Akalla is a district in Rinkeby-Kista borough, Sweden. Akalla has 8,153 inhabitants as of December 31, 2007, in which immigrants from Iran, make up 64% of the population. Akalla is located on the blue metro line. Modern Akalla, with its concrete apartment buildings, as well as smaller houses, was constructed in the mid-1970s as a part of the Million Programme; the suburb is built close to, named after an old farm from the 17th century. The name of Akalla is known from 1323. Between 1905 and 1970, the area was used by the Swedish army as training grounds; the street names in Akalla are Finland related. The main street is called Sibeliusgången, in honour of the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius, it is reserved for pedestrians only. Today, Akalla is known to be a great suburb for families. Right outside Akalla is Barkarby Airport, until its closure in 2010 Sweden's oldest active airport. Akalla metro station
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Hallonbergen metro station
Hallonbergen is a station on the blue line of the Stockholm metro, located in Sundbyberg. The station was opened on 31 August 1975; the station's interior is covered with art intending to mimic kids' paintings done by Elis Eriksson and Gösta Wallmark. Between 1975 until 1985 Hallonbergen was the branching point for the Akalla and Hjulsta lines, as evident from its' three-track layout; the track towards Rinkeby is today used for access to the depot. Images of Hallonbergen
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Sundbyberg Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden, just north of the capital Stockholm. Sundbyberg has a 100 % urban population. Sundbyberg was detached from Bromma in 1888 as a market town, it got the title of a city in 1927. In 1949 parts of Solna Municipality and Spånga were added. A proposed merger with Solna in 1971 was never implemented, making Sundbyberg, with an area of 8.83 square kilometres, the smallest municipality in Sweden, but the most densely populated. The municipality prefers to call itself a city, however, has no legal significance. Sundbyberg was for a long time only an area of small agriculture value and most of all used as a place to spend summer for rich families in the city. In 1863 the entire area was bought by Anders Petter Löfström, including Duvbo Estate, who began building houses there. In 1870 the first industrial plot was sold and from there the town did expand with railroad, houses and community services of all kind. A. P. Löfström donated to the municipality, all land for roads, parks, school and other public areas.
Sundbyberg never became a suburb but a independent industrial town on its own. The 44,090 inhabitants live in 17,000 apartments; the industrial policy of the municipality is to provide one job opportunity for every apartment, thus 17,000 jobs. So unlike other municipalities in Metropolitan Stockholm, Sundbyberg is not a bedroom suburb wherefrom people commute to Stockholm, but a place commuted to from outside. In total, 12,000 commuters travel to or from Sundbyberg every day. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 20 229, or 40.93% of the population. On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 8 531, or 25.24% of the population. On 31 December 2017 there were 49 424 residents in Sundbyberg, of which 14 954 people were born in a country other than Sweden. Divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden.
Sundbyberg is well served by the Stockholm public transport system. There are several metro stations as well as one Stockholm commuter rail station and plenty of bus routes; some main line trains call at Sundbyberg. 1925-1959 Sundbyberg was served by trams. Light railway returned to Sundbyberg in October 2013 when Tvärbanan light rail service was extended from Sickla Udde via Alvik to Solna centrum; the line runs through Central Sundbyberg with tracks laid in the street and has two stops within the municipality. A northern light railway branch from Ulvsunda to Kista will pass through Rissne. Construction is expected to start in 2017. Central Sundbyberg Duvbo Hallonbergen Lilla Alby Rissne Storskogen Ursvik Ör There are plenty of nice shops in the Central Sundbyberg area, which makes the little city a bit independent; the following sports clubs are located in Sundbyberg: Sundbybergs IK Storskogens SK Sundbyberg Municipality - Official site Sundbyberg Museum & Archive - Official site Sundbyberg Den nya Förstaden, H. Österberg,Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg under Köpingtiden, H. Österberg,Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg den 113:e Staden, H. Österberg,Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg i Gamla Bilder, H. Österberg, Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg bygger en Kyrka, H. Österberg, Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg - om hus och miljöer, Eva Söderlind
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
The Million Programme is the common name for an ambitious public housing programme implemented in Sweden between 1965 and 1974 by the governing Swedish Social Democratic Party to make sure everyone could have a home at a reasonable price. The aim was to construct a million new dwellings during the programme's ten-year period. At the time, the Million Programme was the most ambitious building programme in the world to build one million new homes in a nation with a population of eight million. At the same time, a large proportion of the older housing stock was demolished; the housing shortage in Sweden before the start of the programme was a major political and social issue in Sweden. Between 1860 and 1960, Sweden had transformed from an agrarian nation to a industrialized nation, which led to a large urbanization trend; the population in the countryside moved in large numbers to towns after 1945. This urbanization following World War II was encouraged by the authorities and governing establishment.
