1920 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1920 was the 34th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1920. In the first election held after the end of World War I and the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, Republican Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio defeated Democratic Governor James M. Cox of Ohio. Incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson hoped for a third term, but party leaders were unwilling to re-nominate the unpopular incumbent. Former President Theodore Roosevelt had been the front-runner for the Republican nomination, but he died in 1919 without leaving an obvious heir to his progressive legacy. With both Wilson and Roosevelt out of the running, the major parties turned to little-known dark horse candidates from the state of Ohio, a swing state with a large number of electoral votes. Cox won the 1920 Democratic National Convention on the 44th ballot, defeating William Gibbs McAdoo, A. Mitchell Palmer, several other candidates. Harding emerged as a compromise candidate between the conservative and progressive wings of the party, he clinched his nomination on the tenth ballot of the 1920 Republican National Convention.
The election was dominated by the American social and political environment in the aftermath of World War I, marked by a hostile response to certain aspects of Wilson's foreign policy and a massive reaction against the reformist zeal of the Progressive Era. The wartime economic boom had collapsed and the country was deep in a recession. Wilson's advocacy for America's entry into the League of Nations in the face of a return to non-interventionist opinion challenged his effectiveness as president and overseas, there were wars and revolutions. At home, the year 1919 was marked by major strikes in the meatpacking and steel industries and large-scale race riots in Chicago and other cities. Anarchist attacks on Wall Street produced fears of terrorists; the Irish Catholic and German communities were outraged at Wilson's perceived favoritism of their traditional enemy Great Britain, his political position was critically weakened after he suffered a stroke in 1919 that left him disabled. Harding ignored Cox in the race and campaigned against Wilson by calling for a "return to normalcy".
Harding won a landslide victory, sweeping every state outside of the South and becoming the first Republican since the end of Reconstruction to win a former state of the Confederacy. Harding's victory margin of 26.2% in the popular vote remains the largest popular-vote percentage margin in presidential elections since the unopposed re-election of James Monroe in 1820, though other candidates have since exceeded his share of the popular vote. Cox won just 34.1% of the popular vote, Socialist Eugene V. Debs won 3.4% of the vote. As the election was the first in which women had the right to vote in all 48 states, the total popular vote increased from 18.5 million in 1916 to 26.8 million in 1920. Harding would die in 1923 and be succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge, while the Democratic vice presidential nominee, Franklin D. Roosevelt, would win the 1932 presidential election. Republican candidates: On June 8, the Republican National Convention met in Chicago; the race was wide open, soon the convention deadlocked between Major General Leonard Wood and Governor Frank Orren Lowden of Illinois.
Other names placed in nomination included Senators Warren G. Harding from Ohio, Hiram Johnson from California, Miles Poindexter from Washington, Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts, philanthropist Herbert Hoover, Columbia University President Nicholas M. Butler. Senator Robert M. La Follette from Wisconsin was not formally placed in nomination, but received the votes of his state delegation nonetheless. Harding was nominated for president on the tenth ballot, after some delegates shifted their allegiances; the results of the ten ballots were as follows: Harding's nomination, said to have been secured in negotiations among party bosses in a "smoke-filled room," was engineered by Harry M. Daugherty, Harding's political manager, who became United States Attorney General after his election. Prior to the convention, Daugherty was quoted as saying, "I don't expect Senator Harding to be nominated on the first, second, or third ballots, but I think we can afford to take chances that about 11 minutes after two, Friday morning of the convention, when 15 or 12 weary men are sitting around a table, someone will say:'Who will we nominate?'
At that decisive time, the friends of Harding will suggest him and we can well afford to abide by the result." Daugherty's prediction described what occurred, but historians Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris argue that Daugherty's prediction has been given too much weight in narratives of the convention. Once the presidential nomination was settled, the party bosses and Sen. Harding recommended Wisconsin Sen. Irvine Lenroot to the delegates for the second spot, but the delegates revolted and nominated Coolidge, popular over his handling of the Boston Police Strike from the year before; the Tally: Source for convention coverage: Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris, Convention Decisions and Voting Records, pp. 200–208. Democratic candidates: It was accepted prior to the election that President Woodrow Wilson would not run for a third term, would not be nominated if he did make an attempt to regain the nomination. While Vice-President Thomas R. Marshall had long held a desire to succeed Wilson, his indecisive handling of the situation around Wilson's illness and incapacity destroyed any credibility he had as a candidate, in the end he did not formally put himself forward for the nomination.
