SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Enkyū

Enkyū was a Japanese era name after Jiryaku and before Jōhō. This period spanned the years from April 1069 through August 1074; the reigning emperors were Go-Sanjō-tennō and Shirakawa-tennō. 1069: The new era name was created to mark an event or series of events. The previous era ended and the new one commenced in Jiryaku 5, on the 13th day of the 4th month of 1069. 1069: The consort of the newly elevated emperor was raised to the status of chūgū. 1072: In the 6th year of Emperor Go-Sanjō-tennō's reign, the emperor in favor of his son, the succession was received by his son. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Shirakawa is said to have acceded to the throne. 1073: Go-Sanjō entered the Buddhist priesthood. 1073: The former-Emperor Go-Sanjō died at the age of 40. Sources Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Nihon Odai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland.

OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231049405.

Mead acid

Mead acid is an omega-9 fatty acid, first characterized by James F. Mead; as with some other omega-9 polyunsaturated fatty acids, animals can make Mead acid de novo. Its elevated presence in the blood is an indication of essential fatty acid deficiency. Mead acid is found in large quantities in cartilage. Mead acid referred to as eicosatrienoic acid, is chemically a carboxylic acid with a 20-carbon chain and three methylene-interrupted cis double bonds, as is typical for polyunsaturated fatty acids; the first double bond is located at the ninth carbon from the omega end. In physiological literature, it is given the name 20:3. In the presence of lipoxygenase, cytochrome p450 or cyclooxygenase Mead acid can form various hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and hydroperoxy products. Two fatty acids, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, are considered essential fatty acids in humans and other mammals. Both are 18 carbon fatty acids unlike mead acid. Linoleic is an ω-6 fatty acid whereas linolenic is ω-3 and mead is ω-9.

One study examined patients with suspected EFA deficiency. Under severe conditions of essential fatty acid deprivation, mammals will elongate and desaturate oleic acid to make mead acid; this has been documented to a lesser extent in vegetarians and semi-vegetarians following an unbalanced diet. Mead acid has been found to decrease osteoblastic activity; this may be important in treating conditions. Cyclooxygenases are enzymes known to play a large role in inflammatory processes through oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, most notably, the formation of prostaglandin H2 from arachidonic acid. AA has the same chain length as Mead acid but an additional ω-6 double bond; when physiological levels of arachidonic acid are low, other unsaturated fatty acids including mead and linoleic acid are oxidized by COX. Cyclooxygenase breaks the bisallylic C-H bond of AA to synthesize prostaglandin H2, but breaks a stronger allylic C-H bond when it encounters Mead acid instead. Mead acid is converted to leukotrienes C3 and D3.

Mead acid is metabolized by 5-lipoxygenase to 5-hydroxyeicosatrieonic acid and by 5-Hydroxyeicosanoid dehydrogenase to 5-oxoeicosatrienoic acid. 5-Oxo-ETrE is as potent as its arachidonic acid-derived analog, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, in stimulating human blood eosinophils and neutrophils. Polyunsaturated fatty acid – lists of ω-3, −6 and −9 fatty acids. Eicosanoid Prostaglandin