Wieliczka Salt Mine
The Wieliczka Salt Mine, in the town of Wieliczka, southern Poland, lies within the Kraków metropolitan area. Sodium chloride was produced there from the upwelling brine - and had been since Neolithic times; the Wieliczka salt mine, excavated from the 13th century, produced table salt continuously until 2007, as one of the world's oldest operating salt mines. Throughout its history, the royal salt mine was operated by the Żupy Krakowskie company. Commercial salt mining was discontinued in 1996 owing to mine flooding; the Wieliczka Salt Mine is now an official Polish Historic Monument. Its attractions include the shafts and labyrinthine passageways, displays of historic salt-mining technology, an underground lake, four chapels and numerous statues carved by miners out of the rock salt, more recent sculptures by contemporary artists; the Wieliczka Salt Mine reaches a depth of 327 meters, extends via horizontal passages and chambers for over 287 kilometers. The rock salt is of varying shades of grey, resembling unpolished granite rather than the white crystalline substance that might be expected.
Since the 13th century, brine flowing up to the surface of the earth had been collected and processed for its sodium chloride content. At this time wells were sunk and the first shafts dug to extract the rock salt. In the late 13th to early 14th century, the Saltworks Castle was built. Wieliczka is now the location of the Kraków Saltworks Museum. Many chambers have been dug over the period of the mine's operation, various technologies were added, such as the Hungarian horse treadmill and the Saxon treadmill for hauling salt to the surface. During World War II, the mine was used by the occupying Germans as an underground facility for war-related manufacturing; the mine features an underground lake, exhibits on the history of salt mining, a 3.5-kilometer visitors' route including statues carved from the rock salt at various times. The chandelier crystals are made from rock salt dissolved and reconstituted to achieve a clear, glass-like appearance; the mine houses a private rehabilitation and wellness complex.
In 1978 the Wieliczka was placed on the original UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. A legend about Princess Kinga, associated with the Wieliczka mine, tells of a Hungarian princess about to be married to Bolesław V the Chaste, the Prince of Kraków; as part of her dowry, she asked her father, Béla IV of Hungary, for a lump of salt, since salt was prizeworthy in Poland. Her father King Béla took her to a salt mine in Máramaros, she threw her engagement ring from Bolesław in one of the shafts before leaving for Poland. On arriving in Kraków, she asked the miners to dig a deep pit; the people found a lump of salt in there and when they split it in two, discovered the princess's ring. Kinga had thus become the patron saint of salt miners around the Polish capital. During the Nazi occupation, several thousand Jews were transported from the forced labour camps in Plaszow and Mielec to the Wieliczka mine to work in the underground armament factory set up by the Germans. However, manufacturing never began.
Some of the machines and equipment were disassembled, including an electrical hoisting machine from the Regis Shaft, transported to Liebenau in the Sudetes mountains. Part of the equipment was returned after the war, in autumn 1945; the Jews were transported to factories in Austria. The mine is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments, as designated in the first round, 16 September 1994, its listing is maintained by the National Heritage Board of Poland. In 2010 it was proposed that the nearby historic Bochnia Salt Mine be added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites; the two sister salt mines now appear together in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites as the "Wieliczka and Bochnia Royal Salt Mines". In 2013 the UNESCO World Heritage Site was expanded by the addition of the Żupny Castle; the mine is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments, whose attractions include dozens of statues and four chapels carved out of the rock salt by the miners. The older sculptures have been supplemented with new carvings made by contemporary artists.
