An incantation is a magical formula intended to trigger a magical effect on a person or objects. The formula can be sung or chanted. An incantation can be performed during ceremonial rituals or prayers. Other words synonymous with incantation is charms or to bewitch. In the world of magic, the incantations are said to be performed by wizards and fairies. In medieval literature, fairy tales and modern fantasy fiction, enchantments are charms or spells; this has led to the terms "enchanter" and "enchantress" for those. The term was loaned into English around AD 1300; the corresponding native English term being "galdr" "song, spell". The weakened sense "delight" is modern, first attested in 1593. Any word can be an incantation as long as the words are spoken with inflection and emphasis on the words being said; the tone and rhyme of how you speak the words matter on the outcome of the magical effect. The tone and placement of words used in the formula matters in influencing the outcome of the magical effect.
The person, speaking magical words commands for the magic to be carried out. The incantation performed can bring up powerful emotions and remind one of a sense of awe in childhood. Surviving written records of historical magic spells were obliterated in many cultures by the success of the major monotheistic religions, Islam and Christianity, which label some magical activity as immoral or associated with evil; the Latin incantare, which means'to utter an incantation', or cast a magic spell, forms the basis of the word "enchant", with deep linguistic roots going back to the Proto-Indo-European kan- prefix. So it can be said that an enchanter or enchantress casts magic spells, or utters incantations, similar to what are called Mantra in Sanskrit; the words that are similar to incantations such as enchantment and spells are the effects of reciting an incantation. To be enchanted is to be under the influence of an enchantment thought to be caused by charms or spells. Magic words or words of power are words which have a specific, sometimes unintended, effect.
They are nonsense phrases used in fantasy fiction or by stage prestidigitators. Such words are presented as being part of a divine, adamic, or other secret or empowered language. Certain comic book heroes use magic words to activate their powers. Examples of traditional magic words include Hocus pocus, Open sesame and Sim Sala Bim. Craig Conley, a scholar of magic, writes that the magic words used by conjurers may originate from "pseudo-Latin phrases, nonsense syllables, or esoteric terms from religious antiquity," but that what they have in common is "language as an instrument of creation." In Babylonian, incantations can be used in rituals to burn images of one's own enemies. An example would be found in the series of Mesopotamian incantations of Maqlu. In the Orient, the charming of snakes have been used in incantations of the past and still used today. A person using an incantation would entice the snake out of its hiding place in order to get rid of them. In Jewish rites reciting a bible verse, a person has to follow strict Jewish rules.
The performer of an incantation has to prepare three days ahead of time with fasting and studying. The Jewish law requires that incantations only be recited during the new or full moon, before sunset, during the Sabbath; the Jewish commentary, the Talmud mentions. An incantation of a bible quotation attached to a charm or object is recited backward and frontwards. Incantations are seen in demonic activity where the devil uses words to bring misfortune or sickness to someone; some illnesses include mental anxiety. The aspect of the devil in incantations is feared by many; the demon's can create other horrible events of divorce, loss property or other terrible catastrophes in ones life. In traditional fairy tales sometimes magical formulas are attached to an object and when spoken can help transform the object into the imaginable from the unimaginable. In these stories incantations are attached to a magic wand used by wizards and fairy-god mothers. A known example is the spell that Cinderella's Fairy Godmother used to turn a pumpkin into a coach.
Incantations nonsense or whimsical rhymes are performed. The performance of magic always involves the use of language. Whether spoken out loud or unspoken, words are used to access or guide magical power. In The Magical Power of Words, S. J. Tambiah argues that the connection between language and magic is due to a belief in the inherent ability of words to influence the universe. Bronisław Malinowski, in Coral Gardens and their Magic, suggests that this belief is an extension of man's basic use of language to describe his surroundings, in which "the knowledge of the right words, appropriate phrases and the more developed forms of speech, gives man a power over and above his own limited field of personal action." Magical speech is therefore a ritual act and is of equal or greater importance to the performance of magic than non-verbal acts. Not all speech is considered magical. Only certain words and phrases or words spoken in a specific context are considered to have magical power. Magical language, according to C. K.
