Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime Provinces, one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres, including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands; as of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is Canada's second-most-densely populated province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre. "Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin and is the recognized English-language name for the province. In both French and Scottish Gaelic, the province is directly translated as "New Scotland". In general and Slavic languages use a direct translation of "New Scotland", while most other languages use direct transliterations of the Latin / English name; the province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to Sir William Alexander in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula.
Nova Scotia is Canada's smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island. The province's mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean. Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia mainland, is part of the province, as is Sable Island, a small island notorious for its shipwrecks 175 km from the province's southern coast. Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations; these formations are rich on the Bay of Fundy's shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundy's shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous-age fossils. Wasson's Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic- and Jurassic-age fossils; the province contains 5,400 lakes. Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental climate rather than maritime.
The winter and summer temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental—still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west; the Nova Scotian climate is in many ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe, only wetter and snowier. This is true in spite of Nova Scotia's being some fifteen parallels south. Areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, winter lows a little colder. Described on the provincial vehicle licence plate as Canada's Ocean Playground, Nova Scotia is surrounded by four major bodies of water: the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the north, the Bay of Fundy to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southwest, Atlantic Ocean to the east; the province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki. The Mi'kmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia.
The British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French. Present-day New Brunswick still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. After the capture of Port Royal in 1710, Francis Nicholson announced it would be renamed Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne. In 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population was forcibly removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians. In 1763, most of Acadia became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province's establishment in 1784, after the arrival of United Empire Loyalists. In 1867, Nova Scotia became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation; the warfare on Nova Scotian soil during the 17th and 18th centuries influenced the history of Nova Scotia. The Mi'kmaq had lived in Nova Scotia for centuries.
The French arrived in 1604, Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the next 150 years. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as the English and Scottish and French fought for possession of the area; these encounters happened at Port Royal, Saint John, Cap de Sable and Baleine. The Acadian Civil War took place from 1640 to 1645. Beginning with King William's War in 1688, six wars took place in Nova Scotia before the British defeated the French and made peace with the Mi'kmaq: King William's War, Queen Anne's War, Father Rale's War, King George's War, Father Le Loutre’s War The Seven Years' War called the French and Indian War The battles during these wars took place Port Royal, Saint John, Chignecto, Dartmouth and Grand-Pré. Despite the British conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained occupied
Halifax Transit is a Canadian public transport service operating buses and ferries in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Founded as Metro Transit in March 1982, Halifax Transit provides service in the urban service and adjacent area of the regional municipality utilizing 2 ferry routes, 57 conventional bus routes, two limited stop express routes, three limited stop rural express routes. Halifax Transit operates Accessabus, a door-to-door paratransit service for seniors and the disabled. In 2nd quarter 2017 conventional bus ridership was 3.99 million, ferry ridership 644,600, Accessabus ridership was 38,800. According to the 2011 census, Halifax has the 7th highest proportion of workers taking transit to work in a city in Canada. Halifax was among first cities in Canada to be served by an integrated public transportation system, pre-dated only by Toronto and Quebec City; the municipality's first transit service came with establishment of the Dartmouth ferry service, first chartered in 1752. In 1816 the sail powered ferry was replaced by a horse powered boat, in 1830 with a steam ferry.
While private omnibus services are known to have begun in the city at least as early as 1854, the roots of Halifax Transit date back to June 11, 1866. The Halifax City Railroad Company began operations with five horse-drawn trams on rails that stretched from the corner of Barrington Street and Inglis Street in the south end to the city’s first railway station near the corner of Duffus Street and Campbell Road in the north end. Notwithstanding a ten-year hiatus, horse-drawn street railway services continued in Halifax until April 1896 when the system, now operated by the Halifax Electric Tramway Company, completed the conversion to electric-powered operation; the street railway served Halifax until March 1949, when the war-worn trams were replaced by "trackless" electric trolley coaches. The bright yellow trolleys, operated by utility Nova Scotia Light and Power, plied city streets until 1963, when they were supplemented by diesel buses for the first time; the system became all-diesel on January 1, 1970, the same day the City of Halifax took over the operation.
