Seong Sammun was a scholar-official of early Joseon who rose to prominence in the court of King Sejong the Great. He was executed after being implicated in a plot to dethrone King Sejo and restore his predecessor King Danjong, Seong Sammun was born in Hongseong, South Chungcheong province to a yangban family of the Changnyeong Seong lineage. He passed the examination at the regular triennial administration in 1438. He soon gained the favor of King Sejong, and was appointed to the Hall of Worthies, from 1442 to 1446, he cooperated with other members of that body to compose the Hunmin Jeongeum, in which the hangul alphabet was first presented to the world. In 1447, Seong achieved the highest score on the higher literary examination, in 1455, Prince Suyang forced the young King Danjong, his nephew, to abdicate, taking the throne instead as King Sejo. Following secret orders from his father Seong Seung, Seong Sammun along with Bak Jungrim, Bak Paengnyeon and others plotted to assassinate the new king, the plot was exposed and the plotters all arrested.
Seong Sammun and his father were executed along with other plotters, before his execution, Seong Sammun condemned the king as a pretender. The sayuksin and the saengyuksin, who refused to accept King Sejo as the king, were praised by generations for holding fast to the Confucian value of staying loyal to the true king. He made several poems during imprisonment and before his execution, the following is his death poem. In the afterlife, there is not a single inn This night, at whose house shall I rest
Korean Confucianism is the form of Confucianism that emerged and developed in Korea. One of the most substantial influences in Korean intellectual history was the introduction of Confucian thought as part of the influence from China. Confucianism in Korea is sometimes considered a way of holding a nation together without the civil wars and internal dissent that were inherited from the Goryeo dynasty. Confucius is generally thought to have born in 551 BCE. The Latinized name Confucius by which most Westerners recognize him is derived from Kong Fuzi, Confucius was born into the class of shi, between the aristocracy and the common people. His public life included marriage at the age of 19 that produced a son, in his private life he studied and reflected on righteousness, proper conduct and the nature of government such that by the age of 50 he had established a reputation. This regard, however was insufficient for his success in advocating for a central government. He is said to have spent his last years teaching an ardent group of followers of the values to be appreciated in a collection of ancient writings loosely identified as the Five Classics, Confucius is thought to have died in 479 BCE.
Under the succeeding Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty, Confucian ideas gained even more widespread prominence, during the Song Dynasty, the scholar Zhu Xi added ideas from Taoism and Buddhism into Confucianism. In his life, Zhu Xi was largely ignored, but not long after his death his ideas became the new view of what Confucian texts actually meant. Modern historians view Zhu Xi as having created something rather different, Neo-Confucianism held sway in China, Japan and Vietnam until the 19th century. The nature of early Korean political and cultural organization centered on the clan, a Chinese record of the Gojoseon Kingdom labeled the inhabitants of the peninsula as DONG-I or eastern barbarians or eastern bowmen. Though the Shang Dynasty is recognized chiefly for its accomplishments, its organizational accomplishments included the invocation of authority through ones ancestors. When the Shang Dynasty was overtaken by the Western Zhou, the Zhou modified the Shang belief in ancestors belief to invoke the Mandate of Heaven as a way of identifying the right to rule.
The Mandate of Heaven was based on rules of good governance, vassals to the king enjoyed hereditary titles and were expected to provide labor and fighting forces as circumstances merited. As the Western Zhou declined, China entered into a known as the Spring and Autumn period. Control of many feudal holdings fell to feudal lords and knights, unbound by family relationships, these men were free to attack their neighbors and accrue holdings. It was into this period, that Confucius was born, the subsequent introduction of four separate administrations to oversee the region only served to prolong the divided nature of the Korean peninsula and hamper an adoption of the Confucian model
Korea is a historical state in East Asia, since 1945 divided into two distinct sovereign states, North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by China to the northwest and it is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan. Korea emerged as a political entity after centuries of conflict among the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Later Silla divided into three states during the Later Three Kingdoms period. Goryeo, which had succeeded Goguryeo, defeated the two states and united the Korean Peninsula. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo, whose name developed into the modern exonym Korea, was a highly cultured state that created the worlds first metal movable type in 1234. However, multiple invasions by the Mongol Yuan Dynasty during the 13th century greatly weakened the nation, following the Yuan Dynastys collapse, severe political strife followed, and Goryeo eventually fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 1388.