Although William Gibbs McAdoo (Wi
James B. Cranfill
James Britton Cranfill known as The Reverend J. B. Cranfill, was an American religious figure and prohibitionist, nominated for Vice President of the United States by the Prohibition Party in 1892, with the ticket garnering over 270,000 votes 2% of the total vote. Cranfill was born in Whitt in Parker County, Texas, on 12 September 1858, the son of Eaton Cranfill and Martha Cranfill. In 1892, the Prohibition National Convention was held in Cincinnati on 30 June, the delegates nominated General John Bidwell of California for President and Cranfill for Vice President. In the election, the ticket gained some 270,813 votes, a small increase from the party's vote of 249,945 in 1888. Cranfill died in Dallas, Texas, on 28 December 1942, at age 84
Neal Dow was an American Prohibition advocate and politician. Nicknamed the "Napoleon of Temperance" and the "Father of Prohibition", Dow was born to a Quaker family in Portland, Maine. From a young age, he believed alcohol to be the cause of many of society's problems and sought to ban it through legislation. In 1850, Dow was elected president of the Maine Temperance Union, the next year he was elected mayor of Portland. Soon after due to Dow's efforts, the state legislature banned the sale and production of alcohol in what became known as the Maine law. Serving twice as mayor of Portland, Dow enforced the law with vigor and called for harsh penalties for violators. In 1855, his opponents rioted and he ordered the state militia to fire on the crowd. One man was killed and several wounded, when public reaction to the violence turned against Dow, he chose not to seek reelection. Dow was elected to two terms in the Maine House of Representatives, but retired after a financial scandal, he joined the Union Army shortly after the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861 attaining the rank of brigadier general.
He was wounded at the siege of Port Hudson and captured. After being exchanged for another officer in 1864, Dow resigned from the military and devoted himself once more to prohibition, he spoke across the United States and Great Britain in support of the cause. In 1880, Dow headed the Prohibition Party ticket for President of the United States. After losing the election, he continued to write and speak on behalf of the prohibition movement for the rest of his life until his death in Portland at the age of 93. Dow was born in Portland, Maine on March 20, 1804, the son of Josiah Dow and his wife, Dorcas Allen Dow. Josiah Dow was a member of the Society of Friends and a farmer from New Hampshire. Dorcas Allen was a Quaker, a member of a prosperous Maine family headed by her prominent grandfather, Hate-Evil Hall, they had three children. After his marriage, Dow's father opened a tannery in Portland, which soon became a successful business. After attending a Friends school in New Bedford and further schooling at Edward Payson's Portland Academy, Dow followed his father into the tanning trade in 1826.
He embraced technology, becoming one of the first in the city to incorporate steam power in the tanning process. Dow struggled to conform to the tenets of his parents' Quaker faith; as he became wealthy in life, he enjoyed wearing fine clothes, contrary to the Quakers' preference for plain dress. Some of his family's other virtues, such as thrift and abstinence from alcohol and tobacco, he adopted early in life; when he turned eighteen, Dow sought to avoid the required militia musters, more out of distaste for the drunkenness that they involved than out of Quaker belief in pacifism. Instead, he joined the volunteer fire department. In 1827, Dow lobbied the Maine legislature to reform the fire companies to increase their efficiency; that same year, he argued against his fire company serving alcohol at its anniversary celebration. At times Dow let his politics interfere with his duties; the next year, Dow met his future wife, Maria Cornelia Maynard, the daughter of a Massachusetts merchant. They married on January 20, 1830.
Over the next twenty years, they had nine children. Maria Cornelia was a Congregationalist, Dow attended services with her at Second Parish Church although he never became a member, their home, built at 714 Congress Street in Portland in 1829, still stands and is now a museum memorializing Dow's life and administered by the local chapter of the Women's Christian Temperance Union. In the 19th century, a typical American male consumed on average more than three times the alcohol of his modern-day counterpart. In his memoirs, Dow noted that in Portland a significant portion of a working man's pay was in the form of daily rum rations: "it was... the rule to quit work at eleven in the forenoon and four in the afternoon to drink... In every grocer's shop were casks... rum punch prepared in a tub, sometimes on the sidewalk, just as lemonade is to be seen now on the Fourth of July." He saw alcohol as responsible for the downfall of individuals and fortunes pointing out ramshackle homes or businesses to his family and saying "Rum did that."
