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Halland

Halland is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden, on the western coast of Sweden. It borders Västergötland, Småland and the sea of Kattegat; until 1645 and the Second Treaty of Brömsebro, it was part of the Kingdom of Denmark. The provinces of Sweden serve no administrative function. Instead, that function is served by the Counties of Sweden. However, the province of Halland is coextensive with the administrative Halland County, though parts of the province belong to Västra Götaland County and Skåne County, while the county includes parts of Småland and Västergötland; as of December 31, 2016, Halland had a population of 327,093. Of these, 310,536 lived in Halland County. During the Danish era until 1658, the province had no coat of no seal. In Sweden, every province had been represented by heraldic arms since 1560; when Charles X Gustav of Sweden died in 1660 a coat of arms had to be created for the newly acquired province. Each province was to be represented by its arms at the royal funeral.

There are several theories about the choice of a lion. Bengt Algotsson, duke of Halland and Finland in the 14th century, used a lion in his personal arms. Blazon: Azure, a Lion rampant Argent langued and dente Gules; the same coat of arms was granted for the administrative Halland County, which has the same boundaries. The rivers of Lagan, Ätran and Viskan flow through the province and reach the sea in Kattegat. Halland is well known as an agricultural district. Most of the region is made up of a relief unit known as the Sub-Mesozoic hilly peneplain. Around Morup and Tvååker hilltops are remnants of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain, an ancient erosion surface that covers much of eastern Sweden. Loose flint nodules of Cretaceous age have been found around Halland; the flints are remnants of a former cover of sedimentary rock, eroded. At present the sedimentary cover continues to exist in Scania and offshore; the Bronze Age was a period of relative prosperity in Halland. This is shown in the number of the numerous archaeological remains.

Over 1,100 tumuli and grave mounds have been found. The end of the Bronze Age witnessed an over-consumption of resources. Large areas were deforested; this might have been a result of a high demand for charcoal in smelting gold or bronze among the local elites. The worsening climate at the beginning of the Iron Age meant that the local elites no longer could obtain bronze to the same extent as before; as a result, the social structures collapsed. The early Iron Age social structures seem to have been egalitarian, but from around 200 AD there was a trend in which villages formed larger communities and small kingdoms; this is to have been a distant influence from the growing Roman Empire. During the 5th and 6th century large free-standing farms were created. An example of such a farm can be found in Slöinge, it was not just the social structure. New villages were formed; the new centers that were formed became the kernel from which new areas were settled during medieval times. According to information from a trader travelling from Skiringssal, close to the Oslofjord to Hedeby in the 870s it can be concluded that Halland was a Danish area at that time.

It would stay so for most of recorded history. Iron extraction is known to have taken place in Tvååker/Sibbarp during the Iron Age; as part of the Scanian lands Halland came under the Scanian Law and participated in the Scanian Thing, one of three Things electing the Danish king. Local assemblies took place in Getinge. Halland was the scene of considerable military action from the 13th century and on as Sweden, Denmark and to some degree Norway fought for supremacy in Scandinavia; the many wars made the province poor. Not only were material damages caused by military action, but the social impact of the fighting was devastating; the county was the site of combat and plunder three times during the 13th Century: in 1256 Haakon IV of Norway invaded, followed by Magnus III of Sweden in 1277 and Eric VI of Denmark in 1294. The county came to be split in two parts for the next century, with the river Ätran forming a boundary; the lords of the two parts succeeded each other in a high tempo. As the Kalmar Union was formed, Halland came for a brief period of time to be centrally located.

According to the union treaty, the king was to be elected in Halmstad. During the rebellion of Engelbrekt in 1434 the fortress in Falkenberg was burnt down and two years Lagaholm was captured by the Swedes; the Swedo-Danish struggles in the early 16th century came to affect the province as well, as in 1519 when the border regions were sacked by the Swedes as a vengeance for similar Danish action in Västergötland. The Danish civil war called the Count's Feud in 1534–36, the Northern Seven Years' War between Denmark and Sweden in 1563–1570 and the Kalmar War between Denmark and Sweden in 1611–1613 all affected Halland. One of the major battles of the Northern Seven Years' War, the battle of Axtorna, took place in Halland. Halland was temporarily transferred to Sweden in 1645 under the terms of the Second Treaty of Brömsebro; the conquest was made permanent by the ceding of the province in the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. The last battle in Halland took place in Fyllebro on 17 August 1676, during the Scanian War.

The more peaceful conditions that follo

Schuhplattler

The Schuhplattler is a traditional style of folk dance popular in the regions of Bavaria and Tyrol. In this dance, the performers stomp and strike the soles of their shoes and knees with their hands held flat. There are more than 150 basic Schuhplattlers, as well as marches and acrobatic feats that are interspersed with the basic dance in performance, they may be seen today in German immigrant communities around the world. While the Schuhplattler is still performed by adults, it has become popular with youngsters, who love its colorful costumes and its bouncing, leaping and choreographed horseplay; the Schuhplattler is thought to date from Neolithic times, about 3000 BC, but it is first of record in 1030 AD, when a monk in the Tegernsee Abbey of Bavaria described a village dance containing leaps and hand gestures. Over the centuries, the form evolved as farmers and woodsmen practiced it in the isolated towns and villages of the Bavarian and Tyrolean Alps. Sometimes it was performed as a partner dance, with couples doing a Ländler and splitting up so the girls could twirl in their colorful dirndls as the boys showed off their platteln.

