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Hakodate

Hakodate is a city and port located in Oshima Subprefecture, Japan. It is the capital city of Oshima Subprefecture; as of July 31, 2011, the city has an estimated population of 279,851 with 143,221 households, a population density of 412.83 persons per km2. The total area is 677.77 km2. The city is now the third biggest in Hokkaido after Asahikawa. Hakodate was Japan's first city whose port was opened to foreign trade in 1854, as a result of Convention of Kanagawa, used to be the most important port in northern Japan; the city had been the biggest city in Hokkaido before the Great Hakodate Fire of 1934. Hakodate was populated by the Ainu, they lived in the Oshima Peninsula. The name "Hakodate" might originate from an Ainu word. Another possibility is that it means "box" or "building" in Japanese which refers to the castle built by the Kono clan in the fifteenth century. Hakodate was founded in 1454, when Kono Kaganokami Masamichi constructed a large manor house in the Ainu fishing village of Usukeshi.

After his death, Masamichi's son, Kono Suemichi, family were driven out of Hakodate into nearby Kameda during the Ainu rebellion in 1512 and little history was recorded for the area during the next 100 years. There was constant low-level conflict in the Oshima peninsula at the time with the Ainu, as armed merchants like the Kono family, established bases to control trade in the region; this conflict culminated in an uprising from 1669 to 1672, led by Ainu warrior Shakushain after which the Ainu in the region were suppressed. Hakodate flourished during the Hoei period, many new temples were founded in the area; the town's fortunes received a further boost in 1741 when the Matsumae clan, granted nearby areas on the Oshima Peninsula as a march fief, moved its Kameda magistracy to Masamichi's house in Hakodate. In 1779, the Tokugawa shogunate took direct control over Hakodate, which triggered rapid development in the area. Merchant Takadaya Kahei, honoured as the founder of Hakodate port, set up trading operations, which included opening the northern Etorofu sea route to the Kuril island fisheries.

He is credited with turning Hakodate from a trading outpost into a thriving city. A Hakodate magistracy was established in 1802. By 1807, the power of the Tokugawa government extended to the entire region. However, in 1821, the central government relaxed their control of the area and restored the Matsumae clan to the full powers they had before; the port of Hakodate was surveyed by a fleet of five U. S. ships in 1854 under the conditions of the Convention of Kanagawa, as negotiated by Commodore Matthew Perry. Hakodate port opened to foreign ships for provisioning in the following year and completely to foreign trade on 2 June 1859 as one of five Japanese open ports designated in the 1858 Treaty of Amity and Commerce signed with the U. S. A mariner in Perry's fleet died during a visit to the area and became the first U. S. citizen to be buried in Japan. British merchant and spy, Thomas Blakiston, took up residence in Hakodate in the summer of 1861 to establish a saw milling business and in doing so acquainted the city with western culture.

He stayed in Hakodate until 1884, during which time he documented the local natural environment, equipped the local meteorological station and ran guns to the Boshin War rebels. As one of few points of Japanese contact with the outside world, Hakodate was soon host to several overseas consulates; the Russian consulate included a chapel from where Nicholas of Japan is credited with introducing Eastern Orthodox Christianity to Japan in 1861. The Orthodox church is neighbored by several other historical missionary churches, including Anglican and Catholic. Hakodate played a central role in the Boshin War between the Tokugawa shogunate and the Meiji Emperor which followed Perry's opening of Japan. Shogunate rebel Enomoto Takeaki fled to Hakodate with the remnants of his navy and his handful of French advisers in winter 1868, including Jules Brunet, they formally established the Republic of Ezo on December 25. The republic tried unsuccessfully to gather international recognition to foreign legations in Hakodate, including the Americans and Russians.

The Naval Battle of Hakodate was fought from 4 to 10 May 1869, between the remnants of the Tokugawa shogunate navy and the newly formed Imperial Japanese Navy. It was a decisive victory for the Imperial Japanese Navy. On 14 June 1868, Hakodate was designated as an urban prefecture, one of the first two, the other being Kyoto. On February 8, 1882 it was enlarged into Hakodate-ken, became part of Hokkaido on January 26, 1886; the rebels occupied Hakodate's famous European-style Goryōkaku fort and used it as the centre of their defences in southern Hokkaido. Government forces defeated the secessionists in the Battle of Hakodate in 1869 and the city and fort were surrendered to emperor. Military leader, Hijikata Toshizō, was one of those slain in the fighting. In 1878, Isabella Bird reported of the city in her travelogue: The streets are wide and clean, but the houses are mean and low; the city looks. The houses are nothing but tinder… Stones, are its prominent feature. Looking down upon it from above you see miles of grey boulders, realise that every roof in the windy capital is "hodden doun" by a weight of paving stones.