Some of Halifax's T-44 trolleybuses were sold to the Toronto Transit Commission for parts for their Western Flyer E-700A. Metro Transit, a single transit agency serving all of the greater metropolitan area of Halifax-Dartmouth, began operations in March 1981; the system was created by the Metropolitan Authority, a common-services agency representing the former cities of Halifax and Dartmouth as well as suburban Halifax County, to consolidate the transit operations of the Halifax Transit Corporation in Halifax and Dartmouth Transit. Metro Transit expanded in 1994 with the absorption of the Dartmouth ferry services operated by the city of Dartmouth. Ownership of the transit service was transferred to the newly created Halifax Regional Municipality at amalgamation in 1996. Since that time the service has been operated directly by the municipal government and since October 2010 Transit has reported though the Transportation Standing Committee of Halifax Regional Council; the municipality announced on July 15, 2014 that it was changing the services name to Halifax Transit in reflection of the city's new brand.
In January 2014, Halifax regional council approved a study to look at a major re-design of the city's transit system. The "Moving Forward Together Plan" was adopted in principal by Halifax Regional Council in April 2016. Proposed amendments to the plan were defeated in November 2016, with the exception of a change to the route of the Porters Lake Metro X and a short reprieve to attempt to increase ridership to save the #15 bus to York Redoubt. A review will be undertaken involving an outside consultant in 12–18 months to evaluate the results and suggest possible route optimization. There are 322 conventional buses in the fleet, all of which are low wheelchair accessible. Halifax Transit operates 57 conventional transit routes within the Urban Transit Service Area, broadly similar to the metropolitan region of Halifax Regional Municipality, including the areas of Eastern Passage, North Preston/Cherry Brook and Herring Cove. Routes are numbered according to the type of service provided. Express routes established as Metro Link express bus service operates Monday to Friday.
The two express routes began service in August 2005. The system consists of two limited-stop accessible express routes, connecting downtown Halifax's Scotia Square bus terminal, with the Portland Hills terminal in Cole Harbour on the Dartmouth side, the Sackville Terminal in Lower Sackville. Regional Express Routes MetroX, is Halifax Transit's rural express bus service. There are three routes which started operating in August 2009 running between Halifax and Tantallon, the Airport, Porters Lake, respectively. All routes terminate at Scotia Square in downtown Halifax, are handicap accessible and have facilities to carry bicycles. Rural routes provide some suburban and rural communities access to the regular and express bus system operated by Halifax Transit. There are three rural routes provide service between Beaverbank. Halifax Transit provides two passenger ferry routes, one connecting downtown Halifax with Alderney Landing in Dartmouth, the other connecting with Woodside; each route is serviced by a pair of vessels.
The ferry services are integrated with the bus services. The harbour ferries board 1.4 million passengers each year Ea
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is the federal and national police force of Canada. The RCMP provides law enforcement at the federal level, it provides provincial policing in eight of Canada's provinces and local policing on contract basis in the three territories and more than 150 municipalities, 600 aboriginal communities, three international airports. The RCMP does not provide municipal policing in Ontario or Quebec; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police was formed in 1920 by the merger of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police, founded in 1873, the Dominion Police founded in 1868. The former was named the North West Mounted Police, was given the royal prefix by King Edward VII in 1904. Much of the present-day organization's symbolism has been inherited from its days as the NWMP and RNWMP, including the distinctive Red Serge uniform, paramilitary heritage, mythos as a frontier force; the RCMP-GRC wording is protected under the Trade-marks Act. Despite the name, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is no longer an actual mounted police force, with horses only being used at ceremonial events.
The predecessor NWMP and RNWMP had relied on horses for transport for most of their history, though the RNWMP was switching to automobiles at the time of the merger. As Canada's national police force, the RCMP is responsible for enforcing federal laws throughout Canada while general law and order including the enforcement of the criminal code and applicable provincial legislation is constitutionally the responsibility of the provinces and territories. Larger cities may form their own municipal police departments; the two most populous provinces and Quebec, maintain provincial forces: the Ontario Provincial Police and Sûreté du Québec. The other eight provinces contract policing responsibilities to the RCMP; the RCMP provides front-line policing in those provinces under the direction of the provincial governments. When Newfoundland joined the confederation in 1949, the RCMP entered the province and absorbed the Newfoundland Ranger Force, which patrolled most of Newfoundland's rural areas; the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary patrols urban areas of the province.