The first 200 years of Joseon were marked by peace and saw the creation of the Korean alphabet by Sejong the Great in the 14th century. During the part of the dynasty, Koreas isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the Hermit Kingdom, by the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. Despite attempts at modernization by the Korean Empire, in 1910 Korea was annexed by Japan and these circumstances soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers, exacerbated by their incapability to agree on the terms of Korean independence. To date, both continue to compete with each other as the sole legitimate government of all of Korea. Korea is the spelling of Corea, a name attested in English as early as 1614. It is a derived from Cauli, Marco Polos transcription of the Chinese 高麗. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo or Koryŏ, Goryeos name was a continuation of the earlier Goguryeo or Koguryŏ, the northernmost of the Samguk, which was officially known by the shortened form Goryeo after the 5th-century reign of King Jangsu.
The original name was a combination of the go with the name of a local Yemaek tribe. The name Korea is now used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk, the name references the Samhan—Ma, and Byeon—who preceded the Three Kingdoms in the southern and central end of the peninsula during the 1st centuries BC and AD. It has been linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Manchuria
Sungkyunkwan, was the foremost educational institution in Korea during the late Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties. It is located in its location at the south end of the Humanities and Social Sciences Campus of Sungkyunkwan University in Seoul. Today, it is managed by the local government, twice a year in May and September, the ceremonial rite Seokjeon Daeje is performed in the Munmyo Shrine portion of the old campus to honor Confucius and the Confucian sages of China and Korea. Sung – Accomplish, Achieve, To become capable, successful or to win, “To perfect or develop human nature” Kyun – Balance, To be, Strengthen culture according to social standards or norms. It was originally an outbuilding called Taemyon. In 1089, under the reign of King Munjong new official buildings were constructed and its name was changed to Seonggyungam in 1298. In 1304 it was reestablished by Neo-Confucian scholar An Hyang who is considered the founder of Neo-Confucianism in Korea, the name was changed to Seonggyungwan in 1308 under reign of King Chungnyeol.
The name was changed back to Gukjagam in 1358 during the reign of King Gongmin, in 1362 the name was changed back to Seonggyungwan. Sungkyunkwan was established in Hanyang on September 25,1398, a fire destroyed some buildings in 1400 which were rebuilt in 1407. In 1418 King Taejong initiated a tradition for royal princes to enter Sungkyunkwan, during the reign of the tyrannical King Yeongsangun, Sungkyunkwan was turned into a personal pleasure ground. When he was deposed, it was restored to its former status, Sungkyunkwan was rebuilt again in 1601 after many buildings were burnt down including the Munmyo area during the Japanese invasions. In 1784, Byeokipjae was destroyed by a fire and it is no longer present on the current campus grounds. In 1869 there was a major renovation/restoration of the old campus, in 1894 the Gabo Reform occurred which abolished the national state examinations during the reign of King Gojong. In 1895, Sungkyunkwan was reformed into a modern three-year university, after Korea gained independence in 1945, Gyeonghakwon was renamed to Sungkyunkwan and with funding from Yurim nationwide, Sungkyunkwan University was established.
During the Korean War, much of the campus was destroyed, Gyeseongsa was the shrine for the parents of the Confucian sages. It used to house the tablets of the important family members of Confucian scholars. The latest renovation/restoration occurred in 1988, The name means Hall of Enlightenment. It was originally built in 1398, the center room was used for ceremonies, rituals and other important events
Hunminjeongeum is a document describing an entirely new and native script for the Korean language. The script was named after the publication, but came to be known as hangul. It was created so that the common people illiterate in hanja could accurately and easily read and it was announced in Volume 102 of the Annals of King Sejong, and its formal supposed publication date, October 9,1446, is now Hangul Day in South Korea. The Annals place its invention to the 25th year of Sejongs reign, the publication is written in Classical Chinese and contains a preface, the alphabet letters, and brief descriptions of their corresponding sounds. It is supplemented by a document called Hunminjeongeum Haerye that is designated as a national treasure No.70. To distinguish it from its supplement, Hunminjeongeum is sometimes called the Samples, the Classical Chinese of the Hunminjeongeum has been partly translated into Middle Korean. This translation is found together with Worinseokbo, and is called the Hunminjeongeum Eonhaebon, three copies are left, The one found at the beginning of the Haerye copy The one included in Sejongsillok, Volume 113.
