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Hakka Chinese

Hakka is a language group of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, in overseas Chinese communities around the world. Due to its primary usage in scattered isolated regions where communication is limited to the local area, Hakka has developed numerous varieties or dialects, spoken in different provinces, such as Guangdong, Hainan, Sichuan, Hunan and Guizhou, as well as in Hong Kong, Singapore and Indonesia. Hakka is not mutually intelligible with Yue, Wu, Southern Min, Mandarin or other branches of Chinese, itself contains a few mutually unintelligible varieties, it is most related to Gan and is sometimes classified as a variety of Gan, with a few northern Hakka varieties being mutually intelligible with southern Gan. There is a possibility that the similarities are just a result of shared areal features. Taiwan is a center for the preservation of the language. Pronunciation differences exist between the Taiwanese Hakka dialects and Mainland China's Hakka dialects.

The Meixian dialect of northeast Guangdong in China has been taken as the "standard" dialect by the People's Republic of China. The Guangdong Provincial Education Department created an official romanization of Moiyen in 1960, one of four languages receiving this status in Guangdong; the name of the Hakka people who are the predominant original native speakers of the variety means "guest families" or "guest people": Hak 客 means "guest", ka 家 means "family". Among themselves, Hakka people variously called their language Hak-ka-fa 客家話, Hak-fa 客話, Tu-gong-dung-fa 土廣東話 "Native Guangdong language", Ngai-fa 話, "My/our language". In Tonggu county, Jiangxi province, people call their language Huai-yuan-fa 怀远話, it is believed that Hakka people have their origins in several episodes of migration from northern China into southern China during periods of war and civil unrest dating back as far as the end of Western Jin. The forebears of the Hakka came from present-day Central Plains provinces of Henan and Shaanxi, brought with them features of Chinese varieties spoken in those areas during that time..

The presence of many archaic features occur in modern Hakka, including final consonants -p -t -k, as are found in other modern southern Chinese varieties, but which have been lost in Mandarin. Laurent Sagart considers Hakka and southern Gan Chinese to be sister dialects that descended from a single common ancestral language spoken in central Jiangxi during the Song Dynasty. In Hakka and southern Gan, Sagart identifies a non-Chinese substratum, Hmong-Mien, an archaic layer, a more recent Late Middle Chinese layer. Lexical connections between Hakka, Kra-Dai, Hmong-Mien have been suggested by Deng. Due to the migration of its speakers, Hakka may have been influenced by other language areas through which the Hakka-speaking forebears migrated. For instance, common vocabulary is found in Hakka and the She languages. Today, most She people in Fujian and Zhejiang speak Shehua, related to Hakka. A regular pattern of sound change can be detected in Hakka, as in most Chinese varieties, of the derivation of phonemes from earlier forms of Chinese.

Some examples: Characters such as 武 or 屋, are pronounced mwio and uk in Early Middle Chinese, have an initial v phoneme in Hakka, being vu and vuk in Hakka respectively. Like in Mandarin, labiodentalisation process changed mj- to a w-like sound in Hakka before grave vowels, while Cantonese retained the original distinction. Middle Chinese initial phonemes /ɲ/ of the characters 人 and 日, among others, merged with ng- /ŋ/ initials in Hakka. For comparison, in Mandarin, /ɲ/ became r-, while in Cantonese, it merged with initial /j/; the initial consonant phoneme exhibited by the character 話 is pronounced f or v in Hakka. The initial consonant of 學 hɔk corresponds with an h approximant in Hakka and a voiceless alveo-palatal fricative in Mandarin. Hakka has as many regional dialects; some of these Hakka dialects are not mutually intelligible with each other. Meixian is surrounded by the counties of Pingyuan, Jiaoling, Xingning and Fengshun; each county has its own special phonological points of interest.

For instance, Xingning lacks the codas and. These have merged into and, respectively. Further away from Meixian, the Hong Kong dialect lacks the medial, so, whereas Meixian pronounces the character 光 as, Hong Kong Hakka dialect pronounces it as, similar to the Hakka spoken in neighbouring Shenzhen; as much as endings and vowels are important, the tones vary across the dialects of Hakka. The majority of Hakka dialects have six tones. However, there are dialects which have lost all of their checked tone, the characters of this tone class are distributed across the non-Ru tones; such a dialect is Changting, situated in the Western Fujian province. More

Dark Peak

The Dark Peak is the higher and wilder part of the Peak District in England forming the northern Peak District but extends south into its eastern and western margins. It is in Derbyshire and parts of Staffordshire, Greater Manchester, West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire, it gets its name because, the underlying limestone is covered by a cap of Millstone Grit sandstones with softer shale underneath, meaning that in winter the soil is always saturated with water. The land is thus uninhabited moorland plateaux where any depression is filled with sphagnum bogs and black peat; the High Peak is an alternative name for the Dark Peak, but High Peak is the name of an administrative district of Derbyshire which includes part of the White Peak. The areas of Millstone Grit form an'inverted horseshoe' around the lower uncapped limestone areas of the White Peak, enclosing it to the west and east. Hence the Dark Peak is said to cover the higher, northern moors between the Hope Valley and South Pennines, the Western Moors stretching south to near the Churnet Valley, the Eastern Moors southwards towards Matlock.