In the territories, the RCMP is the sole territorial police force. Many municipalities throughout Canada contract to the RCMP. Thus, the RCMP polices at the federal and municipal level. In several areas of Canada, it is the only police force; the RCMP is responsible for an unusually large breadth of duties. Under their federal mandate, the RCMP police including Ontario and Quebec. Federal operations include: enforcing federal laws including commercial crime, drug trafficking, border integrity, organized crime, other related matters. Under provincial and municipal contracts the RCMP provides front-line policing in all areas outside of Ontario and Quebec that do not have an established local police force. There are detachments located in small villages in the far north, remote First Nations reserves, rural towns, but larger cities such as Surrey, British Columbia. There, support units investigate for their own detachments, smaller municipal police forces. Investigations include major crimes, forensic identification, collision forensics, police dogs, emergency response teams, explosives disposal, undercover operations.
Under its National Police Services branch the RCMP supports all police forces in Canada via the Canadian Police Information Centre, Criminal Intelligence Service Canada, Forensic Science and Identification Services, Canadian Firearms Program, the Canadian Police College. The RCMP Security Service was a specialized political intelligence and counterintelligence branch with national security responsibilities, replaced by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service in 1984, following revelations of illegal covert operations relating to the Quebec separatist movement. CSIS is its own entity. Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald first began planning a permanent force to patrol the North-West Territories after the Dominion of Canada purchased the territory from the Hudson's Bay Company. Reports from army officers surveying the territory led to the recommendation that a mounted force of between 100 to 150 mounted riflemen could maintain law and order; the Prime Minister first announced the force as the "North West Mounted Rifles".
However, officials in the United States raised concerns that an armed force along the border was a prelude to a military buildup. Macdonald renamed the force the North-West Mounted Police when formed in 1873; the force added "royal" to its name in 1904. It merged with the Dominion Police, the main police force for all points east of Manitoba, in 1920 and was renamed the "Royal Canadian Mounted Police"; the new organization was charged with federal law enforcement in all the provinces and territories, established its modern role as protector of Canadian national security, as well as assuming responsibility for national counterintelligence. As part of its national security and intelligence functions, the
Halifax City Hall
Halifax City Hall is the home of municipal government in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Designed by architect Edward Elliot and constructed for the City of Halifax between 1887 and 1890, it is one of the oldest and largest public buildings in Nova Scotia; the property was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1997. Halifax City Hall was opened to Council and the public in 1890 replacing offices in the old court house on the Halifax waterfront. City Hall was chosen to become the seat of the newly created Halifax Regional Municipality in 1996 and is now home to Halifax Regional Council as well as various municipal offices; the building fronts Duke Street and is located at the north end of Grand Parade, an historic military parade square dating from the founding of Halifax in 1749. Dalhousie University was situated on the present-day site of the building during the nineteenth century. A compromise was engineered by Sir William Young to facilitate a new use for the site; the provincial government provided funding for the university to relocate its facilities and the City of Halifax granted the university a 5-acre parcel of land elsewhere in the city to permit the university to expand.
The university building was demolished to make way for the new structure and timbers from the old academic building were incorporated into the municipal building. Designed by Edward Elliot and constructed for the City of Halifax between 1887 and 1890. In 1981, it was listed as a Municipally Registered Property under Nova Scotia's Heritage Property Act. Designed in an eclectic, monumental style, the building is of cream and red sandstone, laid in the freestone technique, it features granite construction on the ground floor and in the tower. The seven-storey tower has clock faces on the south sides; the northern face, is fixed at four minutes past nine to commemorate the Halifax Explosion of 1917. City Hall had five primary entrances in 1890; the grand entrance off of Grand Parade was the main public entrance, bring visitors into the second floor. There were entrances off of Argyle Street to the second floor, as well as three entrances to the first floor. One door allowed access to the building from the dry moat between Grand Parade.
Two doors facing Duke Street provided access to the police station, located in the first floor until the late 1940s. The first floor contained the police court, policemen's rooms, office of Chief of Police, jail cells, it was from these jail cells that Harry Houdini escaped in 1896, just six years after City Hall opened. The main or second floor contained the auditor's office, the Board of Works, the City Clerk, the office of the Mayor, the Collector, the City Engineer, the Treasurer; the third floor was home to the Council Chamber and the Citizens Free Library, as well as the offices of the Inspector of Licenses, the Collector of Rents and Licenses, the Foreman of Streets, the Foreman of Water Works. The fourth floor held a caretaker's apartment, a space variously described as a ball room, a gallery, a museum, though the space may not have been completed when the building was opened. In 1907 stables were constructed under the north-east corner of the Grand Parade, at Barrington Street next to the dry moat.
