The Quinpool District refers to a commercial district of Halifax, Nova Scotia, encompassing the eastern portion of Quinpool Road as well as the streets directly north and south of it. Prominent landmarks on Quinpool Road include the Atlantica Hotel, the Oxford Theatre, an eclectic variety of local businesses, including many popular Chinese and Greek restaurants. Quinpool Road runs from the Armdale Rotary through Connaught Avenue, terminating at what is known as the Willow Tree, on Robie Street - an unusual five-way intersection named for the prominent tree that once grew in the median; the street is commercialised from Connaught Ave to the Willow Tree and comprises a popular shopping and dining centre for the local community. It is part of the Nova Scotia provincial road system, meaning that the Province of Nova Scotia pays the Halifax Regional Municipality in part for snow clearing and maintenance. While the street is an important commercial district in Halifax, it forms a major boundary between the city's working class North End and wealthier South End, both physically and socially.
Quinpool is the heart of the city's middle class West End neighbourhood. The area was home to two longtime rival high schools, Queen Elizabeth High School and St. Patrick's High School until their merger as Citadel High School in September 2007. St. Patrick's High School has since been renamed the Quinpool Education Centre, hosting a number of educational programs and social services; the city plans to dispose of it. The name Quinpool dates from at least 1808 and is believed to come from an Irish widow named Quinn who lived by a stretch of water in the Northwest Arm known as'Quinn's Pool'. Deadman's Island Park Oxford Theatre Ben's Bakery Quinpool Centre Saint Patrick's High School Atlantica Hotel Queen Elizabeth High School Life – a 1968 sculpture on Quinpool Road Official website
Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English journalist, short-story writer and novelist. He was born in India. Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King", his poems include "Mandalay", "Gunga Din", "The Gods of the Copybook Headings", "The White Man's Burden", "If—". He is regarded as a major innovator in the art of the short story. Kipling was one of the most popular writers in the United Kingdom, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Henry James said: "Kipling strikes me as the most complete man of genius, as distinct from fine intelligence, that I have known." In 1907, at the age of 41, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English-language writer to receive the prize and its youngest recipient to date. He was sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, both of which he declined. Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed according to the political and social climate of the age and the resulting contrasting views about him continued for much of the 20th century.
George Orwell saw Kipling as "a jingo imperialist", "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting". Literary critic Douglas Kerr wrote: " is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled, but as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with." Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, to Alice Kipling and John Lockwood Kipling. Alice was a vivacious woman, about whom Lord Dufferin would say, "Dullness and Mrs Kipling cannot exist in the same room." Lockwood Kipling, a sculptor and pottery designer, was the Principal and Professor of Architectural Sculpture at the newly founded Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in Bombay. John Lockwood and Alice had met in 1863 and courted at Rudyard Lake in Rudyard, England.
They married and moved to India in 1865. They had been so moved by the beauty of the Rudyard Lake area that when their first child was born they named him after it. Two of Alice's sisters married artists: Georgiana was married to the painter Edward Burne-Jones, her sister Agnes to Edward Poynter. Kipling's most famous relative was his first cousin, Stanley Baldwin, Conservative Prime Minister three times in the 1920s and'30s. Kipling's birth home on the campus of the J J School of Art in Bombay was for many years used as the Dean's residence. Although the cottage bears a plaque noting it as the site where Kipling was born, the original cottage may have been torn down decades ago and a new one built in its place; some historians and conservationists are of the view that the bungalow marks a site, close to the home of Kipling's birth, as the bungalow was built in 1882—about 15 years after Kipling was born. Kipling seems to have said as much to the Dean. Kipling wrote of Bombay: According to Bernice M. Murphy, "Kipling's parents considered themselves'Anglo-Indians' and so too would their son, though he spent the bulk of his life elsewhere.