Ogden and I. A. Richards's categories of speech, is distinct from scientific language because it is emotive and it converts words into symbols for emotions. Magical language is therefore adept at constructing metaphors that establish
Return to Halloweentown
Return to Halloweentown is a Disney Channel Original Movie that premiered on October 20, 2006. It is the final installment in the Halloweentown series. In this sequel, Marnie Piper and her brother, Dylan Piper, go to Witch University to attend college in Halloweentown. While at college, dark forces try to control her magic; this is the only Halloweentown film to not feature Kimberly J. Brown as Marnie Piper, who played the role in the previous three films. In addition, Emily Roeske did not reprise her role as Sophie Piper; this film makes the Halloweentown series one of the first Disney Channel Original Movies to produce a fourth installment. The premiere scored 7.5 million viewers. The DVD was released on August 28, 2007. 18-year-old Marnie decides to forego her original college plans and attend Witch University in Halloweentown. Marnie is offered a full scholarship for her work in the previous years. Much to her mother Gwen's dismay, Marnie goes, her brother Dylan is reluctantly forced along by Gwen to keep an eye on her.
The school is not as witches and warlocks can not use magic. Marnie is now crestfallen, she makes a new friend named Aneesa the Genie. She makes three new enemies in the Sinister Sisters, a triad of malevolent snobby and manipulative witches with whom Dylan is infatuated and are the daughters of Silas Sinister. Marnie discovers; the university was established only for warlocks and witches to learn how to use magic, but when the portal was opened, most of them went to college in the mortal realm. Since Witch University has allowed other magical creatures to attend; the classes are boring for Marnie until she uncovers within the dungeon of the college, a box, with the name "S. Cromwell" inscribed on it, magically appearing in front of her. Marnie meets with one of her professors, Miss Periwinkle, asks for an explanation. Periwinkle only tells Marnie that the S. stands for Splendora and that she and her were good friends. Marnie and Dylan learn that the box contains the Gift, a magical power only a Cromwell can use, which Splendora locked in the box centuries ago.
Meanwhile, the Sinister sisters use Dylan's infatuation with them to make him do their homework and use as bait for Marnie. Ethan tells Marnie about a mysterious group, his father was part of, known as the Dominion that will try to use Marnie to open the box, but Marnie does not believe him. Marnie travels to the past to meet Splendora and learn about the true nature of the enigmatic gift. Splendora explains that the Gift is an amulet that bestows the wearer with the power to control anyone, a power that witches are forbidden to use. Marnie realizes that her principal and Dr. Grogg are in the Dominion and Splendora bestows upon her the key to the box containing the Gift. Splendora is revealed to be Marnie's grandmother Aggie. Agatha is her middle name and she hates the Splendora part so she dropped it. Marnie returns to the present with the key to open the box. Chancellor Goodwin steals the Gift for the Dominion and the Sinisters to take over Halloweentown. Knowing that only a Cromwell can use the Gift, the Sinister Sisters transform Dylan into a dog to compel Marnie to comply with their demands.
If Dylan is not turned back, he will stay that way forever. They agree to return him to his natural form. Marnie falsely turns on them once Dylan is returned to normal. Marnie, Dylan and Aneesa destroy the Gift; the Dominion attempt an escape, but are apprehended by Periwinkle, revealed to be an undercover detective of the Halloweentown Anti-Dominion League. She imprisons them in a Witch's Glass where she has stripped them of their magic and arrested them for treason; the malevolent Sinister Sisters lose their powers, but Marnie learns that Ethan willingly gave his powers up after his father was found guilty in the previous film. Marnie and Ethan leave on a date; the movie ends when Dylan discovers that Marnie did not destroy the Gift, but instead left it for him in a book. Since spells cast on the grounds of Witch University become permanent at midnight, the Gift belongs to him, the only person Marnie trusts with its power. Saving the power of the Gift for important uses only, he puts the book back showing a glowing red S at the end of the film.