This involved the installation of one regular size door and a larger door for horses and carts in the two northernmost granite arched bays, opening onto Barrington Street. After the Halifax Explosion, Deputy Mayor Colwell, five aldermen, twelve citizens, including Lieutenant-Governor MacCallum Grant and Justice Harris, assembled in the City Collector's Office, the only room still serviceable after the explosion. An emergency joint meeting of the Members of the City Council present and Citizens in attendance was chaired by the Lieutenant-Governor, would continue to meet there from December 1917 to late February 1918. On May 25, 1918 a riot broke out in downtown Halifax following the arrest of an unruly and drunken sailor. Besides a besieged City Hall, the damage included a couple of turned over cars, a police wagon and police motorcycle being thrown in the harbour; the Citizens' Free Library was moved from place to place in the city for many years until 1890 when it was given a permanent home on the second floor of the new City Hall.
The Library closed in 1949 reopening as a part of the new Halifax Memorial Library on Spring Garden Road at Grafton Street in 1950, though the collection moved in 2014 to Halifax Central Library. The space occupied by the library is now split between the office of the Mayor and the CAO; the Halifax Police moved into the Market Building on Brunswick Street in 1953 from its cramped quarters in City Hall. The police department remained on Brunswick Street until moving to their current location in the David R. McKinnon Building on Gottingen Street in the 1970s. A citizen committee was convened to lead a substantial renovation of the building in the 1980s. Halifax Hall, a large public meeting room, was created out of a number of offices in the east wing of the second floor. A damaging coating was applied to the sandstone in the 1990s. Repairs were completed in 2013. City Hall was chosen to become the seat of the newly created Halifax Regional Municipality in 1996 and became home to Halifax Regional Council as well as various municipal offices.
During the late 1990s, Halifax Regional Council attempted to have the building renamed from Halifax City Hall to Halifax Regional Hall, to reflect the fact that Nova Scotia no longer has any "cities"
The Shubenacadie Canal is a Canadian canal in central Nova Scotia, linking Halifax Harbour with the Bay of Fundy by way of the Shubenacadie River and Shubenacadie Grand Lake. Begun in 1826, it was not completed until 1861 and was closed in 1871. Small craft use the river and lakes, but only one lock is operational. Three of the nine locks have been restored to preserve their unique fusion of British and North American construction techniques. More extensive restoration is planned; the Shubenacadie Canal was surveyed by William Owen in 1767 which lead to the proposal of the canal 30 years later. The government of Nova Scotia commissioned Owen to follow the Shubenacadie waterway from the Atlantic Ocean to Cobequid Bay; the Shubenacadie Canal was envisioned to facilitate transportation between Halifax and the agricultural and coal producing areas of northern Nova Scotia and the Annapolis Valley. Construction was started in 1826 by the Shubenacadie Canal Co. which went bankrupt in 1831. Several Scottish and Irish stonemasons had immigrated to Nova Scotia to work on the project but were left stranded in the colony with few resources after the project had halted.
Construction started again in 1854 under the Inland Navigation Company. The new company altered the original British stonework lock designs to use more inexpensive North American stone and wooden construction. Steam boats and barges began to use the canal in 1856 and the entire system was completed by 1861; the canal enjoyed a few years of healthy traffic during the Waverley gold rushes of the 1860s. However the canal company showed little profit and experienced many problems relating to frigid winters which damaged the locks linking the freshwater lakes; the president of the Canal company was Michael Wallace. The canal's ongoing construction delays were responsible for the 1851 decision by Nova Scotia's colonial government to build the Nova Scotia Railway, which built lines from Halifax to Windsor and Truro by 1858. Railway construction created a short-term surge in canal traffic but a decision in 1870 by the Intercolonial Railway to replace the Waverley draw bridge over the canal with a fixed bridge blocked canal steamships and limited canal traffic, a conflict related to the frog wars which plagued rival railways crossings.