At other times it was just the boys onstage, arranged in a circle, a square or a line, plattling wildly for the audience. These two approaches are sometimes distinguished as the Schuhplattlertanz and Schuhplattler proper, but it is the "boys' dance", at the core of both forms and is most described; the immediate precursors of today's Schuhplatter were the 18th century Minuet and Française, but unlike these courtly and stylized dances, the early plattlers of the common folk were free of rules. The young men improvised their leaps and acrobatic figures "as it struck their fancy." Acrobatics were an important part of the dance at least by the 1820s, when boys began balancing on the shoulders of their partners and stamping their feet rhythmically on the ceiling! Early Schuhplattlers highlighted the towns where they were invented or imitated the various professions of the performers, such as the Mühlradl, the Holzhacker, the Glockenplattler; the music was in three-quarter time, like the Ländler, was performed on the zither or the guitar, by 1830s, the accordion or concertina.

In 1838, the Empress of Russia was honored with a Schuhplattler by the residents of the bath town of Wildbad Kreuth, the aristocracy, fascinated by the strange costumes and quaint pursuits of the common folk, began taking an interest in the dance. Many consider the real birth of the modern Schuhplattler, however, to be King Maximilian II of Bavaria's excursion through the Alps in 1858, when locals performed the dance for him, he fell in love with it. In 1886 the French traveler Hugues Krafft wrote of the Schuhplattler: On Sundays and holidays one sees couples dancing to music on larger town squares everywhere — preferably the Ländler, a leisurely waltz popular among girls and boys; the biggest attraction, however for the local farmers, is always the Schuhplatter. It... begins with forming a circle. While the girl is separated from her partner and continues to follow waltz steps, the boy must perform a number of difficult movements to the beat of the music, he turns around on his axis, slaps his thighs and legs, falls to his knees, jumps in the air and throws his hat as he lets out a joyful whoop...

Those who master the dance are cheered with vigorous applause. By the late 19th century, traditional costume clubs were being established throughout Bavaria and Tyrol, soon these groups spread to German communities in America and elsewhere. Since the mission of these clubs was to preserve the age-old customs and dress of the German and Austrian Alps, the Schuhplattler became a central part of their programs; the Trachtenvereine were strict and exacting about how the dance was to be performed and how club members were to dress, although new Schuhplattler groups sprang up after the second world war that were less tied to the older forms. For the Schuhplattler and dirndls are a must; these range from the simple, practical styles that have been worn in Bavaria and Tyrol for generations to the finest ornate varieties that can cost a thousand dollars or more. Kniebund Lederhosen are worn by some Schuhplatter groups, but they can be uncomfortable to dance in in warm weather. More common are short lederhosen, which range from the knee-length version favored by traditionalist groups and Munich Oktoberfest visitors to the much shorter variety worn in South Tyrol.

While European scouts have always worn lederhosen without suspenders and dance groups wear either standard narrow H-bar suspenders or the wider embroidered, fancy-dress variety. Socks are knee length in solid green or white. Loferl-style socks have a separate band that goes around the calf; the dirndl emerged during the 18th century as a plain, practical servant's dress with a long skirt, bodice and apron. In the wintertime it was made of heavy cotton, linen or wool with long sleeves, in summer it was short-sleeved and of lighter material. In the second half of the 19th century, as the Schuhplattler and lederhosen became fashionable amongst the nobility, dirndls evolved into stylish attire made of silk or satin for the rich, their popularity has risen and fallen over the years, but like lederhosen, the dirndl has had something of a resurgence in Germany and Austria. Traditionalist Trachtenvereine around the world still perform the Schuhplattler as a partner dance, with the women spinning across th

Dolo Coker

Charles Mitchell "Dolo" Coker was a jazz pianist and composer who recorded four albums for Xanadu Records and extensively as a sideman, for artists like Sonny Stitt, Gene Ammons, Lou Donaldson, Art Pepper, Philly Joe Jones, Dexter Gordon. Charles Mitchell "Dolo" Coker was born in Hartford, Connecticut on November 16, 1927, raised in both Philadelphia and Florence, South Carolina; the first musical instruments Coker played in childhood were the C-melody and alto saxophones, learning them at a school in Camden, South Carolina. By the age of thirteen he was starting to play piano. Coker moved to Philadelphia, where he studied piano at the Landis School of Music and at Orenstein's Conservatory. Coker played some shows on piano for Jimmy Heath while in Philadelphia, he was a member of the Frank Morgan Quartet. Coker did not record his own album as a leader until 1976, when he recorded his debut Dolo! with Blue Mitchell, Harold Land, Leroy Vinnegar and Frank Butler. That following day he recorded California Hard for Xanadu Records, with Art Pepper replacing Harold Land on sax.

Following California Hard were All Alone. He continued to work as a sideman for other artists until he died of cancer at the age of fifty-five on April 13, 1983. Coker's nickname is sometimes misspelt "Dodo" in sleeve books on jazz. With Frank Butler The Stepper Wheelin' and Dealin' With Junior Cook Junior's Cookin' With Sonny Criss Crisscraft Out of Nowhere With Harry Edison Edison's Lights Simply Sweets with Eddie "Lockjaw" DavisWith Teddy Edwards Feelin's With Dexter Gordon The Resurgence of Dexter Gordon With Philly Joe Jones Showcase With Les McCann Les McCann Sings With Art Pepper Intensity With Red Rodney Superbop With Sonny Stitt 37 Minutes and 48 Seconds with Sonny Stitt I Remember Bird