Sara Paxton as Marnie Piper/Young Splendora Agatha "Aggie" Cromwell Judith Hoag as Gwen Piper Lucas Grabeel as Ethan Dalloway Joey Zimmerman as Dylan Piper Kristy Wu as Scarlett Katie Cockrell as Sage Kellie Cockrell as Sapphire Keone Young as Silas Sinister Leslie Wing as Chancellor Goodwin Millicent Martin as Professor Precilla Persimmon Periwinkle Debbie Reynolds as Splendora Agatha "Aggie" Cromwell Scott Stevenson as Dr. Grogg Christopher Robin Miller as Burp-Urp-Snurt-Pfsfsfsfst III Summer Bishil as Aneesa The premiere was seen by a total of over 7.5 million viewers in the United States making it the most-watched basic cable program of the day, making it the fourth highest-rated Disney Channel Movie at the time of its airing. Unlike the first three installments, which all received positive reviews, this film received a more mixed reaction. On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes it has only 4 reviews from critics, 2 positive and 2 negati
A goblin is a monstrous creature from European folklore, first attested in stories from the Middle Ages. They are ascribed various and conflicting abilities and appearances depending on the story and country of origin, they are always small and grotesque, mischievous or outright malicious, greedy for gold and jewelry. They have magical abilities similar to a fairy or demon. Similar creatures include brownies, duendes, gnomes and kobolds. Alternative spellings include gobblin, gobling, goblyn and gobbelin English goblin is first recorded in the 14th century and is from unattested Anglo-Norman *gobelin, similar to Old French gobelin attested around 1195 in Ambroise of Normandy's Guerre sainte, to Medieval Latin gobelinus in Orderic Vitalis before 1141, the name of a devil or daemon haunting the country around Évreux, Normandy, it may be related both to German kobold and to Medieval Latin cabalus, or *gobalus, itself from Greek κόβαλος, "rogue", "knave", "imp", "goblin". Alternatively, it may be a diminutive or other derivative of the French proper name Gobel, more Gobeau, diminutive forms Gobelet, Goblot, but their signification is "somebody who sells tumblers or beakers or cups".
Moreover, these proper names are not from Normandy, where the word gobelin, gobelinus first appears in the old documents. German Kobold contains the Germanic root kov- which means a "hollow in the earth"; the word is related to Dial. Norman gobe "hollow in a cliff", with simple suffix -lin or double suffixation -el-in The Welsh coblyn, a type of knocker, derives from the Old French gobelin via the English goblin; the term goblette has been used to refer to female goblins. A redcap is a type of goblin. Hobgoblins are friendly trickster goblins from English and Pilgrim folklore and literature; the Benevolent Goblin, from Gesta Romanorum The Erlking is a malevolent goblin from German legend. The Trasgu is a Northern Spanish and Northern Portuguese mythological creature of celtic and roman origin. "The Goblin Pony", from The Grey Fairy Book "The Goblins at the Bath House", from A Book of Ghosts and Goblins "The Goblins Turned to Stone". King Gobb Mill goblins appear in Norwegian folklore. Goblins are featured in the Danish fairy tales: The Elf Mound, The Goblin and the Grocer, The Goblin and the Woman.