A final blow was a takeover by the Town of Dartmouth of the Dartmouth Lakes for the city's water supply which ended canal operations in 1871. The community of Maitland was part of the Douglas Township until it was named Maitland after Governor General of Nova Scotia Peregrine Maitland, when building the Shubenacadie Canal was first attempted; the canal was supposed to start at Maitland, Nova Scotia and run through the province to Maitland Street, the canal being "bookended" by two "Maitland" landmarks. The canal followed the course below, running north from Halifax Harbour at Dartmouth Cove: Dartmouth Cove in Dartmouth Dartmouth Inclined Plane Sullivan's Pond Lock One Lake Banook Lake Micmac Lock Two in Shubie Park Lock Three in Shubie Park Lake Charles Porto Bello Inclined Plane Lake William Lake Thomas Lock Four Fletchers Lake Lock Five Shubenacadie Grand Lake from Wellington Station to Frenchmans Road Lock Six to Nine on the Shubenacadie River from Frenchmans Road to Lantz Shubenacadie River from Lantz to Maitland Cobequid Bay at Port Maitland In recent decades, citizens of Dartmouth sought to restore portions of the canal's portage route between the lakes running from Halifax Harbour to Shubenacadie Grand Lake for pleasure boaters.
Highway construction, notably low bridges crossing the Lake Banook-Lake Micmac connection and Lake Thomas resulted in blocking the historic canal route to larger vessels, although canoes and small pleasure boats may still pass underneath. The Shubenacadie Canal Commission was established to stabilize the deterioration of the remaining locks and attempt to restore some of them to working order. An interpretive site for the canal is located in the Fairbanks Centre in Dartmouth's Shubie Park, along the shores of Lake Micmac. Located next to one of the restored operational locks, the Fairbanks Centre features a scale model of canal lock mechanisms; some areas along the Shubenacadie Canal are popular outdoor recreation areas for the Halifax Regional Municipality, including: Lake Banook's competitive paddling course Lake Banook's Birch Cove Beach Shubie Park's Dartmouth Multi-use Trail Laurie Provincial Park on the shore of Shubenacadie Grand Lake Oakfield Provincial Park on the shore of Shubenacadie Grand LakeThe Trans-Canada Trail is being planned to run alongside part of the canal.
Environmentalists and residents became concerned in 2005 when it was discovered that large amounts of silt were flowing off the Dartmouth Crossing mall project construction site and into the canal. After heavy hurricane-season rains, run-off from the construction overflowed containment ponds and began running into the canal, Lake Charles, Lake Micmac, Shubie Park’s Grassy Brook. Dartmouth Crossing is located on Highway 118 across from Shubie Park. Measures were taken to mitigate the silt construction continued on the mall project. Port Wallace, Nova Scotia, community named after the president of the Shubenacadie Canal Company Barbara Grantmyre.. The River that Missed the Boat Halifax: Petheric Press. ISBN 0-919380-17-4 Barnett, Donna. River of Dreams: The Saga of the Shubenacadie Canal. Nimbus Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-55109-407-X Chapman, H.. Men and Muscle - Building the Shu
Grand Parade (Halifax)
The Grand Parade is an historic military parade square dating from the founding of Halifax in 1749. At the north end of the Grand Parade is the Halifax City Hall, the seat of municipal government in Nova Scotia's Halifax Regional Municipality. At the south end is St. Paul's Church. In the middle of Grand Parade is the cenotaph built to commemorate the soldiers who served in World War I. Centrally located in Downtown Halifax, the square remains an important civic space used for numerous events including musical performances, political demonstrations, the annual New Year's Eve celebrations, Remembrance Day ceremonies, Christmas tree lighting; the first contingent of British settlers in Halifax arrived in June 1749 and completed 300 houses by October 1749. Lieutenant John Brewse, a military engineer, sited the town within a defensive perimeter while Charles Morris, appointed Chief Surveyor on 25 September 1749, worked on the town layout and conducted the actual surveying. Moses Harris, a settler skilled in draughting, published the town plan for Halifax in 1749.
It comprised an urban grid made up of oblong, rectangular city blocks with the Grand Parade at the centre of the town. The plan stipulated a church at one end of the square, a courthouse and prison at the northern end. However, the north end remained vacant. Shortly after arriving in Halifax, Governor Cornwallis ordered framing from Boston for the construction of a church; the cornerstone for the church was laid on 13 June 1750. It was named St. Paul's in 1759; the building was modeled off Marybone Chapel in London. In 1794 Prince Edward arrived in Halifax to command the military in New Brunswick, he set about improving the military facilities around the city, had the Grand Parade leveled to improve its usefulness. As Barrington Street slopes down toward the north of Grand Parade, a retaining wall was built here to keep the square level; the retaining wall is tall enough to accommodate inhabitable space underneath the square, with frontage on Barrington. This space accommodated ice houses for Mrs. Jane Donaldson, a Granville Street merchant.
