to the singular divinity, or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms: rocks, rivers, objects and people can be said to possess the nature of kami. Kami and people are not separate; as much as nearly 80% of the population in Japan participates in Shinto practices or rituals, but only a small percentage of these identify themselves as "Shintoists" in surveys. This is. Most of the Japanese attend Shinto shrines and beseech kami without belonging to an institutional Shinto religion. There are no formal rituals to become a practitioner of "folk Shinto". Thus, "Shinto membership" is estimated counting only those who do join organised Shinto sects. Shinto has about 85,000 priests in the country. According to surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008, less than 40% of the population of Japan identifies with an organised religion: around 35% are Buddhists, 3% to 4% are members of Shinto sects and derived religions.
In 2008, 26% of the participants reported visiting Shinto shrines, while only 16.2% expressed belief in the existence of a god or gods in general. According to Inoue: "In modern scholarship, the term is used with reference to kami worship and related theologies and practices. In these contexts,'Shinto' takes on the meaning of'Japan's traditional religion', as opposed to foreign religions such as Christianity, Islam and so forth." Shinto religious expressions have been distinguished by scholars into a series of categories: Shrine Shinto, the main tradition of Shinto, has always been a part of Japan's history. It consists of taking part in worship events at local shrines. Before the Meiji Restoration, shrines were disorganized institutions attached to Buddhist temples; the current successor to the imperial organization system, the Association of Shinto Shrines, oversees about 80,000 shrines nationwide. Imperial Household Shinto are the religious rites performed by the imperial family at the three shrines on the imperial grounds, including the Ancestral Spirits Sanctuary and the Sanctuary of the Kami.
Folk Shinto includes the numerous folk beliefs in spirits. Practices include divination, spirit possession, shamanic healing; some of their practices come from Buddhism, Taoism or Confucianism, but most come from ancient local traditions. Sect Shinto is a legal designation created in the 1890s to separate government-owned shrines from local organised religious communities; these communities originated in the Edo period. The basic difference between Shrine Shinto and Sect Shinto is that sects are a development and grew self-consciously, they can identify a founder, a formal set of teachings and sacred scriptures. Sect Shinto groups are thirteen, classified under five headings: pure Shinto sects, Confucian sects,mountain worship sects, purification sects, faith-healing sects (Kurozumikyo／黒住教, Konkokyo/金光教 and its branching Omotokyo/大本教 and Tenrikyo／天理教. Koshintō, literally'Old Shinto', is a reconstructed "Shinto from before the time of Buddhism", today based on Ainu religion and Ryukyuan practices.
It continues the restoration movement begun by Hirata Atsutane. Many other sects and schools can be distinguished. Faction Shinto is a grouping of Japanese new religions developed since the second half of the 20th century that have departed from traditional Shinto and are not always regarded as part of it. Kami, shin, or, jin is defined in English as "god", "spirit", or "spiritual essence", all these terms meaning "the energy generating a thing". Since the Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, kami refers to the divinity, or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms. Rocks, rivers, objects, places