Hakodate was awarded city status on August 1, 1922. In 1934, a serious fire destroyed around two-thirds of all buildings in Hakodate; this event led to many residents leaving

Japan at the 1964 Winter Olympics

Japan competed at the 1964 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, Austria. MenMen's slalom Men MenMen's 4 × 10 km relay MenWomen Winners qualified for the Group A to play for 1st-8th places. Teams, which lost their qualification matches, played in Group B for 9th-16th places. Japan 4-3 Norway Japan 6-4 Romania Austria 5-5 Japan Yugoslavia 6-4 Japan Japan 4-3 Poland Japan 6-2 Hungary Italy 8-6 Japan Events: normal hill ski jumping 15 km cross-country skiing Athletes performed three jumps, the best two were counted and are shown here. MenWomen Official Olympic Reports Japan Olympic Committee database Olympic Winter Games 1964, full results by sports-reference.com

Edwin C. Horrell

Edwin C. "Babe" Horrell was coach. He played college football at the University of California, where he was an All-American in 1924 at center. Horrell served as the head football coach at the University of California, Los Angeles from 1939 to 1944, compiling a record of 24–31–6. In 1942, he led the UCLA Bruins to the Pacific Coast Conference title and an appearance in the Rose Bowl. Horrell was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a player in 1969. Horrell played as center for the California Golden Bears from 1922 to 1924. During those three seasons, the team went 26–0–3 under head coach Andy Smith. From 1926 to 1938, Horrell was an assistant coach for the UCLA Bruins, he served as the head coach from 1939 to 1944, compiling a 24–31–6 record. His 1942 UCLA Bruins team lost to Georgia in the 1943 Rose Bowl, he was the first coach to lead a UCLA team to defeat the rival USC Trojans in what became the UCLA–USC rivalry. Edwin C. Horrell at the College Football Hall of Fame Edwin C. Horrell at Find a Grave

Excelsior Hotel Ernst

The Excelsior Hotel Ernst with a view of Cologne Cathedral, the Dom, was built in 1863. Carl Ernst was the constructor and first owner of the hotel, called "Hotel Ernst". Eight years in 1871, Carl Ernst sold the hotel to Friedrich Kracht. Four years after buying the hotel, Kracht died and his wife and son, Carl Kracht, had to manage the Innenstadt hotel. Meanwhile, the hotel had become part of Cologne's better society, in 1884, Carl Kracht was appointed Prince of the Cologne Carnival - a big honor in Cologne. From early times, the hotel had famous guests, such as German Emperor William I and American artist Andy Warhol. In 1889, Carl Kracht married Emma Pauline Baur of the Swiss Hoteliers family Baur, who owned both the famous Hotel Baur au Lac and the Savoy Baur en Ville. Carl Kracht and his family lived in Zurich and he managed the Hotel Baur au Lac. After his wedding, he appointed a general manager to take care of the Hotel Ernst's operations. From 1908 to 1910 the Hotel Ernst was rebuilt and re-opened as Grand-Hotel Excelsior Hotel Ernst with at the time unparalleled comfort: 100 rooms out of 250 had a private bathroom.

In 1918, after World War I, the British Army moved into the hotel and used it as their headquarters during the occupation of the Rhineland. On 31 December 1926 Excelsior Hotel Ernst celebrated its second re-opening after the British army left. During World War II, a part of the hotel was damaged and the owner family was concerned to rebuild it as soon as the war was over. So, another re-opening took place after the end of World War II. In 1986 a new wing was constructed, the "Neubau", with 29 rooms and suites. All renovations were done under the supervision of the interior designer Count Siegwart Pilati. In addition to French cuisine restaurant Hanse Stube, a second restaurant was opened in 2001: the taku, offers Asian cuisine in a contemporary atmosphere. In 2007, 45 rooms were turned into 35 more spacious rooms in the "Hanse Flügel". Excelsior Hotel Ernst is member of The Leading Hotels of the World and family Kracht-Roulet is still owner of the hotel. Since November 2012 Henning Matthiesen is the general manager of the hotel.