His quest to reform people by reforming their environment grew out of the religious movements of the Second Great Awakening and, as historian Judith N. McArthur wrote, "temperance reformers urged their listeners to cast Demon Rum out of their lives just as evangelical ministers exhorted them to cast the Devil out of their hearts."Many of Portland's middle- and upper-class citizens, including Dow, believed drunkenness was a great threat to the city's moral and financial well-being. In 1827, he became a founding member of the Maine Temperance Society; the group focused its efforts on the evils of distilled beverages, but by 1829, Dow declared he would abstain from all alcoholic beverages. At the same time, he associated himself with anti-Masonic and anti-slavery causes, became more involved with politics generally. In the 1832 presidential election, unsatisfied with both Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay, Dow backed William Wirt, a minor-party candidate. In 1837, the Maine Temperance Society split over whether they should seek to ban wine as well as spirits
Clinton B. Fisk
Clinton Bowen Fisk, for whom Fisk University is named, was a senior officer during Reconstruction in the Bureau of Refugees and Abandoned Lands. He endowed Fisk University with $30,000. In addition, he helped establish the first free public schools in the South for European-American and African-American children. Fisk was born in Livingston County, New York, the son of Benjamin and Lydia Fisk; as part of the 19th-century westward migration, his family soon moved to Michigan. He studied in the preliminary course at Albion Seminary before becoming one of the five students to matriculate on the opening day of Michigan Central College in 1844. Fisk became a merchant and banker in Coldwater, he suffered financial disaster in the Panic of 1857. He moved to Missouri where he started working in the insurance business. An abolitionist, Fisk was appointed colonel of the 33rd Missouri Volunteer Infantry of the Union Army on September 5, 1862, he organized a brigade and was commissioned brigadier general November 24, 1862.
He served most of the American Civil War in Missouri and Arkansas, commanding first the District of Southeast Missouri and the Department of North Missouri. The primary duty of these commands was opposing raids into Missouri by Confederate States of America cavalry and guerrillas. After the Civil War, Fisk was appointed assistant commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau for Kentucky and Tennessee, he worked through the Bureau of Refugees and Abandoned Lands and the American Missionary Association to establish the first free schools in the Southern United States for both African-American and European-American children. He made the abandoned barracks in Nashville, Tennessee available to the American Missionary Association for the creation of the Fisk School, endowed it with a total of $30,000. After authorizing legislation expired for the Freedmen's Bureau, Fisk returned to his native New York, he became successful in banking. In 1874 President Ulysses S. Grant appointed him to the Board of Indian Commissioners.
Fisk was a leader in the temperance movement and became the presidential candidate for the Prohibition Party in the 1888 election. He came in third with 249,506 votes; the election was won by Benjamin Harrison of the Republican Party. Fisk was surpassed by the incumbent President of the United States Grover Cleveland of the Democratic Party. But, Fisk did receive one of the highest results of any Prohibition Party candidate in history; the Party has run candidates in every presidential election since 1872. Fisk died in New York City on July 9, 1890, was buried in Coldwater, Michigan. Fisk University was named after him. In 2001 he was the first to be inducted into the new Hillsdale County, Michigan Veterans' Hall of Fame, for his distinguished service in the American Civil War. Prohibition Park, a planned community on Staten Island, New York, named one of its major streets Clinton B. Fisk Avenue in his honor; the name remains. List of American Civil War generals Alphonso A. Hopkins, The Life of Clinton Bowen Fisk Reavis L. Mitchell Jr. Fisk University Since 1866: Thy Loyal Children Make Their Way.