A pukwudgie is a type of goblin from Wamponoag folklore as well as Cryptozoology Muki Many Asian lagyt creatures have been likened to, or translated as, goblins. Some examples for these: Chinese Ghouls and Goblins The Goblin of Adachigahara The Goblin Rat, from The Boy Who Drew Cats Twenty-Two Goblins In South Korea, known as dokkaebi, are important creatures in folklore, they appear in children's books. The nursery song ` Mountain Goblin' tells of running away to live. In Bangladesh, Santal people believe in gudrobonga, similar to goblins.'The Gap of Goeblin', a hole and underground tunnel in Mortain, France. Goblin Combe, in north Somerset, UK Goblin Valley State Park, Utah, U. S. Goblin Crescent, Christchurch, New Zealand Yester Castle East Lothian, Scotland Goblin Bay, Beausoleil Island, Canada Cowcaddens and Cowlairs, Scotland.'Cow' is an old Scots word for Goblin, while'cad' means'nasty'.'Dens' and'lairs' refers to goblin homes. 2015 TG387 is a minor planet in the outer solar system nicknamed "The Goblin" Goblinoid Goblins in modern fiction Gremlin Iratxoak Kyöpelinvuori Lutin Menehune Nuno Orc Púca Puck Sprite Trasgo Troll Vinayakas Wirry-cow Briggs, K.
M.. The Anatomy of Puck. London: Routledge. Briggs, K. M.. The Fairies in English Literature and Tradition. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Briggs, K. M.. The Vanishing People. London: B. T. Batsford. Carryl, Charles E.. Davy And The Goblin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Dubois, Pierre; the Complete Encyclopedia of Elves and Other Little Creatures. New York: Abbeville Press. ISBN 0-789-20878-4. Froud, Brian; the Goblin Companion. Atlanta: Turner. Froud, Brian. Goblins!. New York: Macmillan. Page and Robert Ingpen. British Goblins: Encyclopedia of Things That Never Were. New York: Viking. Purkiss, Diane. At the Bottom of the Garden. New York: New York University Press. Rose, Carol. Spirits, Fairies and Goblins: an Encyclopedia of the Little People. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. Sikes, Wirt. British Goblins: Welsh Folk-lore, Fairy Mythology and Traditions. Wakefield: EP Pub. Silver, Carole G.. Strange and Secret Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Zanger, Jules. "Goblins and Weasels". Children's Literature in Education. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
In Jewish folklore, a golem is an animated anthropomorphic being, magically created from inanimate matter. The word was used to mean an unformed material in Psalms and medieval writing; the most famous golem narrative involves Judah Loew ben Bezalel, the late-16th-century rabbi of Prague. There are many tales differing on how the golem was afterward controlled. According to Moment Magazine, "the golem is a mutable metaphor with limitless symbolism, it can be Jew or non-Jew, man or woman -- or sometimes both. Over the centuries it has been used to connote war, isolation and despair." The word golem occurs once in the Bible in Psalm 139:16, which uses the word גלמי, that means "my light form", "raw" material, connoting the unfinished human being before God's eyes. The Mishnah uses the term for an uncultivated person: "Seven characteristics are in an uncultivated person, seven in a learned one,". In Modern Hebrew, golem is used to mean "dumb" or "helpless", it is used today as a metaphor for a brainless lunk or entity who serves a man under controlled conditions but is hostile to him under others.
"Golem" passed into Yiddish as goylem to mean someone, stupid or lethargic. The oldest stories of golems date to early Judaism. In the Talmud, Adam was created as a golem when his dust was "kneaded into a shapeless husk." Like Adam, all golems are created from mud by those close to divinity, but no anthropogenic golem is human. Early on, the main disability of the golem was its inability to speak. Sanhedrin 65b describes Rava creating a man, he sent the man to Rav Zeira. Rav Zeira spoke to him. Rav Zeira said, "You were created by the sages. During the Middle Ages, passages from the Sefer Yetzirah were studied as a means to create and animate a golem, although there is little in the writings of Jewish mysticism that supports this belief, it was believed that golems could be activated by an ecstatic experience induced by the ritualistic use of various letters of the Hebrew Alphabet forming a "shem", wherein the shem was written on a piece of paper and inserted in the mouth or in the forehead of the golem.