Complex issues of identity and national allegiance would become prominent in his fiction."Kipling referred to such conflicts, for example: "In the afternoon heats before we took our sleep, she or Meeta would tell us stories and Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, we were sent into the dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution'Speak English now to Papa and Mamma.' So one spoke'English', haltingly translated out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed in". Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness" in Bombay ended; as was the custom in British India, he and his three-year-old sister Alice were taken to the United Kingdom—in their case to Southsea, Portsmouth—to live with a couple who boarded children of British nationals who were serving in India. For the next six years, the children lived with the couple, Captain Pryse Agar Holloway, once an officer in the merchant navy, Sarah Holloway, at their house, Lorne Lodge, at 4 Campbell Road, Southsea. In his autobiography, published 65 years Kipling recalled the stay with horror, wondered if the combination of cruelty and neglect which he experienced there at the hands of Mrs Holloway might not have hastened the onset of his literary life: "If you cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day's doings he will contradict himself satisfactorily.
If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture—religious as well as scientific, yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary effort". Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge; the two Kipling children, did have relatives in England who
Lieutenant General Edward Cornwallis was a British military officer, a member of the aristocratic Cornwallis family. Cornwallis fought in Scotland, putting down the Jacobite rebellion of 1745 and was given the task of establishing Halifax, Nova Scotia as the Governor of Nova Scotia. Cornwallis returned to London, where he was elected as MP for Westminster and married the niece of Robert Walpole, Great Britain's first Prime Minister. Cornwallis was given the position of Governor of Gibraltar. Cornwallis' administration in Nova Scotia had several significant achievements. Cornwallis implemented the first constitution in present-day Canada, establishing both an Executive and Legislative Council, he oversaw the first British law courts in Canada. He established the first Jewish community, the first German community and the first protestant dissenting congregation in present-day Canada; as a result of these accomplishments, Cornwallis is remembered in the naming of rivers, streets and buildings in Nova Scotia.
Controversy has been created over commemorating Cornwallis' accomplishments in recent years. Local Mi’kmaq leaders objected to Governor Cornwallis' extirpation proclamation; as a result, a statue of Cornwallis in a downtown park in Halifax was removed, the HRM citing safety concerns and a desire to protect the statue from vandalism. The Halifax Regional School Board removed his name from a junior high school; the HRM has struck a committee to discuss. Cornwallis was the sixth son of Charles, 4th Baron Cornwallis, Lady Charlotte Butler, daughter of the Earl of Arran; the Cornwallis family possessed estates at Culford in the Channel Islands. His grandfather, Charles Cornwallis, 3rd Baron Cornwallis, was First Lord of the Admiralty, his nephews were Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, James Cornwallis, 4th Earl Cornwallis, William Cornwallis. Cornwallis and his twin brother, Frederick Cornwallis, were made royal pages at the age of 12, they were enrolled at Eton at age 14. Their brother, Stephen Cornwallis, rose to the rank of General in the Army.
It was unclear which brother would enter the church and which the military. The matter was decided when, Frederick fell and paralysed his arm. At age 18, Edward was commissioned into the 47th Regiment of Foot in 1731. Cornwallis participated in the Battle of Fontenoy during the War of the Austrian Succession, he fought under Colonel Craig, killed in action. Cornwallis organised a retreat. Cornwallis's regiment lost 385 men. While the retreat was respected by the military, the British public mocked Cornwallis and the other leaders. Cornwallis played an important role in suppressing the Jacobite rising of 1745, he fought for the victorious, government soldiers at the Battle of Culloden and led a regiment of 320 men north for the Pacification of the Scottish Highlands. The Duke of Cumberland ordered him to "plunder and destroy through all the west part of Invernesshire called Lochaber." Cumberland added: "You have positive orders to bring no more prisoners to the camp." Cumberland's campaign was described by one historian as one of unrestrained violence.