Clinton B. Fisk Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture
1916 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1916 was the 33rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1916. Incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson defeated Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, the Republican candidate. Wilson was the only sitting Democratic president to win re-election between 1832 and 1936. Wilson was re-nominated without opposition at the 1916 Democratic National Convention; the 1916 Republican National Convention chose Hughes as a compromise between the conservative and progressive wings of the party. Hughes defeated John W. Weeks, Elihu Root, several other candidates on the third ballot of the convention, becoming the only Supreme Court Justice to serve as a major party's presidential nominee. While conservative and progressive Republicans had been divided in the 1912 election between the candidacies of then-incumbent President William Howard Taft and former President Theodore Roosevelt, they united around Hughes in his bid to oust Wilson.
The election took place during the time of the Mexican Revolution and World War I. Although neutral in the European conflict, public opinion in the United States leaned towards the Allied forces headed by Great Britain and France against the German Empire and Austria-Hungary, due in large measure to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army in Belgium and northern France and the militaristic character of the German and Austrian monarchies, but in spite of their sympathy with the Allied forces most American voters wanted to avoid involvement in the war and preferred to continue a policy of neutrality. Wilson's campaign used the popular slogans "He kept us out of war" and "America First" to appeal to those voters who wanted to avoid a war in Europe or with Mexico. Hughes criticized Wilson for not taking the "necessary preparations" to face a conflict, which only served to strengthen Wilson's image as an anti-war candidate; the United States would enter the war in April 1917, one month after Wilson's inauguration as president.
After a hard-fought contest, Wilson defeated Hughes by nearly 600,000 votes in the popular vote. The 1916 election saw an increase in Wilson's popular vote from the four-way election of 1912, but a major decline in the number of electoral votes won. Wilson secured a narrow majority in the Electoral College by sweeping the Solid South and winning several swing states with razor-thin margins. Wilson won California by just 3,773 votes. Allan L. Benson of the Socialist Party and Frank Hanly of the Prohibition Party each finished with greater than 1% of the popular vote. Republican candidates: Charles Evans Hughes, U. S. Supreme Court Justice and former Governor of New York John W. Weeks, U. S. senator from Massachusetts Elihu Root, former U. S. senator from New York Theodore E. Burton, former U. S. senator from Ohio Charles W. Fairbanks, former Vice President of the United States from Indiana Albert B. Cummins, U. S. senator from Iowa The 1916 Republican National Convention was held in Chicago between June 7 and 10.
A major goal of the party's bosses at the convention was to heal the bitter split within the party that had occurred in the 1912 presidential campaign. In that year, Theodore Roosevelt bolted the Republican Party and formed his own political party, the Progressive Party, which attracted most of the Republican liberals. William Howard Taft, the incumbent president, won the nomination of the regular Republican Party; this split in the Republican ranks divided the Republican vote and led to the election of Democrat Woodrow Wilson. Although several candidates were competing for the 1916 nomination—most prominently conservative Senator Elihu Root from New York and liberal Senator John W. Weeks from Massachusetts—the party's bosses wanted a moderate who would be acceptable to both factions of the party, they turned to Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, serving on the court since 1910 and had the advantage of not having publicly spoken about political issues in six years. Although he had not sought the nomination, Hughes made it known that he would not turn it down.
Former Vice President Charles W. Fairbanks was nominated as his running mate. Hughes was the only Supreme Court Justice. Democratic candidate: Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States The 1916 Democratic National Convention was held in St. Louis, Missouri between June 14 and 16. Given Wilson's enormous popularity within the party as well as being an incumbent President, he was overwhelmingly re-nominated. Vice President Thomas R. Marshall was re-nominated with no opposition. In the campaign Edward M. House declined any public role, but was Wilson's top campaign advisor. Hodgson says, "he planned its structure; the Progressives re-nominated former President Theodore Roosevelt and nominated John Parker of Louisiana as his running-mate. However, Roosevelt telegraphed the convention and declared that he could not accept their nomination and would be endorsing Republican nominee Charles Hughes for the Presidency. With Roosevelt refusing to be their candidate, the Progressive Party fell into disarray.
William Daniel (Maryland politician)
William Daniel was an American politician from the state of Maryland. A lawyer, he was abolitionist, he served in both houses of the Maryland state legislature, first as a Whig, as a member of the American Party. As a Republican, he was a member of the convention that wrote Maryland's constitution in 1864, he helped found the Maryland Temperance Alliance in 1872 and served as its president for twelve years. Daniel was the vice presidential nominee and running mate of John St. John on the Prohibition Party ticket in the presidential election of 1884. Placing third in the election that year, he continued his involvement with the cause of temperance until his death in 1897. Daniel was born on Deal Island in Somerset County, Maryland on January 24, 1826, the son of Travers Daniel and his wife, Mary Wallace Daniel. Travers Daniel arrived at Deal Island at the age of eighteen to teach school but soon turned to farming after marrying Mary Wallace. William Daniel and his siblings attended the local school.