About 1.2 million people visit the Wieliczka Salt Mine annually. Notable visitors to this site have included Nicolaus Copernicus, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Alexander von Humboldt, Fryderyk Chopin, Dmitri Mendeleyev, Bolesław Prus, Ignacy Paderewski, Robert Baden-Powell, Jacob Bronowski, the von Unrug family, Karol Wojtyła, former U. S. President Bill Clinton, many others. There is a chapel, a reception room, used for private functions, including weddings. A chamber has walls carved by miners to resemble wood, as in wooden churches built in early centuries. A wooden staircase provides access to the mine's 64-metre level. A 3-kilometre tour features corridors, chapels and underground lake, 135 metres underground. An elevator returns visitors to the surface; the earliest writings about the Wieliczka Salt Mine include a description by Adam Schröter: Salinarum Vieliciensium incunda ac vera descriptio. Carmine elegiaco.... Carmine elegiaco.... The Polish journalist and novel
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. It is mined and is used as a fertilizer and as the main constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard chalk and wallboard. A massive fine-grained white or tinted variety of gypsum, called alabaster, has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt, Ancient Rome, the Byzantine Empire and the Nottingham alabasters of Medieval England. Gypsum crystallizes as beautiful translucent crystals of selenite, it forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness defines hardness value 2 as gypsum based on scratch hardness comparison; the word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύψος, "plaster". Because the quarries of the Montmartre district of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum used for various purposes, this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. Upon addition of water, after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum again, causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction.
Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān, "spear stone", referring to its crystalline projections.. In the mid-18th century, the German clergyman and agriculturalist Johann Friderich Mayer investigated and publicized gypsum's use as a fertilizer. Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth, in the early 19th century, it was regarded as an miraculous fertilizer. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved, resulting in the so-called "Plaster War" of 1820. In the 19th century, it was known as lime sulfate or sulfate of lime. Gypsum is moderately water-soluble and, in contrast to most other salts, it exhibits retrograde solubility, becoming less soluble at higher temperatures; when gypsum is heated in air it loses water and converts first to calcium sulfate hemihydrate, and, if heated further, to anhydrous calcium sulfate. As for anhydrite, its solubility in saline solutions and in brines is strongly dependent on NaCl concentration.
Gypsum crystals are found to contain hydrogen bonding. Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and twinned crystals, transparent, cleavable masses called selenite. Selenite contains no significant selenium. Selenite may occur in a silky, fibrous form, in which case it is called "satin spar", it may be granular or quite compact. In hand-sized samples, it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. A fine-grained white or tinted variety of gypsum, called alabaster, is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. In arid areas, gypsum can occur in a flower-like form opaque, with embedded sand grains called desert rose, it forms some of the largest crystals found in nature, up to 12 m long, in the form of selenite. Gypsum is a common mineral, with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary rocks. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon. Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water, as well as in hot springs, from volcanic vapors, sulfate solutions in veins.
Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. It is associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. Gypsum is the most common sulfate mineral. Pure gypsum is white, but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colors to local deposits; because gypsum dissolves over time in water, gypsum is found in the form of sand. However, the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 710 km2 expanse of white gypsum sand, enough to supply the construction industry with drywall for 1,000 years. Commercial exploitation of the area opposed by area residents, was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protected national monument. Gypsum is formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation, amongst others by pyrite oxidation, when the sulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate, its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. Under reducing conditions, the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have indicated the existence of gypsum dunes in the northern polar region of Mars, which were confirmed at ground level by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Commercial quantities of gypsum are found in the cities of Grajaú in Brazil. Large open pit quarries are located in many places including Fort Dodge, which sits on one of the largest deposits of gypsum in the world, Plaster City, United States, East Kutai, Indonesia. Several small mines exist in places such as Kalannie in Western Australia, where gypsum is sold to private buyers for additions of calcium and sulfur as well as reduction of aluminum toxicities on soil for agricultural purposes. Crystals of gypsum u
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral. The word traces its origins back to the Latin lux, meaning "light", implies radiance, gloss, or brilliance. A range of terms are used to describe lustre, such as earthy, metallic and silky; the term vitreous refers to a glassy lustre. A list of these terms is given below. Lustre varies over a wide continuum, so there are no rigid boundaries between the different types of lustre; the terms are combined to describe intermediate types of lustre. Some minerals exhibit unusual optical phenomena, such as asterism or chatoyancy. A list of such phenomena is given below. Adamantine minerals possess a superlative lustre, most notably seen in diamond; such minerals are transparent or translucent, have a high refractive index. Minerals with a true adamantine lustre are uncommon, with examples being cerussite and cubic zirconia. Minerals with a lesser degree of lustre are referred to as subadamantine, with some examples being garnet and corundum.
