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In architecture, a hall is a large space enclosed by a roof and walls. In the Iron Age and early Middle Ages in northern Europe, a mead hall was where a lord and his retainers ate and slept. In the Middle Ages, the great hall was the largest room in castles and large houses, where the servants slept; as more complex house plans developed, the hall remained a large room for dancing and large feasts still with servants sleeping there. It was immediately inside the main door. In modern British houses, an entrance hall next to the front door remains an indispensable feature if it is merely a corridor. Today, the hall of a house is the space next to the front door or vestibule leading to the rooms directly and/or indirectly. Where the hall inside the front door of a house is elongated, it may be called a passage, corridor, or hallway. In warmer climates the houses of the wealthy were built around a courtyard, but in northern areas manors were built around a great hall; the hall was home to the hearth, was where all the residents of the house would eat and sleep.

One common example of this form is the longhouse. Only messy tasks would be done in separate rooms on the periphery of the hall. Still today the term hall is used to designate a country house such as a hall house, or a Wealden hall house, manor houses. In medieval Europe, the main room of a castle or manor house was the great hall. In a medieval building, the hall was; as heating technology improved and a desire for privacy grew, tasks moved from the hall to other rooms. First the master of the house withdrew to eating areas. Over time servants and children moved to their own areas, while work projects were given their own chambers leaving the hall for special functions. With time, its functions as dormitory, parlour and so on were divided off to separate rooms or, in the case of the kitchen, a separate building; until the early modern era that majority of the population lived in houses with a single room. In the 17th century lower classes began to have a second room, with the main chamber being the hall and the secondary room the parlor.

The hall and parlor house was found in England and was a fundamental, historical floor plan in parts of the United States from 1620 to 1860. In Europe as the wealthy embraced multiple rooms the common form was the enfilade, with rooms directly connecting to each other. In 1597 John Thorpe is the first recorded architect to replace multiple connected rooms with a rooms along a corridor each accessed by a separate door; this section is linked from "Aularian". Many institutions and buildings at colleges and universities are formally titled "_______ Hall" being named after the person who endowed it, for example, King's Hall, Cambridge. Others, such as Lady Margaret Hall, commemorate respected people. Between these in age, Nassau Hall at Princeton University began as the single building of the college. In medieval origin, these were the halls in which the members of the university lived together during term time. In many cases, some aspect of this community remains; some of these institutions are titled "Hall" instead of "College" because at the time of their foundation they were not recognised as colleges and did not have the appropriate Royal Charter.

Examples at the University of Oxford are: St Edmund Hall Hart Hall Lady Margaret Hall The Permanent private halls. At colleges in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the term "Hall" is used for the dining hall for students, with High Table at one end for fellows. At "Formal Hall", gowns are worn for dinner during the evening, whereas for "informal Hall" they are not; the medieval collegiate dining hall, with a dais for the high table at the upper end and a screen passage at the lower end, is a modified or assimilated form of the Great hall. A hall is a building consisting of a principal room, rented out for meetings and social affairs, it may be or government-owned, such as a function hall owned by one company used for weddings and cotillions or a community hall available for rent to anyone, such as a British village hall. In religious architecture, as in Islamic architecture, the prayer hall is a large room dedicated to the practice of the worship.. A hall church is a church with nave and side aisles of equal height.

Many churches have an associated church hall used for other events. Following a line of similar development, in office buildings and larger buildings, the entrance hall is known as the foyer; the atrium, a name sometimes used in public buildings for the entrance hall, was the central courtyard of a Roman house. In architecture, the term "double-loaded" describes corridors. Conversely, a single-loaded corridor only has rooms on one side. A blind corridor doesn't lead anywhere. Billiard hall City hall, town hall or village hall Concert hall Concourse Convention center Dance hall Dining hall Firehall Great room or great hall Moot hall Prayer hall, such as the sanctuary of a synagogue Reading room Residence hall Waiting room Hall of fame The dictionary definition of hall at Wiktionary

Gong Zheng

Gong Zheng is a Chinese politician who serves as Governor and Deputy Communist Party Secretary of Shandong Province. He was Party Secretary of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province, before that, Vice Governor and Executive Vice Governor of Zhejiang, deputy director of the General Administration of Customs. Gong Zheng was born in March 1960 in Jiangsu province, he graduated from Beijing Institute of Foreign Trade in 1982, worked for the Chinese General Administration of Customs after graduation. He furthered his studies at the School of Taxation of Golden Gate University in 1987 in the United States, returned to UIBE, earning an MBA in 1997, he enrolled at Xiamen University from 2001 to 2004, obtaining a Ph. D. in Economics. Gong served as deputy director of the Tianjin customs department from 1993 to 1996, director of the Shenzhen customs department from 2001 to 2003. In 2003, he was promoted to Deputy Director of the General Administration of Customs. In December 2008, Gong Zheng was appointed Vice Governor of Zhejiang province, was promoted to Executive Vice Governor in June 2012.