The Eonhaebon,36 pages, extensively annotated in hangul, with all hanja transcribed with small hangul to their lower right, the Hangul were written in both ink-brush and geometric styles
Donghak Peasant Revolution
In 1894, the magistrate of Gobu, Jo Byeonggap, had created various bogus laws and forced the peasants to build reservoirs and settle in unowned lands in order to get rich from taxes and fines. In March, angered peasants allied under Jeon Bongjun and Kim Gaenam, the Gobu revolt was suppressed by Yi Yongtae, and Jeon Bongjun fled to Taein. In April, Jeon gathered an army in Mount Baek and recaptured Gobu, the rebels proceeded to defeat governmental forces in Hwangto Pass and the Hwangryong River. Jeon captured Jeonju Fortress and fought in a siege with Hong Gyehuns Joseon forces, in May, the rebels had signed a truce with the governmental forces, and built agencies called Jibgangso that handled affairs in rebel-controlled areas. This somewhat unsteady peace continued throughout the summer, the frightened government asked the Qing Dynasty for help, and it sent 2,700 soldiers to Korea. Japan, angered that the Qing government had not informed Japan as promised in the Convention of Tientsin, the war resulted in an expulsion of Chinese influence in Korea and signaled an end for the Self-Strengthening Movement in China itself.
Growing Japanese dominance in the Korean peninsula had caused anxiety for the rebels, from September to October, the Southern and Northern leaders negotiated over the plans for the future in Samrye. In October 12, an army of Northern and Southern Jeobs were formed. After a number of battles, the army was decisively defeated in the Battle of Ugeumchi. Hostility continued deep into the spring of 1895, the rebel leaders were captured in various locations in the Honam Region, and most were executed by a mass hanging in March. 19th-century Korean society was unstable, due to a high number of rebellions. The series of revolts began with the Gwanseo Peasant War and effectively ended with the Donghak Peasant Revolution, the first large revolt was the Gwanseo Peasant War. The rebel leader Hong Gyeongnae prepared for the rebellion since 1801, by September 1811, Hong Gyeongnae had gathered an army in Chudo Island, gathering support from the rich landowners. The revolt began on December 18, with the writing of the message in Jeongju Fortress, I.
Since old, the Gwanseo Region was the abode of Dangun, is it not injust, how the government treats us. There is a king, and corrupt officials are everywhere around him. As Kim Josun and Park Jonggyeong rule the country as if it is theirs, the government is in chaos, but thankfully, a man has emerged who shall save the world. Open your doors wide and meet our army, If any foolishly resist, we shall crush you with our 5,000 swords
The Kingdom of Joseon was a Korean kingdom founded by Yi Seonggye that lasted for approximately five centuries, from July 1392 to October 1897. It was officially renamed the Korean Empire in October 1897 and it was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul, the kingdoms northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the Yalu and Tumen Rivers through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korea and its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty, during its reign, Joseon encouraged the entrenchment of Chinese Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society. Neo-Confucianism was installed as the new state ideology. Buddhism was accordingly discouraged and occasionally faced persecutions by the dynasty, Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea and saw the height of classical Korean culture, science and technology.
After the end of invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace, by the late 14th century, the nearly 500-year-old Goryeo established in 918 was tottering, its foundations collapsing from years of war and de facto occupation from the disintegrating Mongol Empire. Following the emergence of the Ming dynasty, the court in Goryeo split into two conflicting factions, the group led by General Yi and the camp led by General Choe. Goryeo claimed to be the successor of the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo, as such, Yi was chosen to lead the attack, however, he revolted and swept back to Gaegyeong and initiated a coup détat, overthrowing King U in favor of his son, Chang of Goryeo. He killed King U and his son after a failed restoration, in 1392, Yi eliminated Jeong Mong-ju, highly respected leader of a group loyal to Goryeo dynasty, and dethroned King Gongyang, exiling him to Wonju, and before he ascended the throne. The Goryeo Dynasty had come to an end after almost 500 years of rule.
After much deliberation, the Taejo Emperor declared the name of the new dynasty to be Joseon, after the ancient Korean state of Gojoseon and he moved the capital to Hanyang from Kaesong. When the new dynasty was promulgated and officially brought into existence, with Taejos support, Jeong Dojeon kept limiting the royal familys power by prohibiting political involvement of princes and attempting to abolish their private armies. Both sides were aware of each others great animosity and were getting ready to strike first. This incident became known as the First Strife of Princes, one of King Jeongjongs first acts as monarch was to revert the capital to Kaesong, where he is believed to have been considerably more comfortable, away from the toxic power strife. Yet Yi Bangwon retained real power and was soon in conflict with his older brother. Yi Banggan, who yearned for power. In 1400, the tensions between Yi Bangwons faction and Yi Banggans camp escalated into a conflict that came to be known as the Second Strife of Princes
Historians debate the degree of Japanese influence in this program, as well as its effect in encouraging modernization. The name Gabo comes from the name of the year 1894 in the sexagenary cycle. Of special note is the corruption of the local functionaries who could purchase an appointment as administrators, despite the government abolishing slavery and burning the records in 1801, increasing numbers of peasants and farmers become involved in KYE or mutual assistance associations. Institutions such as the Catholic and Protestant missions, with the nature of their teachings garnered followings among the Yangban. Arguably of greater influence were the teachings of Choi Che-u. Themes of Exclusionism, Nationalism and Social Consciousness were set to music allowing illiterate farmers to understand, Choe, as well as many Koreans, was alarmed by the intrusion of Christianity and the Anglo-French occupation of Beijing during the 2nd Opium War. He believed that the best way to foreign influence in Korea was to introduce democratic.