A golem is inscribed with Hebrew words such as the word emet written on its forehead. The golem could be deactivated by removing the aleph in emet, thus changing the inscription from "truth" to "death". Rabbi Jacob ben Shalom arrived at Barcelona from Germany in 1325 and remarked that the law of destruction is the reversal of the law of creation. One source credits 11th century Jew Solomon ibn Gabirol with creating a golem female, for household chores. Joseph Delmedigo informs us in 1625 that "many legends of this sort are current in Germany."The earliest known written account of how to create a golem can be found in Sodei Razayya by Eleazar ben Judah of Worms of the late 12th and early 13th century. The oldest description of the creation of a golem by a historical figure is included in a tradition connected to Rabbi Eliyahu of Chełm. A Polish Kabbalist, writing in about 1630–1650, reported the creation of a golem by Rabbi Eliyahu thus: "And I have heard, in a certain and explicit way, from several respectable persons that one man close to our time, whose name is R. Eliyahu, the master of the name, who made a creature out of matter and form and it performed hard work for him, for a long period, the name of emet was hanging upon his neck, until he removed it for a certain reason, the name from his neck and it turned to dust."
A similar account was reported by a Christian author, Christoph Arnold, in 1674. Rabbi Jacob Emden elaborated on the story in a book published in 1748: "As an aside, I'll mention here what I heard from my father's holy mouth regarding the Golem created by his ancestor, the Gaon R. Eliyahu Ba'al Shem of blessed memory; when the Gaon saw that the Golem was growing larger and larger, he feared that the Golem would destroy the universe. He removed the Holy Name, embedded on his forehead, thus causing him to disintegrate and return to dust. Nonetheless, while he was engaged in extracting the Holy Name from him, the Golem injured him, scarring him on the face." According to the Polish Kabbalist, "the legend was known to several persons, thus allowing us to speculate that the legend had indeed circulated for some time before it was committed to writing and we may assume that its origins are to be traced to the generation following the death of R. Eliyahu, if not earlier." The most famous golem narrative involves Judah Loew ben Bezalel, the late 16th century rabbi of Prague known as the Maharal, who "created a olem out of clay from the banks of the Vltava River and brought it to life through rituals and Hebrew incantations to defend the Prague ghetto from anti-Semitic attacks" and pogroms.
Depending on the version of the legend, the Jews in Prague were to be either expelled or killed under the rule of Rudolf II, the Holy Roman Emperor. The Golem was known as Yossele, it was said that he could summon spirits from the dead. Rabbi Loew deactivated the Golem on Friday evenings by removing the shem before the Sabbath began, so as to let it rest on Sabbath. One Friday evening Rabbi Loew forgot
Mary Frances "Debbie" Reynolds was an American actress and businesswoman. Her career spanned 70 years, she was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer for her portrayal of Helen Kane in the 1950 film Three Little Words, her breakout role was her first leading role, as Kathy Selden in Singin' in the Rain. Other successes include The Affairs of Dobie Gillis, Susan Slept Here, Bundle of Joy, The Catered Affair, Tammy and the Bachelor, in which her performance of the song "Tammy" reached number one on the Billboard music charts. In 1959, she released her first pop music album, titled Debbie, she starred in How the West Was Won, The Unsinkable Molly Brown, a biographical film about the famously boisterous Molly Brown. Her performance as Brown earned her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress, her other films include The Singing Nun, Divorce American Style, What's the Matter with Helen?, Charlotte's Web, In & Out. Reynolds was a cabaret performer. In 1979, she founded the Debbie Reynolds Dance Studio in North Hollywood, which still operates today.
In 1969, she starred on television in The Debbie Reynolds Show, for which she received a Golden Globe nomination. In 1973, Reynolds starred in a Broadway revival of the musical Irene and was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Lead Actress in a Musical, she was nominated for a Daytime Emmy Award for her performance in A Gift of Love and an Emmy Award for playing Grace's mother Bobbi on Will & Grace. At the turn of the millennium, Reynolds reached a new younger generation with her role as Aggie Cromwell in Disney's Halloweentown series. In 1988, she released her autobiography, titled Debbie: My Life. In 2013, she released Unsinkable: A Memoir. Reynolds had several business ventures, including ownership of a dance studio and a Las Vegas hotel and casino, she was an avid collector of film memorabilia, beginning with items purchased at the landmark 1970 MGM auction, she served as president of an organization dedicated to mental health causes. Reynolds continued to perform on stage and film into her eighties.