He attended Dickinson College in Carlisle, graduating in 1848. While in college, he became a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. After finishing third in a class of twenty-eight, Daniel returned to Maryland to study law in the office of William S. Waters, a Somerset County lawyer who had served as Speaker of the Maryland House of Delegates. Daniel was admitted to the bar in 1851. Like the rest of his family, Daniels was a member of the Whig Party, soon became involved in local politics. While maintaining his law practice, he was elected to a two-year term in the Maryland House of Delegates in 1853. While there he introduced a bill based on the Maine law, which would have prohibited the sale and production of alcoholic beverages in the state, but it did not pass. By this time, the Whig Party was falling apart over sectional issues, but Daniel was reelected in 1855 as a member of the American Party; the Know Nothings' main political issue was nativism, but Daniels remained focused more on prohibition.
In 1857, he promoted a law permitting the local option, which would let individual counties in the state chose whether to enact prohibition of alcohol within their borders, but it did not pass. That year he was elected to a four-year term in the Maryland Senate, he resigned part-way in 1858, to practice law in Baltimore. Two years he married Ellen Young Guiteau, daughter of a Congregational minister. By 1864, Daniel had joined the Republican Party; that year, he was a delegate to the state's constitutional convention, which produced the Maryland Constitution of 1864. Despite growing up in a slaveholding area, Daniel was an abolitionist and joined with the majority at the convention in voting to outlaw slavery and disenfranchise those who had fought for the Confederacy in the Civil War. In 1866, Daniel argued in court that state laws enforcing racial distinctions were no longer valid after the passage of the recent federal Civil Rights Act; the court ruled in his favor, holding that the law could not treat black and white apprentices differently.
That year, Daniel ran unsuccessfully for a judgeship on the state equity court. After the war, Daniel continued in his private law practice while remaining active in the anti-alcohol cause, he was elected president of the Maryland Temperance Alliance when it was formed in 1872. He was re-elected to that position annually for the next twelve years. During that time, the local option law Daniel favored. Throughout his leadership of the Maryland Temperance Alliance, Daniel remained a member of the Republican Party, but in 1884 he left to join the small Prohibition Party. Like Daniel, most party members came from pietist churches, most were former Republicans. Elected as the head of the Maryland branch of the party, he attended the 1884 Prohibition Party National Convention in Pittsburgh. After being selected as temporary chairman of the convention, the delegates chose Daniel to be nominated for vice president alongside the presidential nominee, John St. John; the party platform was silent on most issues of the day, focusing instead on the alcohol problem.
In the election that year, the Prohibition ticket fell far short of victory, as expected, but placed third with 1.5 percent of the vote—a marked improvement over the 0.1 percent the 1880 Prohibition candidates had received. Further, their vote total in New York—just over 25,000—was more than enough to throw the election in that state from James G. Blaine, the Republican, to Grover Cleveland, the Democrat; because pro-temperance voters voted Republican, many historians credit St. John and Daniel with costing Blaine the election. After the campaign, Daniel continued his temperance activism, remaining head of the state party until 1888, he organized the Prohibition Camp Meeting association in 1889, which purchased land in Glyndon, Maryland for their meetings. He kept up his law practice, training many law students in his office, including Orlando Franklin Bump, who serve as Daniel's law partner for several years, he served as a trustee of Dickinson College, his alma mater, in other charitable and religious activities, including the Young Men's Christian Association.