The original building of Dalhousie College opened at the north end of the Grand Parade in 1821. It was a Georgian four storey building separated from the square by a dry moat to allow light to the lower floors; as the 19th century progressed the Grand Parade deteriorated. Dalhousie claimed to lack the funds to upkeep the space while the city claimed it could not take responsibility for the square without undisputed ownership of it. Meanwhile, city offices and council chambers were located at premises on Water Street described at the time as "a trifle porous", "disreputable looking", "a dirty hole". In 1872 the council asked E. H. Keating, the city engineer, to investigate ways to improve the Grand Parade. Keating suggested building a new city hall at the south end of the site. Public opinion preferred the Dalhousie site, at the north end of the square. In the end, Dalhousie agreed to relocated to the city's South End and a decision was made to build a "respectable building" on the site of the college.
At this time Mayor James MacIntosh suggested renaming the square after Queen Victoria as the name Grand Parade bore connotations to a "condition of decay". This was not pursued. An impressive new edifice was designed by Edward Elliot. Demolition of the old college began in 1886; the cornerstone of the new city hall was laid in 1888. Following the completion of the building, Keating redesigned the layout of the square to more suitably reflect its new civic role, he built a circular carriage drive that looped in front of City Hall. The retaining wall on Barrington was rebuilt at this time. Keating's plan specified a circular fountain, not built until 1905, it was removed to make way for the Cenotaph unveiled on July 1, 1929 by Sir Robert Borden. The Cenotaph, honouring Canada's war dead, was designed by Scottish sculptor J. Massey Rhind. In 1907 the retaining wall on Barrington Street was augmented to include a stable. There were plans to build public toilets south of the stable but these were not proceeded with.
This undercroft space became a police patrol station that operated until 1952. This space is walled off and unused. A new flagpole was installed in preparation for the city's bicentennial commemoration in 1949; the 128 feet long Douglas fir log was transported from British Columbia by the Canadian Pacific Railway to the Bay of Fundy, where it was put aboard a scow and sailed to Digby. It was floated to shore and loaded onto three CPR flatcars, arriving in Halifax on August 4, 1947; the new flagpole was erected by the Royal Canadian Engineers and unveiled in September 1947 by Mayor A. E. Ahern and railway officials. There was once a short street called St. Paul's Hill that ran directly in front of St. Paul's Church and connected Barrington and Argyle Streets, it was created at the behest of St. Paul's during the renovations to the square after Prince Edward's 1794 arrival; the civic address of the church was 1. The street was served by a bus in the 20th century, it was closed in the land incorporated into the Grand Parade.
The parade was improved in 1995 for the 21st G7 summit. Three functional areas were designated to accommodate different needs and uses: St. Paul's Plaza, the Civic Plaza in the centre, the City Hall Plaza in front of City Hall; the pedestrian entrance to the City Hall Plaza from Argyle Street was added in 1999. For several decades, regional councillors were allowed to park their cars in the Grand Parade; this was controversial.
Alderney Landing is a convention centre, art gallery and theatre facility in Downtown Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. It was opened in May, 1999; the theatre hosts many concerts and other events, is the home of Halifax Theatre for Young People, San Family Productions, Coastal Dance, Maritime Marionettes. The market on the lower level of Alderney Landing is home to a weekly farmers market, the Craig Art Gallery, Evan's Seafood Restaurant, the Casaroma Wellness Centre, Meadowvale Meat Market, a Noggin's Corner outlet and a Nova Scotia Liquor Corporation retail store; the parking lot on the north side of the building bordering the harbour doubles as a large outdoor multi-use space called the Events Plaza, which can be used for outdoor concerts or festivals. There is a large stage build on one side of Alderney Landing facing the events plaza, with a permanent roof, used for outdoor concerts which can accommodate up to 10,000 people. There are washrooms and electrical facilities on the opposite end of the plaza.
Alderney Landing hosts various outdoor events each year including. When the complex was constructed it was integrated via a pedway into Alderney Gate, an existing building housing municipal government offices and the Dartmouth Regional Library completed in 1990, the Halifax Transit ferry terminal built in 1979. Official website Bluenose Ghosts Festival