In January 2015, Reynolds received the Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award. In 2016, she received the Academy Awards Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award. In the same year, a documentary about her life was released titled Bright Lights: Starring Carrie Fisher and Debbie Reynolds, which turned out to be her final film appearance. On December 28, 2016, Reynolds was hospitalized at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center after she experienced a medical emergency, which her son Todd Fisher described as a "severe stroke", she died from the stroke that afternoon, one day after the death of Carrie Fisher. Reynolds was born on April 1, 1932, in El Paso, Texas, to Maxene "Minnie" and Raymond Francis "Ray" Reynolds, a carpenter who worked for the Southern Pacific Railroad, she was raised in a strict Nazarene church. She had a brother two years her senior. Reynolds was a Girl Scout, once saying that she wanted to die as the world's oldest living Girl Scout. Reynolds was a member of The International Order of Job's Daughters, now called Job's Daughters International.
Her mother took in laundry for income. "We may have been poor," she said in a 1963 interview, "but we always had something to eat if Dad had to go out on the desert and shoot jackrabbits." Her family moved to Burbank, California in 1939. When Reynolds was a sixteen-year-old student at Burbank High School in 1948, she won the Miss Burbank beauty contest. Soon after, she had a contract with Warner Bros and acquired the nickname "Debbie" via Jack L. Warner. One of her closest high school friends said that she dated during her teenage years in Burbank. Reynolds agreed, saying that "when I started, I didn't know how to dress. I wore a shirt. I had no money, no taste and no training." Her friend adds: Reynolds was first discovered by talent scouts from Warner Bros. and MGM who were at the 1948 Miss Burbank contest. Both companies wanted her to sign up with their studio and had to flip a coin to see which one got her. Warner won the coin toss, she was with the studio for two years; when Warner Brothers stopped producing musicals, she moved to MGM.
With MGM, Reynolds appeared in movie musicals during the 1950s and had several hit records during the period. Her song "Aba Daba Honeymoon" was the first soundtrack recording to become a top-of-the-chart gold record, reaching number three on the Billboard charts, her performance in the film impressed the studio, which gave her a co-starring role in what would become her highest-profile film, Singin' in the Rain, a satire on movie making in Hollywood during the transition from silent to sound pictures. It co-starred Gene Kelly, whom she called a "great dancer and cinematic genius," adding, "He made me a star. I was 18 and he taught me how to dance and how to work hard and be dedicated." In 1956, she appeared in Bundle of Joy with Eddie Fisher. Her starring role in The Unsinkable Molly Brown led to a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. Reynolds noted that she had issues with its director, Charles Walters. "He didn't want me," she said. "He wanted Shirley MacLaine," who at the tim
Mark Allen Mothersbaugh is an American singer, composer, multi-instrumentalist, record producer and visual artist. Mothersbaugh's music career spans more than 40 years, he came to prominence in the late 1970s as co-founder, lead singer and keyboardist of the new wave band Devo, which released a Top 20 hit in 1980 with the single "Whip It". The band has maintained a cult following throughout its existence. Mothersbaugh is one of the main composers of Devo's music and made major lyrical contributions to the band's songs, he is one of only two members. In addition to his work with Devo, Mothersbaugh has made music for television series and video games via his production company, Mutato Muzika, most notably as the composer for the popular long-running animated series Rugrats for its entire 13-year run, as well as all three theatrical films, he has had a solo career which has included four studio albums: Muzik for Insomniaks, Muzik for the Gallery, Joyeux Mutato and The Most Powerful Healing Muzik in the Entire World.