After the war, as Swedish industry was unharmed, cities needed workers to produce the amount of goods demanded by the rest of war-destroyed Europe. The major cities of Sweden had in many cases had their last building boom in the late-19th century and were, by 1950, much too small to accommodate the rural population flooding into the cities; the increasing standard of living led to demands to decrease the population density and to abolish the old Lort-Sverige. This was made possible because of the outstanding growth Sweden had during the record years in the 1950s and 1960s which led to a flood of income to the national treasury; this money was used to implement social reforms. The social democratic government implemented reforms to ensure the availability of land, such as new land acquisition rules for local authorities, as long as the landowner was planning to sell it to a private buyer. Another new law said that a municipality could build homes outside its border, because rural municipalities near Stockholm could not afford to build so much.
Over the lifespan of the program, 1,006,000 new dwellings were built. For the houses designed for the lowest-income group, the government would bear 66% of the initial costs and this would be repaid by the customers and residents in a 30-year period. For other categories such as students, blue collar workers, immigrants, the government provided subsidies and incentives to building companies in order to start construction; the net result was an increase in Sweden’s housing stock of 650,000 new apartments and houses, financed through property taxes, with a general rise in housing quality. These houses have small apartments and a similar architectural style to the housing units and projects of the US; the new Million Programme residential areas were inspired by early suburban neighbourhoods such as Vällingby and Årsta. One of the main aims behind the planning of these residential areas was to create "good democratic citizens"; the means of achieving this were to build at high quality with a good range of services including schools, churches, public spaces and meeting places for different groups of households.
A principal aim was to mix and integrate different groups of households through the spatial mixing of tenures. Most of the apartments were of the "standard three room apartment" type of 75 m², planned for a model family of two adults and two children; the second type of apartments were the "student blocks" or "student suburbs" that were planned and built in the cities having large universities, like Stockholm, Uppsala, Linköping and Umeå. 150,000 new "student apartments" were built in specially designated "student suburbs" in order to meet the needs of the increasing university student population. These student apartments were 1-bedroom 1-bathroom and common kitchen type dorms that were clustered together in a large suburb or neighbourhood; the ownership of the apartments were leased out to "housing companies" like Heimstaden AB who rented it out at below market rates, the rents being subsidized by the government. The Million Programme is sometimes equated with the construction of concentrated tower blocks.
However, these areas constituted about one third of the programme's apartments. Areas with lower apartment blocks and areas with one-family houses made up about the remaining two thirds of the number of total units. Million Programme districts include: Rinkeby and Husby in Stockholm Municipality Bredäng, Skärholmen and Vårberg in Stockholm Municipality Fisksätra in Nacka. Vårby gård, Alby and Hallunda in Huddinge Municipality and Botkyrka Municipality outside Stockholm Jordbro and Brandbergen in Haninge Municipality outside Stockholm Hallonbergen in Sundbyberg Municipality Hagalund in Solna Municipality Malmvägen in Sollentuna Municipality Hovsjö, Ronna and Fornhöjden in Södertälje Municipality Hjällbo and several others in Angered in Gothenburg Municipality Bergsjön in Gothenburg Municipality Hisings-Backa and Biskopsgården in Gothenburg Rosengård, Kroksbäck, Bellevuegården, Lindängen, Höja, Lindeborg and Holma in Malmö Komarken in Kungälv Kronogården in Trollhättan Kronoparken in Karlstad Ryd, Ekholmen, Skäggetorp in Linköping Gottsunda and Eriksberg in Uppsala Hertsön in Luleå Araby in Växjö Ålidhem and Mariehem in Umeå Årby in Eskilstuna Hässleholmen and Norrby in Borås Råslätt in Jönköping Ryd, Skövde in Skövde Hageby and Navestad in Norrköping Ekön in Motala Norrliden in Kalmar Norra Fäladen and Klostergården in Lund Korsbacka in Kävlinge Skogslyckan and Dalaberg in Uddevalla Rosta in Örebro Andersberg in Gävle Körfältet in Ös