Dom-Hotel, Cologne North Rhine-Westphalia portal website The Leading Hotels Of The World Selektion Deutscher Luxushotels

British University Gaelic football Championship

The British Universities Gaelic football Championship is an annual Gaelic football tournament held for universities in Great Britain. It is organised by the BUGAA, a branch of the Higher Education GAA committee which oversees Gaelic Games in Universities; the competition is overseen by British Universities and Colleges Sport. In GAA in Ireland trophies have tended to be named after Irish patriots or long-serving officials or heroic players, whereas the Irish diaspora at British Universities have perpetuated the names of young students who died soon after helping to establish Gaelic Games in British Universities; the Gaelic Football Championship Trophy, The Kevin Fallon Trophy, commemorates a Crewe & Alsager student who helped to organise the original competition in 1991. See the British University Hurling Championship; the first attempt to start a British colleges Gaelic football tournament was in 1989, but it lapsed the following year and was revived in 1991 by the University of Crewe and Alsager who hosted and won a five-team tournament.

In 1992 Newcastle and Sunderland Universities hosted a ten-team event on converted rugby pitches, St. Mary's, Strawberry Hill took the first of its titles; the British Universities' Gaelic football Championship—as it became—started back in the 1992/93 academic session. Twelve teams congregated on Páirc na hÉireann, Catherine-de-Barns Lane, Birmingham, with Swansea recording Wales' first and only club championship success thus far; the competition had found its true'home', both in terms of geography and facilities, there it has remained since. The number of participants had risen to sixteen by 1994, but in 1995 an uncharacteristically heavy snowfall rendered the Páirc na hÉireann pitches unplayable, the competition had to be cancelled. Although cancelled, eight of the 16 teams had travelled to Birmingham and a hastily arranged tournament was played at a pitch in Erdington, with Luton University defeating Newcastle University in a keenly fought final; the experience led to a championship review, arising out of which it was decided to divide Britain into four regions.

Thus from 1996 the regions held their own qualification schemes, each sending two qualifying teams to the finals weekend. The quota was raised to three teams per region in 1997. In 1999 Joe McDonagh became the first GAA President to attend the British Universities' championships, his lead has been followed by his successor, Seán McCague in 2001 and 2002. In 2011 the University of Glasgow fronted by Mickey Hicks and Rory McKeever won the Division 3 Championship. In Division B, The final was won by Bangor University, they were in jerseys of pink. Division A was won by a Liverpool John Moore's who took their 7th title in the British University GAA's 20-year history back to Merseyside. In 2012 Liverpool Hope University avenged previous final defeats by claiming their first title, beating their city rivals John Moores in a scoreline of 1–8 to 0–9 after extra time, With Hope's Paraic McGuirk being named MVP for the championships; the winners of the Championship use to qualify to play in the Trench Cup—which is the Division 2 Championship for universities in Ireland—at the semi-final stage.

Now teams qualify to play in the Corn Na Mac Lenin, the Division 3 Championship in Ireland. In 2004 St. Mary's Strawberry Hill, London won the Trench Cup competition. In 2007 Liverpool John Moores University qualified for the final of Trench Cup by beating University of Ulster Coleraine 1–9 to 0–9. In 2018, Liverpool Hope University won the Corn na Mac Leinn by beating University of Ulster, Magee 2–14 to 1–8. § Incorporated in Manchester Metropolitan University in 1992 * Only eight of the sixteen teams competed due to heavy snowfall in Birmingham Roll of Honour 9 – Liverpool John Moores University 8 – St. Mary's University, Twickenham 4 – Liverpool Hope University 1 – Robert Gordon University, Swansea University, University of Abertay, University of Dundee, Luton University, Edinburgh Napier University, Manchester Metropolitan University * University of Central Lancashire The prize for the third division of BU Gaelic football is the plate; the following are the winners and finalists of this tournament: BU GAA Website Aston Gaels GAA

Russian Armenia

Russian Armenia is the period of Armenian history under Russian rule from 1828, when Eastern Armenia became part of the Russian Empire following Qajar Iran's loss in the Russo-Persian War and the subsequent ceding of its territories that included Eastern Armenia per the out coming Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828. Eastern Armenia remained part of the Russian Empire until its collapse in 1917. For hundreds of years, the inhabitants of Eastern Armenia lived under the rule of successive Iranian empires. Starting from the early 16th century, up to 1828, Eastern Armenia was ruled by the Iranian Safavid and Qajar dynasties. Subsequent wars between the Ottoman and Safavid empires led to the destruction of many of the Armenian towns, made Armenian life difficult. Added to this, the Christian Armenians were dhimmi subjects under Muslim rulers, whether Ottomans or Persians. In 1678, the Armenian leadership secretly conducted a congress in Echmiadzin, decided that Armenia had to be liberated from foreign domination.