The Dark Peak is one of 159 National Character Areas defined by Natural England. An area of 31,852 hectares is designated as the Dark Peak Site of Special Scientific Interest, which excludes the separately designated Eastern Moors; the SSSI extends over the borders into West Yorkshire. A large part of the SSSI is included in the South Pennine Moors Special Area of Conservation. Principal upland areas within the Dark Peak include Kinder Scout, Black Hill, the Roaches, Shining Tor, Mam Tor, Win Hill and Stanage Edge. Over the years, a number of military aircraft have crashed on the Dark Peak due to a combination of numerous nearby air bases, inexperienced pilots, primitive or faulty equipment and poor visibility; because of the bleakness and emptiness of the high moorlands and the consequent difficulties of recovery, substantial wreckage remains at some sites in remote parts of the moorland, though militarily sensitive materials were removed and salvage teams sometimes gathered debris into piles, or burned or buried it.

There have been reports of ghost planes in the area of a low-flying, propeller-driven plane in difficulty before crashing into the moors. People who recovered items from the crash site were then visited by ghosts. Photos and descriptions of Dark Peak landscapes. Dark Peak Aircraft Wrecks

Intersil 6100

The Intersil 6100 family consists of a 12-bit microprocessor and a range of peripheral support and memory ICs developed by Intersil in the mid-1970s. The microprocessor implements the PDP-8 instruction set; as such it was sometimes referred to as the CMOS-PDP8. Since it was produced by Harris Corporation, it was known as the Harris HM-6100; the Intersil 6100 was introduced in the second quarter of 1975, the Harris version in 1976. The 6100 family was produced using CMOS rather than the bipolar and NMOS technologies used by most of its contemporaries; as a result of its CMOS technology and low clock speeds, it had low power consumption and could be operated from a single supply over the wide range of 4–11 V. Thus, it could be used in high reliability embedded systems without the need for any significant thermal management, if the rest of the system was CMOS; the 6100 was available to military specification and since it was dual sourced by Intersil and Harris, it was used in some military products as a low power alternative to the 8080, 6800 etc.

Although it had a simple instruction set and architecture, it was eminently suitable for use in embedded systems that had used discrete logic circuits and Ledex motorised rotary switches or relay based logic controllers. In the 1980s there were still military systems in service that were using electro-mechanical relay logic controllers such as "Ledexes"; when the equipment was being replaced in the 1980s, the 6100 was sometimes used. The 6100 family was used in a number of commercial products, including the DECmate line, DEC's first attempt to produce a personal computer. Intersil sold the integrated circuits commercially through 1982 as the IM6100 family, it was not priced competitively, the offering failed. The IBM PCs in 1981 cemented the doom of the "CMOS-8s". Although this family of ICs had less logic than many competitors, could have had smaller silicon and therefore undersold competitors, it used CMOS a larger technology, failed; the 6100 is a 12-bit CPU that emulates the PDP-8. It has three primary registers: PC, 12-bit AC, MQ.

All two-operand instructions read the AC and MQ and write back to the AC. There is no stack pointer. Conditionals in the 6100 allow only the next instruction to be skipped. Branches are constructed with a following jump. There is only one maskable interrupt; when the interrupt is tripped, the CPU stores the current PC in 0000, starts executing from 0001. The interrupt can be enabled using the IOF and ION instructions; the 6100 has a 12-bit data/address bus, limiting RAM to only 4K words. Memory references are 7-bit, offset either from the PC page base address. Memory could be expanded using the optional 6102 support chip, which added three address lines and thus expanded memory to 32K words in the same way that the PDP-8/E expanded the PDP-8; the 6102 has two internal registers, IFR and DFR, that offset the 4K page when the CPU accesses memory. Intersil offered a variety of related chips to support 6100 systems; the IM6100 CPU implements a straight-8. The IM6101 PIE is a basic PDP-8 I/O port; the IM6102 MEDIC converts an IM6100 into something resembling a PDP-8/E's CPU.

The IM6103 PIO, the IM6402 or IM6403 UART are basic PDP-8 I/O devices on ICs. Intersil offered compatible sizes of RAM and ROM: the IM6551 and IM6561 SRAM, the IM6512 SRAM, the IM6312 mask programmable PROM. A selection of these components were offered as the Intersil 6801 CMOS Family Sampler Kit with the 6960 – Sampler PC Board, a single-board system including the IM6100 CPU, IM6101 PIE, the IM6312 ODT Monitor ROM, three 256×4 CMOS RAMs and a UART IM6403; the basic 6100 was upgraded to the 6120, with the 6102 memory controller built-in. "Intersil 6100 microprocessor architecture", CPU World Intersil, "IM6100 CMOS Family Sampler"