On October 13, 1897, he died of heart failure at his home in Mount Washington, survived by his wife and their adopted son, Clarence Adreon. He was buried at Green Mount Cemetery in Baltimore
1876 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1876 was the 23rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1876. It was one of the most contentious and controversial presidential elections in American history, is known for being the catalyst for the end of Reconstruction. Republican nominee Rutherford B. Hayes faced Democrat Samuel J. Tilden. After a controversial post-election process, Hayes was declared the winner. After President Ulysses S. Grant declined to seek a third term despite being expected to do so, Congressman James G. Blaine emerged as the front-runner for the Republican nomination. However, Blaine was unable to win a majority at the 1876 Republican National Convention, which settled on Governor Hayes of Ohio as a compromise candidate; the 1876 Democratic National Convention nominated Governor Tilden of New York on the second ballot. The results of the election remain among the most disputed although it is not disputed that Tilden outpolled Hayes in the popular vote.
After a first count of votes, Tilden won 184 electoral votes to Hayes' 165, with 20 votes from four states unresolved. In Florida and South Carolina, each party reported its candidate had won the state, while in Oregon one elector was replaced after being declared illegal for being an "elected or appointed official"; the question of who should have been awarded these electoral votes is the source of the continued controversy. An informal deal was struck to resolve the dispute: the Compromise of 1877, which awarded all 20 electoral votes to Hayes. In return for the Democrats' acquiescence to Hayes' election, the Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South, ending Reconstruction; the Compromise ceded power in the Southern states to the Democratic Redeemers, who proceeded to disenfranchise black voters thereafter. The 1876 election is the second of five presidential elections in which the person who won the most popular votes did not win the election, the only such election in which the popular vote winner received a majority of the popular vote.
To date, it remains the election that recorded the smallest electoral vote victory and the election that yielded the highest voter turnout of the eligible voting age population in American history, at 81.8%. Despite not becoming president, Tilden was the first Democratic presidential nominee since James Buchanan in 1856 to win the popular vote and the first since Franklin Pierce in 1852 to do so in an outright majority, it was assumed during the year 1875 that incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant would run for a third term as president in spite of the poor economic conditions, the numerous political scandals that had developed since he assumed office in 1869, a long-standing tradition set by the first president, George Washington, not to stay in office longer than two terms. Grant's inner circle advised him to go for a third term and he did, but the House, by a sweeping 233 to 18 vote, passed a resolution declaring that the two-term tradition was to prevent a dictatorship. Late in the year, President Grant ruled himself out of running in 1876.
When the Sixth Republican National Convention assembled in Cincinnati, Ohio, on June 14, 1876, it appeared that James G. Blaine would be the nominee. On the first ballot, Blaine was just 100 votes short of a majority, his vote began to slide after the second ballot, however, as many Republicans feared that Blaine could not win the general election. Anti-Blaine delegates could not agree on a candidate until Blaine's total rose to 41% on the sixth ballot. Leaders of the reform Republicans met and considered alternatives, they chose Ohio's reform governor, Rutherford B. Hayes. On the seventh ballot, Hayes was nominated with 384 votes to 351 for Blaine and 21 for Benjamin Bristow. William A. Wheeler was nominated for vice-president by a much larger margin over his chief rival, Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen, who served as a member of the electoral commission that awarded the election to Hayes. Democratic candidates: Samuel J. Tilden, governor of New York Thomas A. Hendricks, governor of Indiana Winfield Scott Hancock, United States Army major general from Pennsylvania William Allen, former governor of Ohio Thomas F. Bayard, U.
S. senator from Delaware Joel Parker, former governor of New Jersey The 12th Democratic National Convention assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, in June 1876, the first political convention held by one of the major American parties west of the Mississippi River. Five thousand people jammed the auditorium in St. Louis with hopes for the Democratic Party's first presidential victory in 20 years; the platform called for immediate and sweeping reforms in response to the scandals that had plagued the Grant administration. Tilden won more than 400 votes on the nomination by a landslide on the second. Tilden defeated Thomas A. Hendricks, Winfield Scott Hancock, William Allen, Thomas F. Bayard, Joel Parker for the presidential nomination. Tilden overcame strong opposition from "Honest John" Kelly, the leader of New York's Tammany Hall, to obtain the nomination. Thomas Hendricks was nominated for vice-president, since he was the only person put forward for the position; the Democratic platform pledged to replace the corruption of the Grant administration with honest, efficient government and to end "the rapacity of carpetbag tyrannies" in the South.
It called for treaty protection for naturalized United States citizens visiting their homelands, restrictions on Asian immigration, tariff reform, opposition to land grants for railroads. It has been claimed that the voting Democrats received Tilden's nomination w