In September 2013, he became the Communist Party Chief of the provincial capital. In August 2015, Gong was named deputy party chief of Shandong province, replacing Wang Junmin, who left the post due to reaching the mandatory retirement age. In April 2017, Gong was appointed as Governor of Shandong

Gunnar Sønsteby Prize

The Gunnar Sønsteby Prize has been awarded annually in Norway since 2015 to individuals who are brave defenders of fundamental democratic values. It is awarded by the Gunnar Sønsteby Memorial Fund, founded in 2013 with the goal of honoring the life of the World War II Norwegian Resistance hero Gunnar Sønsteby. Half a year before war hero Gunnar Sønsteby died on May 10, 2012, the idea of a Gunnar Sønsteby Memorial Fund was discussed; the Fund became a reality in the autumn of 2013. The base capital for the prize was provided by Erling Lorentzen, Hans Hermann Horn, the Inge Steensland Foundation. According to the Fund's statutes, the prize shall be awarded to “brave” individuals who have defended “the founding values of our democracy” and “kept the spirit of defense alive,” and thereby helped ensure that the Norwegian military continue to ensure the nation's “freedom and independence.” The prize was first awarded in 2015. The ceremony was held at the Oslo City Hall on January 2, 2015; the winners were Per Edgar Kokkvold.

Solberg had served for a decade as Aftenposten's correspondent in Afghanistan, India and the Middle East. Kokkvold, a columnist for Aftenposten, had worked as Secretary-General of the Norwegian Press Association, a position he held during the Danish cartoon crisis of 2006, when he had been subjected to death threats. In 2014 he was named head of Kringkastingsrådet, the official advisory council for the Norwegian government's broadcasting corporation, NRK; the jury citation praised Solberg for her active devotion to “democratic values such as freedom of speech and fundamental human rights” and for having “exposed herself to danger” in her work as a journalist. Kokkvold was praised as “a fearless defender of freedom of speech” and for having defied death threats to ensure that “Norwegian media did not give in to Islamist or other terror threats.” The jury summed up its decision by saying that Solberg and Kokkvold alike had “shown both integrity and courage.” On January 5, the prize winners met with the press in Sønsteby's last office at Akershus Fortress in Oslo.

Solberg said that it was a “very great honor to receive such a prize” and called Sønsteby “an exceptional man.” “We should never accept the idea that people should be killed or receive death threats because they uncompromisingly defend our democracy, popular government, the rule of law,” said Kokkvold. In 2016, the prize was shared between Trond Bakkevig. Khan, who lives in England, is a human-rights activist, record producers, director of the films Jihad and Banaz: A Love Story. Bakkevig is the former head of the Church of an interfaith council, he is a longtime bridge-builder among religious leaders in the Middle East. The head of the Gunnar Sønsteby Memorial Fund's jury, Harald Sunde, former head of the Norwegian armed forces, said that the prize winners had demonstrated integrity and decisiveness. Despite their different backgrounds and areas of expertise, each, in their way, he said, had “contributed to important debates and emerged as courageous defenders of fundamental democratic values.

Just as Gunnar Sønsteby did in his time, they refuse to give in to threatening and destructive forces.” In 2017, the Gunnar Sønsteby Prize was awarded to all Norwegian veterans of international military operations. This came to over 100,000 persons. At a ceremony at Fanehallen in Oslo, the head of the prize jury, said that the prize was “a tribute to the individual veteran and the effort, personal courage, sacrifice they have demonstrated.” He described the veterans as “a large resource group who are an asset to Norwegian society in ways that far exceed their military efforts.” The statuette was placed at the Bæreia veterans' center, while the veterans themselves were given certificates. The winners were represented at the ceremony by ten veterans, among them Unni Vindheim, who took part in operations in Bosnia and Afghanistan, she said that it was “a great honor to be asked to represent the military veterans.” In 1994, Vindheim was a member of the medical corps that evacuated 287 patients from a bombed-out hospital in Gorazde, Bosnia.