At this stage, the Armenians were unable to fight against two empires at once, so they searched for help from abroad. Israel Ori, an Armenian native of Karabagh, son of an Armenian melik or prince, searched for help in many of the European capitals. Israel Ori died without seeing the Armenian Dream realized. In 1722, the Tsar of Russia, Peter the Great, declared war against the Safavid Iranians, who were at that time in heavy decline. Georgians and Karabagh's Armenians helped the Russians by rebelling against Safavid rule. David Bek commanded the rebellion for six years. A turning-point came in 1801 when the Russians annexed the Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, giving them a foothold in Transcaucasia. Over the next three decades, Russia sought to further expand its territory in the Caucasus at the expense of Ottoman Turkey and Qajar Iran; the Russian campaigns found enthusiastic support amongst the Armenians, led by the Bishop of Tbilisi, Nerses Ashtaraketsi, who took part in the fighting in person.

The Russo-Persian War of 1804 to 1813 saw the Russians conquer a bit of territory in eastern Armenia only to renounce most of it at the Treaty of Gulistan. In 1826, in violation of the Gulistan treaty, the Russians occupied parts of Iran's Erivan Khanate; this sparked the final bout of hostilities between the two. In the subsequent war that raged, the Qajarid Iranians suffered an bigger disaster, as Russia occupied as far as Tabriz in mainland Iran. At the end of the war, in 1828, with the Treaty of Turkmenchay, Iran was forced to cede its territories comprising the Erivan khanate, the Nakhichevan Khanate, as well as the remainder of the Republic of Azerbaijan that had not been ceded forcefully in 1813. By this time, in 1828, the century-long Iranian rule over Eastern Armenia had thus come to an end; until the mid-fourteenth century, Armenians had constituted a majority in Eastern Armenia. At the close of the fourteenth century, after Timur's campaigns, Islam had become the dominant faith, Armenians became a minority in Eastern Armenia.

Some 80% of the population of Iranian Armenia were Muslims whereas Christian Armenians constituted a minority of about 20%. As a result of the Treaty of Gulistan and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, Iran was forced to cede Iranian Armenia, to the Russians. After the Russian administration took hold of Iranian Armenia, the ethnic make-up shifted, thus for the first time in more than four centuries, ethnic Armenians started to form a majority once again in one part of historic Armenia; the new Russian administration encouraged the settling of ethnic Armenians from Iran proper and Ottoman Turkey. As a result, by 1832, the number of ethnic Armenians had matched that of the Muslims. Anyhow, it would be only after the Crimean War and the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, which brought another influx of Turkish Armenians, that ethnic Armenians once again established a solid majority in Eastern Armenia; the city of Erivan remained having a Muslim majority up to the twentieth century. According to the traveller H. F. B.

Lynch, the city was about 50 % Muslim in the early 1890s. Armenian patriots such as Bishop Nerses had hoped for an autonomous Armenia within the Russian Empire, but they were to be disappointed by the new government. Tsar Nicholas and his governor in Transcaucasia, Ivan Paskevich, had other plans, they wanted the Russian Empire to be a centralised state and when Nerses complained he was soon sent to Bessarabia, far away from the Caucasus region. In 1836 a regulation, the Polozhenie was enacted by the Russian government that reduced the political powers of the Armenian religious leadership, including that of the Catholicos, while preserving the autonomy of the Armenian Church. After 1836, in accordance with the new regulation, the Catholicos of Echmiadzin was to be elected in congresses in Echmiadzin, in which religious and non-religious dignitaries would participate; the Tsar would have a last word in the choice of the Catholicos. Armenians profited from the fact that the Catholicosate retained the authority to open schools.

Notable ones are Moscow's Lazarian Tiflis' Nersessian schools. Moreover, the Catholicosate opened printing houses and encouraged the publication of Armenian newspapers. A significant number of Armenians were living in the Russian Empire before the 1820s. After the destruction of the last remaining independent Armenian states in the Middle Ages, the nobility disintegrated, leaving Armenian society composed of a mass of peasants plus a middle clas