Nationalism and social reform struck a chord among the peasant guerrillas, progressive revolutionaries organized the peasants into a cohesive structure. Arrested in 1863 following the Chinju Uprising led by YU Kye-cheun, Choe was charged with misleading the people, Choe was executed in 1864, sending many of his followers into hiding in the mountains and leaving the Korean populace to continue to suffer. King Kojong, enthroned at the age of twelve, succeeded King Cheolchong, King Kojongs father, Heungseon Daewongun, ruled as the de facto regent and inaugurated far-ranging reform to strengthen the central administration. Among his targeted reforms was addressing the inherited rule by a few elite ruling families by the adoption of a system for official appointments. Heungseon Daewongun was impeached in 1873 and forced retirement by the supporters of Empress Myeongseong. On 27 February 1876, the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, known in Japan as the Japanese-Korea Treaty of Amity was signed. Daewongun remained opposed to any concessions to Japan or the West, helped organize the Mutiny of 1882 Imo Incident, motivated by resentment of the preferential treatment given to newly trained troops, Daewonguns forces, or old military, killed Japanese training cadre and attacked the Japanese legation.
Japanese diplomats, policemen and some Min clan members were killed during the incident. Daewongun was restored to power briefly, only to be taken to China by Chinese troops dispatched to Seoul to prevent further disorder. While the former sought Japans support, the latter sought Chinas support, this proved short-lived, as conservative Korean officials requested the help of Chinese forces stationed in Korea. The coup was put down by Chinese troops, and a Korean mob killed both Japanese officers and Japanese residents in retaliation, some leaders of the independence faction, including Kim Okgyun, fled to Japan, while others were executed
Sejong the Great
Sejong the Great was the fourth king of Joseon-dynasty Korea. He was the son of King Taejong and Queen consort Min. He was designated as heir-apparent, Crown Prince, after his older brother Jae was stripped of his title and he ascended to the throne in 1418. During the first four years of his reign, Taejong governed as regent, after which his father-in-law, Sim On, Sejong reinforced Confucian policies and executed major legal amendments. He created the Korean alphabet Hangul, encouraged advancements of scientific technology and he dispatched military campaigns to the north and instituted the Samin Policy to attract new settlers to the region. To the south, he subjugated Japanese raiders and captured Tsushima Island, during his reign from 1418 to 1450, he governed from 1422 to 1442 and governed as regent with his son Crown Prince Munjong until his death in either 1442 or 1450. Although the appellation the Great / was given posthumously to almost every ruler of Goryeo and Joseon, Sejong was born on May 15,1397, the third son of King Taejong.
When he was twelve, he became Grand Prince Chungnyeong, as a young prince, Sejong excelled in various studies and was favored by King Taejong over his two older brothers. As the third son of Taejong, Sejongs ascension to the throne was unique, Taejongs eldest son, was named heir apparent in 1404. However, Yangnyeongs free spirited nature as well as his preference for hunting, though it is said that Yangnyeong abdicated in favor of his younger brother, there are no definitive records regarding Yangnyeongs removal. Taejongs second son Grand Prince Hyoryeong became a monk upon the elevation of his younger brother Sejong, following the removal of Yangnyeong as heir apparent, Taejong moved quickly to secure his youngest sons position as heir apparent. The government was purged of officials who disagreed with the removal of Yangnyeong, in August 1418, Taejong abdicated in favor of Sejong. However, even in retirement Taejong continued to influence government policy, Sejongs surprising political savvy and creativity did not become apparent until after Taejongs death in 1422.
King Sejong revolutionized government by appointing people from different social classes as civil servants, furthermore, he performed official government events according to Confucianism, and he encouraged people to behave according to Confucianism. As a result, Confucianism became the social norm and he published some books about Confucianism. The Huihui were forced to abandon their headgear, to close down their ceremonial hall, no further mention of Muslims exist during the era of the Joseon. In relationship with the Chinese Ming, he made some successful agreements that benefited Korea, in relationship with Jurchen people, he installed 10 military posts -4 counties and 6 garrisons - in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. He maintained good relations with Japan by opening three ports and allowing trade with them, but he invaded Tsushima island with military forces in order to stop pirating in the South Sea since Tsushima island was a base for pirates