One of the other veterans who represented the winners at the prize ceremony was Frank Magnes, who had served in Lebanon. Another veteran who participated was Ronny Kristoffersen; the prize for 2018 was awarded to Elizabeth Hoff, a nurse and midwife at Ullevål Hospital in Oslo who went on to become an international aid worker, employed by the Red Cross and UN and, most the World Health Organization. She worked in Egypt, Afghanistan, Rwanda and Syria in wartime or thereafter; the jury's citation read, in part: “In danger of her own life and health, she has for more than six long years led the efforts of the World Health Organization in the world's most dangerous country.” The jury described her as one of the Norwegians who have been exposed to the greatest danger over the longest time since World War II. Upon winning the prize, Hoff said she was “moved and touched” and called Sønsteby “a great man” who “stood for important values” such as love of country and being at your country's disposal when needed.

“Civilians too,” she said, “can stand up for their country

D.H. Anderson House

The D. H. Anderson House is a historic house located at 315 East Locust in Iowa; this is one of several houses in town that are noteworthy for their quoined corners, a rare architectural feature in Iowa. The 2½-story brick house features an irregular roofline with both hipped and gabled areas, two large chimneys with corbelled chimney pots, a wrap-around porch, it was built for D. H. Anderson in 1888 in a section of the city known as "Society Hill." These were financial boom years for Maquoketa. Anderson settled here with his parents in 1854, grew to become a successful businessman, he married Mary L. Goodenow, the daughter of John L. Goodenow, known as the "Father of Maquoketa." The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 9, 1991. The D. H. Anderson Building in downtown is associated with him

Roberto Landell de Moura

Father Roberto Landell de Moura known as Roberto Landell, was a Brazilian Roman Catholic priest and inventor. He is best known for his work developing long-distance audio transmissions, using a variety of technologies, including an improved megaphone device and radio signals, it was reported in June 1899 that he had transmitted audio over a distance of 7 kilometers, followed by a second, demonstration on June 3, 1900. A lack of technical details makes it uncertain which sending technology was being used, however, if radio signals were employed these would be the earliest reported audio transmissions by radio. Although Landell received patents in Brazil and the United States during the first decade of the 1900s, he was unable to procure the financial support needed to further develop his devices. Robert Landell de Moura was born in Porto Alegre, Brazil in 1862, his father was Ignacio de Moura, he had five brothers: João, Edmundo and Ricardo, Dr. Ignacio Landell, a physician, Pedro Landell de Moura, a São Paulo merchant.

He was ordained to the Catholic priesthood in 1886 in Rome, conducted studies in the physical sciences. Landell began experiments in wireless communication in Campinas and São Paulo in the period 1893–1894. A biographical review recounted that he "...invented his apparatus in Porto Alegre, as soon as he arrived in São Paulo in 1896, he began with preliminary experiments, to achieve his object — to transmit human voice to a distance of 8, 10 or 12 kilometers, without using any wires". A report reprinted in the June 14, 1899 Jornal do Commercio stated that Landell had conducted spoken-word wireless transmissions over distances exceeding 7 kilometers, "using the ether, telluric currents and electrified air" and employing an approach, "entirely different from those of European inventions"; the next month a notice in the July 16, 1899 Jornal do Commercio, dated the previous day, reported that "Father Landell de Moura will hold an experiment on wireless telephony tomorrow" and "various authorities, men of science and representatives of the press are invited to attend".

However, there does not appear to be any additional information about this demonstration. A year the June 10, 1900 issue of the Jornal do Commercio reported that on June 3 Landell made a public wireless telephony demonstration in the town of Alto de Sant Anna in the city of São Paulo, the witnesses included P. C. P. Lupton, the British Consul, his family. Shortly thereafter, the newspaper's June 16, 1900 issue printed the text of a letter Father Landell sent to Lupton prior to the demonstration, which noted that he would only be able to demonstrate five of his numerous inventions: the "Telauxiofono", "Caleofono", "Anematofono", "Teletiton" and "Edifono". In 1907 The Brazil of To-day provided English language descriptions of these devices: Telauxiofono "is the last word of the telephone, not only because of the force and intelligibility with which it transmits the words, but because with it telephoning at great distances becomes a practical and economical reality."Caleofono "works with wire, presents the originality of not needing to ring the bell to call, to hear the articulated sounds, or that of the instrument."Anematofono and teletiton "are wireless telephones.