Cornwallis ordered his men to chase off destroy crops and food stores. Against Cornwallis' orders, there was an incident in which some of soldiers raped and murdered non-combatants to intimidate Jacobites from further rebellion. In 1747 Cornwallis was made a Groom of the Bedchamber serving in the households of both George II and George III until 1764; the British Government appointed Cornwallis as Governor of Nova Scotia with the task of establishing a new British settlement to counter France's Fortress Louisbourg. He sailed from England aboard HMS Sphinx of 14 May 1749, followed by a settlement expedition of 15 vessels and about 2500 settlers. Cornwallis arrived at Chebucto Harbour on 21 June 1749, followed by the rest of the fleet five days later. There was only one death during the passage due to careful preparations, good ventilation and good luck, a remarkable feat when transatlantic expeditions lost large numbers to disease. Cornwallis was faced with a difficult decision: where to site the town.
Settlement organizers in England had recommended Point Pleasant due to its close access to the ocean and ease of defence. His naval advisers opposed the Point Pleasant site due to its lack of shelter and shallows which would not allow ocean-going ships to dock, they wanted the town located at the head of a sheltered location with deep water. Others favoured Dartmouth. Cornwallis made the decision to land the settlers and build the town at the site of present-day Downtown Halifax halfway up the harbour with deep water, protected by a defensible hill. By 24 July, the plans of the town had been drawn up and on 20 August lots were drawn to award settlers their town plots in a settlement, to be named "Halifax" after Lord Halifax the President of the Board of Trade and Plantations who had drawn up the expedition plans for the British Government; when Cornwallis arrived in Halifax, there was a long history of the Mi'kmaq participating in raids on British settlements in present day Maine. During this time period, various British governors had issued proclamations against the Mi'kmaq for their parti
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands; the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government, based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover; the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, to become the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800; the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used in 1474; the use of the word "Great" before "Britain" originates in the French language, which uses Bretagne for both Britain and Brittany. French therefore distinguishes between the two by calling Britain la Grande Bretagne, a distinction, transferred into English; the Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", as such "Great Britain" was the official name of the state, as well as being used in titles such as "Parliament of Great Britain".
Both the Acts and the Treaty describe the country as "One Kingdom" and a "United Kingdom", which has led some much publications into the error of treating the "United Kingdom" as a name before it came into being in 1801. The websites of the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, others, including the Historical Association, refer to the state created on 1 May 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain; the term United Kingdom was sometimes used during the 18th century to describe the state, but was not its name. The kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a personal union in 1603, when James VI of Scotland became king of England under the name of James I; this Union of the Crowns under the House of Stuart meant that the whole of the island of Great Britain was now ruled by a single monarch, who by virtue of holding the English crown ruled over the Kingdom of Ireland. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws.
Various smaller islands were in the king's domain, including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This disposition changed when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800; the Union of 1707 provided for a Protestant-only succession to the throne in accordance with the English Act of Settlement of 1701. The Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a descendant of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and not be a Catholic. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland; as with the former Parliament of England and the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain was formally constituted of three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Crown.
The right of the English peerage to sit in the House of Lords remained unchanged, while the disproportionately large Scottish peerage was permitted to send only 16 representative peers, elected from amongst their number for the life of each parliament. The members of the former English House of Commons continued as members of the British House of Commons, but as a reflection of the relative tax bases of the two countries the number of Scottish representatives was reduced to 45. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a separate parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws and system of courts, As its own established Presbyterian Church, control over its own schools; the social structure was hierarchical, the same elite remain in control after 1707. Scotland continued to have its own excellent universities, with the strong intellectual community in Edinburgh, The Scottish Enlightenment had a major impact on British and European thinking.