In 2004, he was honored with the Richard Kirk award at the BMI Film and TV Awards for his significant contributions to film and television music. Additionally, Mothersbaugh was awarded an honorary doctorate of humane letters from Kent State University in 2008, his lifelong interest in creating multimedia art pieces has resulted in gallery exhibitions of items such as his "Beautiful Mutants" photograph series, postcard diaries, art rugs and musical instruments created from salvaged organ pipes and bird vocalizations. He is the father of two adopted children. Mark Allen Mothersbaugh was born on May 1950, in Akron, Ohio, he is Robert Mothersbaugh, Sr.. He grew up with two younger brothers and Jim, who are both musicians, two sisters and Susan, his father appeared in early Devo films and fan events as the character General Boy and his brothers participated in the band, although Jim's tenure was brief, appearing only on several early demos. Mothersbaugh attended Kent State University as an art student, where he met Devo co-founders Gerald Casale and Bob Lewis.
In early 1970, Lewis and Casale formed the idea of the "devolution" of the human race after Casale's friend Jeffrey Miller was killed by Ohio National Guardsmen on university grounds during what came to be known as the Kent State shootings. Intrigued by the concept, Mothersbaugh joined them, building upon it with elements of early post-structuralist ideas and oddball arcana, most notably unearthing the infamous Jocko-Homo Heavenbound pamphlet; this association culminated in 1973. Following the commercial failure of their sixth studio album Shout, Warner Bros. dropped Devo. Shortly after, claiming to feel creatively unfulfilled, drummer Alan Myers left the band, causing the remaining band members to abandon the plans for a Shout video LP, as well as a tour. In the interim, Mothersbaugh began composing music for the TV show Pee-wee's Playhouse and released an elaborately packaged solo cassette, Musik for Insomniaks, expanded and released as two CDs in 1988. In 1987, Devo reformed with new drummer David Kendrick of Sparks to replace Myers.
Their first project was a soundtrack for the flop horror film Slaughterhouse Rock, starring Toni Basil and they released the albums Total Devo and Smooth Noodle Maps, on Enigma. Devo played two shows in 1991 before breaking up. Around this time, members of Devo appeared in the film The Spirit of'76, except for Bob Mothersbaugh. In 1989, Mark Mothersbaugh established a commercial music production studio. Ryan Moore and Bob Casale were the first Mutato employees and Bob Mothersbaugh was involved. Mothersbaugh meant to further a career as a composer. Mothersbaugh gained considerable success in writing and producing music for television programs, video games and movies. In 2006, Devo worked on a project with Disney known as Devo 2.0. A band of child performers was re-recorded Devo songs. A quote from the Akron Beacon Journal stated, "Devo finished a new project in cahoots with Disney called Devo 2.0, which features the band playing old songs and two new ones with vocals provided by children. Their debut album, a two disc CD/DVD combo entitled DEV2.0, was released on March 14, 2006.
The lyrics of some of the songs were changed for family-friendly airplay, claimed by the band to be a play on irony of the messages of their classic hits. Mothersbaugh doesn't rule out the idea of the band gathering in the studio to record a new Devo album." The album, Something for Everybody was released in June 2010, preceded by a 12" single of "Fresh"/"What We Do". Devo was awarded the first Moog Innovator Award on October 29, 2010, during Moogfest 2010 in Asheville, North Carolina; the Moog Innovator Award has been said to celebrate "pioneering artists whose genre-defying work exemplifies the bold, innovative spirit of Bob Moog". Devo was scheduled to perform at Moogfest, but Bob Mothersbaugh injured his hand three days prior and the band was forced to cancel. Mark Mothersbaugh and Gerald Casale collaborated with Austin, band The Octopus Project to perform "Girl U Want" and "Beautiful World" at the event instead. In 1989, Mothersbaugh and other members of Devo were involved in the project Visiting Kids, releasing a self-titled EP on the New Rose label in 1990.