The perfect operation of these apparatus, according to what their inventor says, reveals laws new and is altogether most curious."Edifono "is useful to purify and soften the phonographed voice of the parasitical vibrations, reproducing it just as the natural voice."In his letter Landell proposed that, with the support of British government, he could continue research to commercially develop his inventions, being compensated only for living expenses and the funds needed to continue his studies and scientific experiments. In addition, he offered to establish two facilities in England, dedicated to providing care for the sons and daughters of soldiers killed in the Second Boer War. However, the British government did not take him up on his offer. In late 1900, a Rio de Janeiro newspaper carried an article about an English invention, Colonel George Edward Gouraud's "Gouraudphone", a high-powered megaphone designed for long-distance communication. Contemporary accounts describe the Gouraudphone as a "talking foghorn": a sound amplifier that operated by "working a piston-valve in a cylinder and vibrating a current of air or gas, entering another cylinder and vibrating a large diaphragm which gives out an imitation of the original sounds.

The intensity of the sound can be increased by having more than one piston and cylinder regulating air currents, so that the speech might be heard for several miles." Dr. José Rodrigues Botet took exception to this report, the December 16, 1900 issue of the La Voz de España carried a letter from him insisting that it was Landell who deserved credit for developing the underlying technology used by the Gouraudphone. Botet's letter stated that over the years he had witnessed Landell, working alone, develop advanced wire and wireless telegraphy and telephony equipment, while never receiving the recognition he deserved as "Brazil's eminent son". Landell received his first patent, no. 3,279, from the Brazilian government on March 9, 1901. It covered a device for providing two-way "Phonetic transmi

Xuxa só para Baixinhos 3 - Country

Xuxa só Para Baixinhos 3 - Country is the twenty-fifth studio album and the eighteenth in Portuguese by singer and Brazilian presenter Xuxa, released by Som Livre on August 31, 2002, is the third album in the collection Só Para Baixinhos. Xuxa só Para Baixinhos 3 - Country, was by Som Livre on August 31, 2002, in the CD and VHS version and Released on DVD shortly thereafter, was remastered and released on independent CD in 2008 in economic version; the singles were "Vamos Brincar", "Bumbum, Como É Bom Ser Lelé" and "Imitando os Animais". XSPB 3 sold more than 1,000,000 copies, receiving platinum, while the CD received only gold certification, it was the most sold album in Brazil in 2002, according to the Associação Brasileira dos Produtores de Discos. With Xuxa só Para Baixinhos 3, Xuxa won for the second consecutive time the Latin Grammy Award for Best Latin Children's Album. At the 4th Annual Latin Grammy Awards in 2002, the album received one awards: Latin Grammy Award for Best Latin Children's Album Art Direction and Production: Xuxa Meneghel Musical production: Zé Henrique Recorded and mixed in: Yahoo Studio Rio de Janeiro Recording Engineers: Everson Dias and Sergio Knust Assistants: Silvio Limeira, Paulinho Viralata e Marcos Bagalha Mixing: Eduardo Chermont Production assistant: Everson Dias Voz: Xuxa Meneghel Baixo, Vocais e Voz na musica "Sou um Jacaré": Lelo Zaneti Guitarra, Violão, Slide e Vocais: Doca Rolim Bateria e Percussão: Haroldo Ferretti Musicos Convidados: Guitarra, Violão, Banjo e Guitarra Steel: Serginho Knust Violino: Carlos Eduardo Hack Teclados e Vocais: Henrique Portugal Teclados: Marcelo Lobato Cordas: Tutuca Borba Sax Alto, Sax Soprano e Sax Barítono: Jorge Continentino Harmonica e Assovio: Milton Guedes Trombone: Wagner Mayer Percussão: Eduardo Lyra Percussão na música "O Coelhinho Fufu": Marcos Suzano Violão: Chico Amaral Vocais: Cidália Castro, Gil Miranda e Glice de Paula Efeitos Sonoros: Leonardo de Souza e Everson Dias Solistas: Julia Peixoto na música "Bumbum, Como é Bom Ser Lelé" e Sasha Meneghel Sfazir na música "Vamos no Shake" Personagens: Lelo Zaneti, Carlos Eduardo Hack, Marcelo Lobato, Alcina Vilar, Aline Barros e Carlos Gouveia Xuxa só para Baixinhos 3 at Discogs