Dull minerals exhibit little to no lustre, due to coarse granulations which scatter light in all directions, approximating a Lambertian reflector. An example is kaolinite. A distinction is sometimes drawn between dull minerals and earthy minerals, with the latter being coarser, having less lustre. Greasy minerals resemble grease. A greasy lustre occurs in minerals containing a great abundance of microscopic inclusions, with examples including opal and cordierite, jadeite. Many minerals with a greasy lustre feel greasy to the touch. Metallic minerals have the lustre of polished metal, with ideal surfaces will work as a reflective surface. Examples include galena and magnetite. Pearly minerals consist of thin transparent co-planar sheets. Light reflecting from these layers give them a lustre reminiscent of pearls; such minerals possess perfect cleavage, with examples including stilbite. Resinous minerals have the appearance of chewing gum or plastic. A principal example is amber, a form of fossilized resin.
Silky minerals have a parallel arrangement of fine fibres, giving them a lustre reminiscent of silk. Examples include asbestos and the satin spar variety of gypsum. A fibrous lustre has a coarser texture. Submetallic minerals are duller and less reflective. A submetallic lustre occurs in near-opaque minerals with high refractive indices, such as sphalerite and cuprite. Vitreous minerals have the lustre of glass; this type of lustre is one of the most seen, occurs in transparent or translucent minerals with low refractive indices. Common examples include calcite, topaz, beryl and fluorite, among others. Waxy minerals have a lustre resembling wax. Examples include chalcedony. Asterism is the display of a star-shaped luminous area, it is seen in some rubies, where it is caused by impurities of rutile. It can occur in garnet and spinel. Aventurescence is a reflectance effect like that of glitter, it arises from minute, preferentially oriented mineral platelets within the material. These platelets are so numerous that they influence the material's body colour.
In aventurine quartz, chrome-bearing fuchsite makes for a green stone and various iron oxides make for a red stone. Chatoyant minerals display luminous bands; such minerals are composed of parallel fibers, which reflect light into a direction perpendicular to their orientation, thus forming narrow bands of light. The most famous examples are tiger's eye and cymophane, but the effect may occur in other minerals such as aquamarine and tourmaline. Color change is most found in alexandrite, a variety of chrysoberyl gemstones. Other gems occur in color-change varieties, including sapphire, spinel. Alexandrite displays a color change dependent upon light, along with strong pleochroism; the gem results from small-scale replacement of aluminium by chromium oxide, responsible for alexandrite's characteristic green to red color change. Alexandrite from the Ural Mountains in Russia is green by red by incandescent light. Other varieties of alexandrite may be yellowish or pink in daylight and a columbine or raspberry red by incandescent light.
The optimum or "ideal" color change would be fine emerald green to fine purplish red, but this is rare. Iridescence is the'play' or'fire' of rainbow-coloured light caused by thin regular structures or layers beneath the surface of a gemstone. Similar to a thin film of oil on water, these layers interfere with the rays of reflected light, reinforcing some colours and cancelling others. Iridescence is seen at its best in precious opal. Schiller, from German for "color play", is the metallic iridescence originating from below the surface of a stone that occurs when light is reflected between layers of minerals, it is seen in moonstone and labradorite and is similar to adularescence and aventurescence
A dry lake is either a basin or depression that contained a standing surface water body, which disappeared when evaporation processes exceeded recharge. If the floor of a dry lake is covered by deposits of alkaline compounds, it is known as an alkali flat. If covered with salt, it is known as a salt flat. If its basin is salt a dry lake is called a salt pan, pan, or salt flat. Hardpan is the dry terminus of an internally drained basin in a dry climate, a designation used in the Great Basin of the western United States. Another term for dry lake is playa; the Spanish word playa means "beach". Dry lakes are known by this name in some parts of the western United States; this term is used on the Llano Estacado and other parts of the Southern High Plains. In South America, the usual term for a dry lake is Spanish for salt pan. Pan is the term used in most of South Africa; these may include the small round highveld pans, typical of the Chrissiesmeer area, to the extensive pans of the Northern Cape province.