As a result of Poynings' Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, after 1707 to the Parliament of Great Britain. The Westminster parliament's Declaratory Act 1719 (also called the Dependency of Ireland
North End, Halifax
The North End of Halifax is a subdivision of Halifax, Nova Scotia occupying the northern part of Halifax Peninsula north of Downtown Halifax. The area once included historic Africville, parts of it were damaged in the Halifax Explosion during World War I. More the area has undergone gentrification, now has many trendy shops and restaurants; the northern part of the Halifax Peninsula comprises thin soil resulting from glacial deposits, as well as outcroppings of a dark sedimentary shale known as ironstone. The entire peninsula has no significant surface water, unlike the areas northeast and southwest of Halifax Harbour. At 60 m in elevation, Citadel Hill is the highest point on the peninsula and when combined with the expansive undeveloped parkland of the North Common, creates a physical boundary that separates the various neighbourhoods. Fort Needham is another glacial drumlin located in the heart of the North End; the subdivision referred to as the "North End" by Halifax residents was bounded on the east by "The Narrows" of Halifax Harbour and on the north by Bedford Basin.
Its other boundaries as not as defined, but the western limit of the subdivision is agreed to be Windsor street. The southern boundary was, the northern limit of General Cornwallis's original Halifax settlement along the slope of Citadel Hill, continuing along the northern edge of the North Common to Quinpool Road; the northern boundary has migrated toward the Bedford Basin since Halifax's founding. The boundary ended at North Street, just as the South End ended at South Street. A Neighbourhood further to the north was Richmond, was located on the eastern slope of Fort Needham. Further north of Richmond, at the end of the Campbell Road, was the black community of Africville. By the end of the 19th century, the perception of the North End had come to include Richmond as well. Following its total destruction in the Halifax Explosion, Richmond never again regained its individual identity; the area underwent significant redevelopment during the inter-war period and became an extension of the original North End.
Africville held out as a separate community until the 1960s when it was demolished by city authorities and its residents were relocated, many to public housing projects such as Uniacke Square. With the removal of Africville, public perception of the northern boundary extended to the shores of the Bedford Basin. During the same time period, the perception of the southern boundary became less clear, with some contending the North End starts at North Street, that the original north suburb is in fact a part of central Halifax; the North End of Halifax began as an agricultural expansion north from central Halifax as German Foreign Protestant settlers arrived. It became the focus of industry in Halifax with the construction of the Nova Scotia Railway in the 1850s which located its terminal in the north end. Factories such as the Acadia Sugar Refinery, Hillis & Sons Foundry, the Nova Scotia Cotton Manufacturing Company followed making the North End the focus of manufacturing in Halifax. Railway growth intensified with the extension of railways further into the North End and construction in 1878 of the grand North Street Station, the largest station east of Montreal.
Wharves warehouses lined the waterfront, along with the city's prison at Rockhead and major defence installations such as HMC Dockyard and Stadacona. Much of this infrastructure, along with the neighbourhood of Richmond, was damaged or destroyed in a disastrous accident on 6 December 1917 referred to as the Halifax Explosion; the explosion's aftermath saw the area north of North Street razed and a new street grid was superimposed over the old street patterns. New residential construction saw the creation of the historic Hydrostone neighbourhood, built during the relief construction following the disaster. Today the memorial bells at Fort Needham, which were recovered from a church that didn't survive the event, may be heard in the carillon and monument to the disaster; the Memorial was designed by Nova Scotia architect Keith L. Graham; the Halifax Shipyard was built in 1918 beside the Naval Dockyard, further entrenching the industrial character of the North End. The Halifax North Memorial Public Library designed by Graham, was opened in 1966 in memory of the victims of the explosion.
Located on Göttingen Street, south of North Street, the library offers a welcoming environment as well as programs that reflect the diverse make-up of the community. Seaview Park on the Bedford Basin is the site of Africville, the former African-Canadian community, a safe haven for African slaves coming to Canada; the community was torn down in the 1960s preceding a proposed urban redevelopment of the region which would see new highways and the construction of the A. Murray MacKay Bridge, although the lands of the community were never used in a proposed port expansion. In the ensuing controversy it was designated as parkland; the Africville expropriation is characterized as an example of institutional racism in Halifax. The municipal government justified the destruction of Africville by citing the poor living conditions of the community, despite having refused to extend those services to the community; the razing of Africville allowed for industrial development in the area and for the progress of the city's traffic grid, with the construction of the'new' bridge.
The Africville residents and descendants were dispersed among some of the North End's public housing projects, as well as into other parts of Halifax and Dartmouth. Gottingen Str
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin
George Lang (builder)
George Lang was a stone sculptor and builder. He was born in Roxburghshire and died at Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia. In 1858 Lang moved to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he tendered on principal government and commercial contracts; these works made him one of the leading Halifax builders of the Victorian era. Trained in Scotland as a mason, George Lang is said to have worked on the Scott Monument in Edinburgh, erected between 1841 and 1846, to have emigrated to St John’s, Newfoundland, to work on the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist constructed between 1847 and 1850. In 1851 Lang and Stirling began operating the Albert Freestone Quarries in Albert County, New Brunswick, where Lang had been a manager until 1858, his first building was the Halifax County Court House, designed by William Thomas of Toronto and erected between 1858 and 1860. The building’s architectural exterior is classic with palladian style that represents stability and strength. Decorative features of the building include use of vermiculation and replete with carvings of the faces of snarling lions and stern, bearded men in each key stone of the original building’s central arches.
Lang’s second commission, a triumphal arch in St Paul’s Cemetery, commemorated British victory in the Crimean War and Halifax’s fallen sons Augustus Frederick Welsford and William B. C. A. Parker. A larger than life twelve ton lion stands atop the Roman triumphal arch. Lang sculpted the lion from Albert County, New Brunswick sandstone. Lang repeated the monument’s lion motif on several buildings. Lang built the present-day Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, a three and a half storey, Italianate style building located in the core of downtown Halifax, Nova Scotia. Designed by David Stirling, built in sandstone, the Art Gallery was built in 1868, modeled after the fifteenth and sixteenth century Italian palazzos built during the Renaissance period; the building is valued today as an excellent example of late nineteenth century Italianate style architecture. The height of the building reduces the buildings proportions, while the triplet composition of the vertical and horizontal divisions and the grouping of the round-arched windows give the building a simple rhythm.
For his remaining 15 years Lang operated a brick manufactory in Shubenacadie with Halifax carpenter James Thompson. Another Lang building, important Nova Scotia architectural landmark, is Convocation Hall at King's Edgehill School in Windsor, Nova Scotia; this Gothic Revival building has played an important part in the lives of students at King's Edgehill serving since its construction in 1867 in the purpose that it was designed for by David Stirling as the campus library. It remains the oldest extant purpose built library in Nova Scotia. An honorary member of the North British Society from 1858, Lang served as a volunteer in the Chebucto Greys from 1860 to 1865 and as vice-president of the Caledonia Curling Club in 1862; the Nova Scotia building stones he collected and displayed at the international exhibitions of 1862 and 1865 won him honorary mention at the latter. Rebuilding Granville Street after the destructive fire of September 1859. British Army at Fort Massey 1860–61, the intersection of the present day streets and South St. Luke's Church School House, Queen Street at Morris Street, in Halifax Hall and library of King's College, Windsor Halifax Club, designed by Stirling.
1862–63 Keith Hall for the brewer and politician, Alexander Keith A group of cottages in Bowery Street Quinlan House Texts Susan Buggey. Building in Mid-Nineteenth Century Halifax: The Case of George Lang. Urban History Review 9 no 2 5-20. "Halifax: Ten Buildings to See." An article in Trace: A Canadian Review of Architecture, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp 16–24. N.d.. Pp,-. George Lang – Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Harry Piers, "Artists in Nova Scotia," N. S. Hist. Soc. Coll. 18: 160. "The ‘Welsford–Parker’ monument in Halifax, Nova Scotia," Soc. for Army Hist. Research, Journal, 8: 129–31. Endnotes