The group featured his then-wife Nancye Ferguson, as wel
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science. The term had pejorative connotations, with things labelled magical perceived as being primitive and Other; the concept has been adopted by scholars in the study of religion and the social sciences, who have proposed various different—and mutually exclusive—definitions of the term. The term magic derives from the Old Persian magu, a word that applied to a form of religious functionary about which little is known. During the late sixth and early fifth centuries BCE, this term was adopted into Ancient Greek, where it was used with negative connotations, to apply to religious rites that were regarded as fraudulent and dangerous; this meaning of the term was adopted by Latin in the first century BCE. Via Latin, the concept was incorporated into Christian theology during the first century CE, where magic was associated with demons and thus defined against religion.
This concept was pervasive throughout the Middle Ages, when Christian authors categorised a diverse range of practices—such as enchantment, incantations, divination and astrology—under the label magic. In early modern Europe, Italian humanists reinterpreted the term in a positive sense to create the idea of natural magic. Both negative and positive understandings of the term were retained in Western culture over the following centuries, with the former influencing early academic usages of the word. Since the nineteenth century, academics in various disciplines have employed the term magic but have defined it in different ways and used it in reference to different things. One approach, associated with the anthropologists Edward Tylor and James G. Frazer, uses the term to describe beliefs in hidden sympathies between objects that allow one to influence the other. Defined in this way, magic is portrayed as the opposite to science. An alternative approach, associated with the sociologists Marcel Mauss and Émile Durkheim, employs the term to describe private rites and ceremonies and contrasts it with religion, which it defines as a communal and organised activity.
Many scholars of religion have rejected the utility of the term magic, arguing that it is arbitrary and ethnocentric. Throughout Western history, there have been examples of individuals who engaged in practices that their societies called magic and who sometimes referred to themselves as magicians. Within modern occultism, there are many self-described magicians and people who practice ritual activities that they term magic. In this environment, the concept of magic has again changed being defined as a technique for bringing about changes in the physical world through the force of one's will; this definition was pioneered by the influential British occultist Aleister Crowley. The historian Owen Davies stated that the word magic was "beyond simple definition"; the historian Michael D. Bailey characterised magic as "a contested category and a fraught label". Scholars have engaged in extensive debates as to how to define magic, with such debates resulting in intense dispute. Throughout such debates, the scholarly community has failed to agree on a definition of magic, in a similar manner to how they have failed to agree on a definition of religion.
Among those throughout history who have described themselves as magicians, there has been no common understanding of what magic is. Concepts of magic serve to demarcate certain practices from other, otherwise similar practices in a given society. According to Bailey: "In many cultures and across various historical periods, categories of magic define and maintain the limits of and culturally acceptable actions in respect to numinous or occult entities or forces. More they serve to delineate arenas of appropriate belief." In this, he noted that "drawing these distinctions is an exercise in power". The scholar of religion Randall Styers noted that attempting to define magic represents "an act of demarcation" by which it is juxtaposed against "other social practices and modes of knowledge" such as "religion" and "science"; the historian Karen Louise Jolly described magic as "a category of exclusion, used to define an unacceptable way of thinking as either the opposite of religion or of science".
Within Western culture, the term "magic" has been linked to ideas of the Other and primitivism. In Styers' words, it has become "a powerful marker of cultural difference", it has been presented as the archetypally non-modern phenomenon. Among Western intellectuals in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, magic was seen as a defining feature of "primitive" mentalities and was attributed to marginal groups and periods; the concept and term "magic" developed in European society and thus using it when discussing non-Western cultures or pre-modern forms of Western society raises problems, as it may impose Western categories that are alien to them. While "magic" remains an emic term in the history of Western societies, it remains an etic term when applied to non-Western societies. During the twentieth century, many scholars focusing on Asian and African societies rejected the term "magic", as well as related concepts like "witchcraft", in favour of the more precise terms and concepts that existed within these specific societie