Terms used in Australia include salt pans and clay pans. In Arabic, an alkali flat is called a shott. In Central Asia, a similar "cracked mud" salt flat is known as a takyr. In Iran salt flats are called kavir. A dry lake is formed when water from rain or other sources, like intersection with a water table, flows into a dry depression in the landscape, creating a pond or lake. If the total annual evaporation rate exceeds the total annual inflow, the depression will become dry again, forming a dry lake. Salts dissolved in the water precipitate out and are left behind building up over time. A dry lake appears as a flat bed of clay encrusted with precipitated salts; these evaporite minerals are a concentration of weathering products such as sodium carbonate and other salts. In deserts, a dry lake may be found in an area ringed by bajadas. Dry lakes are formed in semi-arid to arid regions of the world; the largest concentration of dry lakes is in the southern High Plains of Texas and eastern New Mexico.
Most dry lakes are small. However, Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia, near Potosí, the largest salt flat in the world, comprises 4,085 square miles. Many dry lakes contain shallow water during the rainy season during wet years. If the layer of water is thin and is moved around the dry lake by wind, an exceedingly hard and smooth surface may develop. Thicker layers of water may result in a "cracked-mud" surface and "teepee" structure desiccation features. If there is little water, dunes can form; the Racetrack Playa, located in Death Valley, features a geological phenomenon known as "sailing stones" that leave linear "racetrack" imprints as they move across the surface without human or animal intervention. These rocks have been filmed in motion by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego and are due to a perfect coincidence of events. First, the playa has to fill with water, which must be deep enough to form floating ice during winter, but still shallow enough that the rocks are exposed.
When the temperature drops at night, this pond freezes into thin sheets of "windowpane" ice, which must be thick enough to maintain strength, but thin enough to move freely. When the sun comes out, the ice melts and cracks into floating panels; the stones only move once most tracks last for three or four years. While a dry lake is itself devoid of vegetation, they are ringed by shadscale and other salt-tolerant plants that provide critical winter fodder for livestock and other herbivores. In southwest Idaho and parts of Nevada and Utah there are a number of rare species that occur nowhere else but in the inhospitable environment of seasonally flooded playas. A new species of giant fairy shrimp was found in 2006. Although a large predatory species, it evaded detection because of the murkiness of the playa's water caused by winds and a fine clay load; this shrimp species is able to regenerate using tiny undetectable cysts that can remain in a dry lake bed for years until conditions are optimum for hatching.
Lepidium davisii is another rare species, a perennial plant whose habitat is restricted to playas in southern Idaho and northern Nevada. Far from major rivers or lakes, playas are the only water available to wildlife in the desert. Antelope and other wildlife gather there. Threats to dry lakes include pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations such as cattle feedlots and dairies. Results are erosion. A non-native shrub, used for rangeland restoration in the west, Kochia prostrata poses a significant threat to playas and their associated rare species, as it capable of crowding out native vegetation and draining a playa's standing water because of its root growth; the flat and hard surfaces of dry lakes make them ideal for motor vehicles and bicycles. Furthermore, large-sized dry lakes are excellent spots for pursuing land speed records, as the smoothness of the surface allows low-clearance vehicles to travel fast without any risk of disruption by surface irregularities, the path traveled has no obstacles to avoid.
The dry lakes at Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah and Black Rock Desert in Nevada have both been used for setting land speed records. Lake Eyre and Lake Gairdner in South Australia have been used for variou
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti